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Adipose triglyceride lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821417/single-species-versus-dual-species-probiotic-supplementation-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-strategy-for-obesity
#1
G Karimi, R Jamaluddin, N Mohtarrudin, Z Ahmad, H Khazaai, M Parvaneh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species...
July 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789977/ablation-of-systemic-sirt1-activity-promotes-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-affecting-liver-mesenteric-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-mobilization
#2
Junrui Cheng, Chun Liu, Kangquan Hu, Andrew Greenberg, Dayong Wu, Lynne M Ausman, Michael W McBurney, Xiang-Dong Wang
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been reported to protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. The mechanism of how SIRT1 deacetylase activity affects NAFLD has not been well investigated. The current investigation addressed the causal effect of systemic SIRT1 activity on NAFLD development and the underlying mechanism involved in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). Both SIRT1 homozygous mice ablated the catalytic activity (sirt1(Y/Y)) and their corresponding wild type littermates (WT) were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% calories from fat) for 34weeks...
August 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789975/peripheral-neuropeptide-y-differentially-influences-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-chicks-from-lines-selected-for-low-or-high-body-weight
#3
Lingbin Liu, Guoqing Wang, Yang Xiao, Steven L Shipp, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates appetite and promotes lipid deposition. We demonstrated a differential sensitivity in the food intake response to central NPY in chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight, but have not reported whether such differences exist in the periphery. At 5days, LWS and HWS chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120μg/kg BW NPY and subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h (n=12). NPY injection increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity at 1 and 3h and reduced plasma NEFAs at 1 and 12h...
August 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777921/minimal-alteration-in-muscle-lipid-genes-following-stabilized-weight-loss
#4
Robert H Coker, Leizleigh Robinette, Philip A Kern
PURPOSE: Variations in skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1∝), carntine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), perilipin protein (PLIN2), and adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) have been described to play important roles in the metabolic regulation of lipid oxidation, and may influence intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and muscle lipid droplet size (LDS). While acute changes in caloric balance and/or aerobic capacity may affect lipid metabolism, the influence of sustained weight loss derived from caloric restriction (CWL) compared to exercise training (EWL) on the above mentioned parameters has not been fully elucidated...
August 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766168/pre-and-post-prandial-expression-of-genes-involved-in-lipid-metabolism-at-the-end-of-the-overfeeding-period-of-mule-ducks
#5
Tavernier Annabelle, Ricaud Karine, Bernadet Marie-Dominique, Gontier Karine, Davail Stéphane
In palmipeds, overfeeding leads to hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras" which is the result of many metabolic mechanisms. In order to understand these mechanisms, we decided to measure the expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism during 12 hours (h) following the last meal of the overfeeding period. We have shown that there is a precocious expression (within 2 h) of fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA synthetase long-chain 1 in liver and muscle of mule ducks in addition with a later peak. Furthermore, di-acyl glycerol acyl transferase presents the highest induction of expression in liver and it is overexpressed quite a long time, positioning this enzyme as a key factor in hepatic steatosis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763157/a-unifying-mathematical-model-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-reveals-key-molecular-players-in-the-development-of-hepatic-steatosis
#6
Christin Wallstab, Dimitra Eleftheriadou, Theresa Schulz, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jürgen Borlak, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Nikolaus Berndt
The liver responds to elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) with an enhanced uptake of FFAs and their esterification to triacylglycerol (TAG). On the long term this may result in massive hepatic TAG accumulation called steatosis hepatitis. In hepatocytes, the poor water-soluble TAG is packed in specialized organelles: Lipid droplets (LDs) serving as transient cellular deposit and lipoproteins (LPs) transporting TAG and cholesterol esters to extra-hepatic tissues. The dynamics of these organelles is controlled by a variety of regulatory surface proteins (RSPs)...
August 1, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754587/8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-adipocyte-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Joo Young Huh, Inji Jung, Lingjuan Piao, Hunjoo Ha, Myung-Hee Chung
8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, has been recently shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of Rac1. Inflammation in adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the therapeutic potential of 8-OHdG in treatment of metabolic diseases has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenously administered 8-OHdG on adipose tissue and whole body metabolism. In cultured adipocytes, 8-OHdG inhibited adipogenesis and reversed TNFα-induced insulin resistance...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752045/angiopoietin-like-4-directs-uptake-of-dietary-fat-away-from-adipose-during-fasting
#8
Emily M Cushing, Xun Chi, Kelli L Sylvers, Shwetha K Shetty, Matthew J Potthoff, Brandon S J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a fasting-induced inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and a regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Here, we examined the kinetics of Angptl4 induction and tested the hypothesis that ANGPTL4 functions physiologically to reduce triglyceride delivery to adipose tissue during nutrient deprivation. METHODS: Gene expression, LPL activity, and triglyceride uptake were examined in fasted and fed wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747869/effect-of-dietary-copper-addition-on-lipid-metabolism-in-rabbits
#9
Liu Lei, Sui Xiaoyi, Li Fuchang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of copper supplementation on lipid metabolism in rabbits. Our study showed dietary copper addition (5-45 mg/kg) increased body mass gain, but decreased fat and liver weights compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Copper (45 mg/kg) addition significantly increased the skeletal muscle weight, but inhibited cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dietary copper addition (45 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma triglyceride levels but decreased very low density lipoprotein levels (P < 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#10
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715671/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-protein-abundance-and-translocation-to-the-lipid-droplet-increase-during-leptin-induced-lipolysis-in-bovine-adipocytes
#11
D A Koltes, M E Spurlock, D M Spurlock
Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is critical for preventing the development of metabolic diseases. It is clear that leptin plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by regulating energy intake. However, leptin can also regulate energy homeostasis by inducing lipolysis in adipocytes, but it is unclear how the major lipases are involved in leptin-stimulated lipolysis. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if (1) leptin acts directly to induce lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, (2) the potential lipases involved in leptin-induced lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, and (3) increases translocation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) during leptin-stimulated lipolysis in bovine stromal vascular cell-derived adipocytes...
June 8, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707153/medium-chain-enriched-diacylglycerol-mce-dag-oil-decreases-body-fat-mass-in-mice-by-increasing-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissue
#12
Haeun Kim, Jee-Hwan Choe, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Moon Won Lee, Wooki Kim, Gwang-Woong Go
Medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) escapes the formation of chylomicrons in the small intestine, resulting in energy expenditure through beta-oxidation. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is susceptible to oxidation rather than being stored in the adipose tissue. This study was conducted to verify the effect of MCE-DAG oil on body fat mass in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12) as follows: (1) normal diet (18% kcal from fat), (2) canola oil as a control (40% kcal from canola oil), (3) MCE-DAG10 (10% kcal from MCE-DAG + 30% kcal from canola oil), and (4) MCE-DAG20 (20% kcal from MCE-DAG + 20% kcal from canola oil)...
August 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679624/factors-regulating-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-storage-fibrosis-and-inflammation-may-underlie-low-fatty-acid-mobilization-in-insulin-sensitive-obese-adults
#13
Douglas W Van Pelt, Lisa M Guth, Abigail Y Wang, Jeffrey F Horowitz
Although the rate of fatty acid release from adipose tissue into the systemic circulation is very high in most obese adults, some obese adults maintain relatively low rates of fatty acid release, which helps protect them against the development of systemic insulin resistance. The primary aim of this study was to identify factors in adipose tissue that may underlie low vs. high rates of fatty acid mobilization in a relatively homogeneous cohort of obese adults. We measured systemic fatty acid rate of appearance (FA Ra) via (13)C-palmitate isotope dilution, and we obtained subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples from 30 obese adults (BMI: 38±1 kg/m(2), age: 30±2 yr) after an overnight fast...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668964/glp-1-glp-1r-signaling-in-regulation-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-lipogenesis
#14
Jicui Chen, Huichen Zhao, Xiaoli Ma, Yuchao Zhang, Sumei Lu, Yangang Wang, Chen Zong, Dandan Qin, Yuanmei Wang, Yingfeng Yingfeng Yang, Xiangdong Wang, Yuantao Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the direct role of liraglutide (LG) in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Lipid accumulation was evaluated by oil red O staining, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, differentiated adipocytes and in adipose tissues from mice. The effects of LG on 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and lipid metabolism were analyzed with qPCR, Western Blotting, oil red O staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)...
June 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659893/live-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-bs15-promotes-growth-performance-and-lowers-fat-deposition-by-improving-lipid-metabolism-intestinal-development-and-gut-microflora-in-broilers
#15
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Xiaodan Qing, Dong Zeng, Min Luo, Lei Liu, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
Numerous studies have focused on the beneficial effects of probiotics in animals. Even so, additional information should be obtained about the mechanisms by which a useful probiotic strain successfully exerts such beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the dietary supplementation of both live and disrupted Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) strain BS15 in broilers at different ages. Specifically, growth performance, lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, intestinal development, and digestive ability of the broilers were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655217/preventing-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis-through-lactobacillus-johnsonii-bs15-by-ameliorating-lipid-metabolism-and-intestinal-microflora-in-broiler-chickens
#16
Xiaodan Qing, Dong Zeng, Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Jing Lai, Abdul Khalique, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
Increasing studies have focused on the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii in certain diseases. Here, we studied the prevention ability of a probiotic strain, L. johnsonii BS15 on subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE), and its underlying mechanism. 180 male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three groups and administrated with BS15 (1 × 10(6) cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe liquid medium throughout a 28-day experimental period. With the exception of the normal group, SNE infection was treated for the remaining experimental period after the chicks were fed with normal diet 14 days...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645852/g0s2-a-small-giant-controller-of-lipolysis-and-adipose-liver-fatty-acid-flux
#17
REVIEW
Xiaodong Zhang, Bradlee L Heckmann, Latoya E Campbell, Jun Liu
The discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) provided a major paradigm shift in the understanding of intracellular lipolysis in both adipocytes and nonadipocyte cells. The subsequent discovery of G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) as a potent endogenous inhibitor of ATGL revealed a unique mechanism governing lipolysis and fatty acid (FA) availability. G0S2 is highly conserved in vertebrates, and exhibits cyclical expression pattern between adipose tissue and liver that is critical to lipid flux and energy homeostasis in these two tissues...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625343/short-term-cooling-increases-serum-triglycerides-and-small-high-density-lipoprotein-levels-in-humans
#18
Geerte Hoeke, Kimberly J Nahon, Leontine E H Bakker, Sabine S C Norkauer, Donna L M Dinnes, Maaike Kockx, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Diana Drettwan, Anne Reifel-Miller, Tamer Coskun, Philipp Pagel, Fred P H T M Romijn, Christa M Cobbaert, Ingrid M Jazet, Laurent O Martinez, Leonard Kritharides, Jimmy F P Berbée, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#19
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 15, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621798/the-relationship-of-serum-adipokines-with-malnutrition-inflammation-score-in-haemodialysis
#20
Elham Alipoor, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Sadat Zahed, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy wasting is a prevalent disorder in haemodialysis. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with recognized lipolytic effects and proposed role in metabolic homoeostasis. This study was conducted to investigate the association of ZAG and ATGL concentrations with malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) and metabolic profile of patients with haemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients under regular haemodialysis were divided based on MIS to normal to mild wasting (NMW; n = 35) or moderate wasting (MW; n = 53) group...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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