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Adipose triglyceride lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211523/pedf-mediates-pathological-neovascularization-by-regulating-macrophage-recruitment-and-polarization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#1
Sha Gao, Changwei Li, Yanji Zhu, Yanuo Wang, Ailing Sui, Yisheng Zhong, Bing Xie, Xi Shen
Macrophages have been demonstrated to play a proangiogenic role in retinal pathological vascular growth. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) works as a powerful endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, but its role in macrophage recruitment and polarization is largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we first evaluated macrophage polarization in the retinas of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. Compared to that in normal controls, M1- and M2-like macrophages were all abundantly increased in the retinas of OIR mice...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211464/molecular-basis-of-abhd5-lipolysis-activation
#2
Matthew A Sanders, Huamei Zhang, Ljiljana Mladenovic, Yan Yuan Tseng, James G Granneman
Alpha-beta hydrolase domain-containing 5 (ABHD5), the defective gene in human Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, is a highly conserved regulator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipolysis that plays important roles in metabolism, tumor progression, viral replication, and skin barrier formation. The structural determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation, however, are unknown. We performed comparative evolutionary analysis and structural modeling of ABHD5 and ABHD4, a functionally distinct paralog that diverged from ABHD5 ~500 million years ago, to identify determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207959/lipoprotein-lipase-activity-does-not-predict-vldl-tg-fatty-acid-oxidation-during-exercise
#3
Esben Søndergaard, Iben R Andersen, Lars P Sørensen, Lars C Gormsen, Søren Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Exercise lowers plasma triglyceride levels, but the physiological mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in facilitating fatty acid uptake from lipoproteins. Since exercise increase the efficiency of VLDL-TG oxidation, we hypothesized that muscle LPL activity would be a rate-limiting step and predict VLDL-TG FA oxidation during exercise. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, lean subjects (8 men and 8 women) were examined before and during an acute exercise bout (90 min at 50% of VO2-max)...
February 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194887/atgl-deficiency-induces-podocyte-apoptosis-and-leads-to-glomerular-filtration-barrier-damage
#4
Wen Chen, Youzhao Jiang, Jian Han, Jiongyu Hu, Ting He, Tiantian Yan, Huang Na, Qiong Zhang, Hao Mei, Yong Liao, Yuesheng Huang, Bing Chen
Abnormal lipid metabolism, renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity are associated with the pathological features of glomerulopathy. However, the mechanisms by which lipid accumulation leads to the development or progression of this disease have not been fully elucidated. In this work, we have identified a role for the rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL; also called patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2(PNPLP2), in renal lipid metabolism and kidney disease...
February 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190525/central-action-of-xenin-affects-the-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-related-genes-and-proteins-in-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Sharma Bhavya, Pei San Lew, Tooru M Mizuno
Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that reduces food intake when administered centrally and it has been hypothesized that central action of xenin participates in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. The present study was performed to address this hypothesis by investigating the central effect of xenin on the expression of genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male obese ob/ob mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of xenin (5μg) twice 12h apart...
February 9, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182091/potential-role-of-angptl4-in-the-cross-talk-between-metabolism-and-cancer-through-ppar-signaling-pathway
#6
REVIEW
Laura La Paglia, Angela Listì, Stefano Caruso, Valeria Amodeo, Francesco Passiglia, Viviana Bazan, Daniele Fanale
The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as angiopoietins. At first, ANGPTL4 has been identified as an adipokine exclusively involved in lipid metabolism, because of its prevalent expression in liver and adipose tissue. This protein regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulating lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) and fatty acids...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179319/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-expression-is-associated-with-adiposity-and-tumor-stromal-proliferation-in-patients-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Shane A Grace, Marshall W Meeks, Yongxin Chen, Mona Cornwell, Xianzhong Ding, Ping Hou, Joanne K Rutgers, Susan E Crawford, Jin-Ping Lai
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the pathophysiology of how increased adiposity increases the risk for PDAC has not been fully elucidated. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a lipase that catabolizes triglyceride hydrolysis and has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. We hypothesized that overweight patients with PDAC would demonstrate higher tumor ATGL expression compared to non-overweight patients with PDAC...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173868/docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-accumulation-of-adipocyte-triacylglycerol-through-up-regulation-of-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-pigs
#8
Chao-Wei Huang, Yu-Jen Chen, Jui-Ting Yang, Ching-Yi Chen, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Shuen-Ei Chen, Nan-Wei Su, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Changing dietary fatty acid composition in modern diet influences the prevalence of obesity. Increasing evidences suggest favorable effects of n-3 PUFA for protecting against obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the regulation of n-3 PUFA in adipose is still unclear. Thus, this study addressed metabolism of different dietary fats in the adipose tissue of porcine model. METHODS: Eight-week-old cross-bred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups and fed a 2% fat diet for 30 days from either soybean oil (SBO), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or beef tallow...
February 7, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159016/%C3%AE-2ap-regulates-vascular-alteration-by-inhibiting-vegf-signaling-in-systemic-sclerosis-the-roles-of-%C3%AE-2ap-in-vascular-dysfunction-in-systemic-sclerosis
#9
Yosuke Kanno, En Shu, Hiroyuki Kanoh, Ayaka Matsuda, Mariko Seishima
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissues disease of unknown origin characterized by vascular damage and extensive fibrosis. Recently, we demonstrated that α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) is associated with the development of fibrosis in SSc. We herein investigate the roles of α2AP in vascular dysfunction in SSc. METHODS: Vascular damage in mice was determined by the levels of blood vessels and blood flow. Vascular functions in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) were determined by the levels of tube formation, cell proliferation, and endothelial junction-associated protein (VE-cadherin and PECAM1) production...
February 3, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146410/almond-skin-polyphenol-extract-inhibits-inflammation-and-promotes-lipolysis-in-differentiated-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#10
Wen-Chung Huang, Chi-Yuan Chen, Shu-Ju Wu
Studies have shown that polyphenols reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases and upregulates energy expenditure in adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of almond skin polyphenol extract (ASP) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The antioxidant effects of ASP were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with ASP. Subsequently, lipolysis proteins and transcription factors of adipogenesis were measured...
February 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112679/mechanism-for-leptin-s-acute-insulin-independent-effect-to-reverse-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#11
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Abudukadier Abulizi, Lynn Kennedy, Gary W Cline, Gerald I Shulman
The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111231/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-improves-tnf%C3%AE-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#12
Zhou Yang, Jian Sun, Hong Ji, Xiao-Chen Shi, Yang Li, Zhen-Yu Du, Li-Qiao Chen
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), may contribute to hepatic steatosis in the situation of excess lipid accumulation in farmed fish. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor and promotes lipolysis. Accordingly, we isolated PEDF from grass carp and investigated its role in TNFα-induced hepatic steatosis. Sequence analysis showed that PEDF gene, which possesses 8 exons and 7 introns, encodes a protein with 409 amino acids. PEDF was a critical determinant of the transcriptional response to nutrient availability in grass carp...
January 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081221/dietary-lipid-sources-influence-fatty-acid-composition-in-tissue-of-large-yellow-croaker-larmichthys-crocea-by-regulating-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-catabolism-at-the-transcriptional-level
#13
Hong Qiu, Min Jin, Yi Li, You Lu, Yingmei Hou, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058519/stimulation-of-glycerol-kinase-in-grass-carp-preadipocytes-by-epa
#14
Caixia Lei, Jingjing Tian, Hong Ji
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on grass carp preadipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) expression, as well as to explore the mechanism. Here, we cloned partial sequence of grass carp GyK gene and analyzed its tissue distribution. The result showed that GyK gene expressed most in the liver, followed by adipose tissue and the kidney. Besides, 400 μM oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA) was used to establish a hypertrophic preadipocyte model. GyK gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly enhanced after model cells were treated with 100 μM eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) for 6, 12, and 24 h...
January 5, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986537/meaningful-respirometric-measurements-of-ucp1-mediated-thermogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Yongguo Li, Tobias Fromme, Martin Klingenspor
Regarding the enormous interest in brown and brite/beige adipose tissue in the context of metabolic disease, reliable quantification of thermogenesis in these adipocytes is a central issue. This requires an assay specific for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediated thermogenesis in adherent intact cells. In a recent study we identified a major pitfall associated with established procedures generally applied for this purpose. Meaningful respirometry of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis imperatively requires activation of UCP1 and control over free fatty acid levels...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938388/berberine-increases-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-through-the-ampk-pathway
#16
Dongqing Jiang, Dianhui Wang, Xianghua Zhuang, Zhanqing Wang, Yihong Ni, Shihong Chen, Fudun Sun
BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to the metabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) in adipocytes. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are rate-limiting enzymes that control the hydrolysis of TG. Effects on ATGL and HSL to increase lipolysis may counteract obesity. Berberine (BBR) is a compound derived from the Chinese medicine plant Coptis chinensis. In the present study we show the effects of BBR on ATGL and HSL and explore the potential underlying mechanisms of these effects...
December 9, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#17
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898284/increased-vldl-tg-fatty-acid-storage-in-skeletal-muscle-in-men-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Iben R Andersen, Esben Søndergaard, Lars P Sørensen, Birgitte Nellemann, Lars C Gormsen, Michael D Jensen, Søren Nielsen
CONTEXT: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is considered the rate-limiting step of very-low-density-lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG) tissue storage, and has been suggested to relate to the development of obesity as well as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between the quantitative storage of VLDL-TG fatty acids and LPL activity and other storage factors in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, we examine whether such relations were influenced by type 2 diabetes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862950/region-specific-effects-of-oestradiol-on-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiation-in-post-menopausal-women
#19
Kimberly A Cox-York, Christopher B Erickson, Rocio I Pereira, Daniel H Bessesen, Rachael E Van Pelt
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of acute transdermal 17β-oestradiol (E2 ) on the adipogenic potential of subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women (n = 11; mean age 57 ± 4.5 years) were treated for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over design, with transdermal E2 (0.15 mg) or placebo patches. Biopsies of abdominal (AB) and femoral (FEM) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were obtained after each treatment and mature adipocytes were analysed for cell size and ASC for their capacity for proliferation (growth rate), differentiation (triglyceride accumulation) and susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862896/homozygous-lipe-mutation-in-siblings-with-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis-partial-lipodystrophy-and-myopathy
#20
Sagit Zolotov, Chao Xing, Riad Mahamid, Adel Shalata, Mohammed Sheikh-Ahmad, Abhimanyu Garg
Despite considerable progress in identifying causal genes for lipodystrophy syndromes, the molecular basis of some peculiar adipose tissue disorders remains obscure. In an Israeli-Arab pedigree with a novel autosomal recessive, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), partial lipodystrophy and myopathy, we conducted exome sequencing of two affected siblings to identify the disease-causing mutation. The 41-year-old female proband and her 36-year-old brother reported marked accumulation of subcutaneous fat in the face, neck, axillae, and trunk but loss of subcutaneous fat from the lower extremities and progressive distal symmetric myopathy during adulthood...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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