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Adipose triglyceride lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625343/short-term-cooling-increases-serum-triglycerides-and-small-high-density-lipoprotein-levels-in-humans
#1
Geerte Hoeke, Kimberly J Nahon, Leontine E H Bakker, Sabine S C Norkauer, Donna L M Dinnes, Maaike Kockx, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Diana Drettwan, Anne Reifel-Miller, Tamer Coskun, Philipp Pagel, Fred P H T M Romijn, Christa M Cobbaert, Ingrid M Jazet, Laurent O Martinez, Leonard Kritharides, Jimmy F P Berbée, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#2
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride, total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621798/the-relationship-of-serum-adipokines-with-malnutrition-inflammation-score-in-hemodialysis
#3
Elham Alipoor, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mehdi Yaseri, Narges Sadat Zahed, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy wasting is a prevalent disorder in hemodialysis. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are novel adipokines with recognized lipolytic effects and proposed role in metabolic homeostasis. This study was conducted to investigate the association of ZAG and ATGL concentrations with malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and metabolic profile of patients with hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients under regular hemodialysis divided based on MIS to normal to mild wasting (NMW; n=35) or moderate wasting (MW; n=53) groups...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585198/fat-cell-and-fatty-acid-turnover-in-obesity
#4
Atilla Engin
The ratio of free fatty acid (FFA) turnover decreases significantly with the expansion of white adipose tissue. Adipose tissue and dietary saturated fatty acid levels significantly correlate with an increase in fat cell size and number. Inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase leads to an accumulation of triglyceride, whereas inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase leads to the accumulation of diacylglycerol. The G0/G1 switch gene 2 increases lipid content in adipocytes and promotes adipocyte hypertrophy through the restriction of triglyceride turnover...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578400/lipid-droplet-associated-hydrolase-promotes-lipid-droplet-fusion-and-enhances-atgl-degradation-and-triglyceride-accumulation
#5
Young-Hwa Goo, Se-Hee Son, Antoni Paul
Lipid droplet (LD)-associated hydrolase (LDAH) is a newly identified LD protein abundantly expressed in tissues that predominantly store triacylglycerol (TAG). However, how LDAH regulates TAG metabolism remains unknown. We found that upon oleic acid loading LDAH translocalizes from the ER to newly formed LDs, and induces LD coalescence in a tubulin-dependent manner. LDAH overexpression and downregulation in HEK293 cells increase and decrease, respectively, TAG levels. Pulse and chase experiments show that LDAH enhances TAG biogenesis, but also decreases TAG turnover and fatty acid release from cells...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548960/severe-hypertriglyceridemia-due-to-two-novel-loss-of-function-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-mutations-c310r-e396v-in-a-chinese-family-associated-with-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis
#6
Yu Lun, Xiaofang Sun, Ping Wang, Jingwei Chi, Xu Hou, Yangang Wang
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is widely expressed in skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles as well as adipose tissue and involved in the catabolism of triglyceride. Herein we have systematically characterized two novel loss-of-function mutations in LPL from a Chinese family in which afflicted members were manifested by severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. DNA sequencing revealed that the proband was a heterozygote carrying a novel c.T928C (p.C310R) mutation in exon 6 of the LPL gene. Another member of the family was detected to be a compound heterozygote who along with the c...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548560/microalgal-oil-from-schizochytrium-sp-prevents-hfd-induced-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#7
Jinhui Yu, Yong Ma, Jie Sun, Liyuan Ran, Youwei Li, Ning Wang, Tao Yu, Wenting Gao, Wenbin Jia, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Yuping Bi, Yingjie Wu
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are proved to be effective in obesity reduction. Microalgal oil (MO) is an important alternative source of n-3 PUFAs that effectively alleviates obesity. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil from Schizochytrium sp. (SMO) and to compare the effects of 2 SMOs (SMO1 and SMO2) with different levels of purity of n-3 PUFAs on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548386/design-and-synthesis-of-atglistatin-derivatives-as-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-inhibitors
#8
Jiyu Jin, Suling Huang, Lei Wang, Ying Leng, Wei Lu
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that mobilizes fatty acids from cellular triglyceride stores. Metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of abnormalities that occur together and increase the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, type-2 diabetes, and cachexia, can be treated using ATGL-specific inhibitors. Atglistatin (1) is the first small-molecule inhibitor of ATGL. In this study, we designed and synthesized 29 Atglistatin derivatives and evaluated their inhibition of forskolin-stimulated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as an indicator of their potential to inhibit ATGL in adipose tissues...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515323/%C3%AE-adrenergic-induction-of-lipolysis-in-hepatocytes-is-inhibited-by-ethanol-exposure
#9
Micah B Schott, Karuna Rasineni, Shaun G Weller, Ryan J Schulze, Arthur C Sletten, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
In liver steatosis i.e., fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid-storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). LDs are important in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms that stimulate LD metabolism in hepatocytes are poorly defined. In adipocytes, catecholamines target the β-adrenergic (β-AR)/cAMP pathway to activate cytosolic lipases and induce their recruitment to the LD surface. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether hepatocytes, like adipocytes, also undergo cAMP-mediated lipolysis in response to β-AR stimulation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510703/long-chain-fatty-acid-triglyceride-tg-metabolism-disorder-impairs-male-fertility-a-study-using-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-deficient-mice
#10
Hidetake Masaki, Namhyo Kim, Hitomi Nakamura, Keiichi Kumasawa, Eriko Kamata, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tadashi Kimura
STUDY QUESTION: Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long chain triglyceride (TG) diet. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479718/potential-lipid-lowering-effects-of-eleusine-indica-l-gaertn-extract-on-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#11
Siew Ling Ong, Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, How Yee Lai
BACKGROUND: To date, anti-obesity agents based on natural products are tested for their potential using lipase inhibition assay through the interference of hydrolysis of fat by lipase resulting in reduced fat absorption without altering the central mechanisms. Previous screening study had indicated strong anti-obesity potential in Eleusine indica (E. indica), but to date, no pharmacologic studies have been reported so far. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of E...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459858/epistatic-interaction-between-the-lipase-encoding-genes-pnpla2-and-lipe-causes-liposarcoma-in-mice
#12
Jiang Wei Wu, Christoph Preuss, Shu Pei Wang, Hao Yang, Bo Ji, Gregory W Carter, Rebecca Gladdy, Gregor Andelfinger, Grant A Mitchell
Liposarcoma is an often fatal cancer of fat cells. Mechanisms of liposarcoma development are incompletely understood. The cleavage of fatty acids from acylglycerols (lipolysis) has been implicated in cancer. We generated mice with adipose tissue deficiency of two major enzymes of lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), encoded respectively by Pnpla2 and Lipe. Adipocytes from double adipose knockout (DAKO) mice, deficient in both ATGL and HSL, showed near-complete deficiency of lipolysis...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456765/the-skeletal-and-heart-muscle-triacylglycerol-lipolysis-revisited
#13
M Knapp, J Gorski
For 40 years, the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase was considered to hydrolyze the first ester bond of the triacylglycerol moiety and thus initiate hydrolysis. However, 12 years ago a new lipolytic enzyme, termed adipose triglyceride lipase was discovered. It was further shown that the process of lipolysis of triacylglycerol to diacylglycerol and fatty acid is initiated by adipose triglyceride lipase and not by hormone sensitive lipase, responsible for hydrolysis of diacylglycerol to monoacyglycerol and fatty acid...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452943/pectic-bee-pollen-polysaccharide-from-rosa-rugosa-alleviates-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-via-induction-of-ampk-mtor-mediated-autophagy
#14
Xinzhi Li, Haiquan Gong, Siwen Yang, Lulu Yang, Yuying Fan, Yifa Zhou
Despite it is used as a nutraceutical against diabetes and obesity, the mechanism of action of bee pollen is still unclear. Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by (13)C-NMR and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice, we detected its effect on insulin function and lipid metabolism based on autophagy. RBPP-P contained arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan I, and homogalacturonan domains...
April 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440272/corrigendum-pharmacological-inhibition-of-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-corrects-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#15
Martina Schweiger, Matthias Romauch, Renate Schreiber, Gernot F Grabner, Sabrina Hütter, Petra Kotzbeck, Pia Benedikt, Thomas O Eichmann, Sohsuke Yamada, Oskar Knittelfelder, Clemens Diwoky, Carina Doler, Nicole Mayer, Werner De Cecco, Rolf Breinbauer, Robert Zimmermann, Rudolf Zechner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438719/chick-subcutaneous-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-depots-respond-differently-in-lipolytic-and-adipogenic-activity-to-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh
#16
Steven L Shipp, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433778/novel-lipid-mimetic-prodrugs-delivering-active-compounds-to-adipose-tissue
#17
Andrea Mattarei, Andrea Rossa, Veronica Bombardelli, Michele Azzolini, Martina La Spina, Cristina Paradisi, Mario Zoratti, Lucia Biasutto
Obesity and associated pathologies are a dramatically growing problem. New therapies to prevent and/or cure them are strongly needed. Adipose tissue is a logical target for pharmacological intervention, since it is now recognized to exert an important endocrine function, secreting a variety of adipokines affecting, for example, adiposity and insulin resistance. This proof of principle work focuses on the development of novel lipid-mimetic prodrugs reaching fat deposits by the same lymphatic absorption route followed by dietary triglycerides...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428482/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lpl-vldl-receptor-and-lp-a-vldl-receptor-pathways-for-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#18
Sadao Takahashi
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor is a member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. It binds triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TGRL) but not LDL, because it recognizes apolipoprotein (apo)E only but not apoB. The VLDL receptor functions as a peripheral lipoprotein receptor in concert with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, muscle, adipose tissue and macrophages. In contrast to the LDL receptor, VLDL receptor binds apo E2/2 VLDL and apoE3/3 VLDL particles, and its expression is not down-regulated by intracellular lipoproteins...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424262/magnesium-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-and-modulates-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-via-ppara-jak-stat-and-ampk-pathways-in-hepatocytes
#19
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Yan Gao, Li-Han Zhang, Dan-Dan Li, Zhi Luo
Background: Magnesium influences hepatic lipid deposition in vertebrates, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Objective: We used yellow catfish and their isolated hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that magnesium influences lipid deposition by modulating lipogenesis and lipolysis.Methods: Juvenile yellow catfish (mean ± SEM weight: 3.43 ± 0.02 g, 3 mo old, mixed sex) were fed a 0.14- (low), 0.87- (intermediate) or 2.11- (high) g Mg/kg diet for 56 d. Primary hepatocytes were incubated for 48 h in control or MgSO4-containing medium with or without 2-h pretreatment with an inhibitor (AG490, GW6471, or Compound C)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404638/kidney-triglyceride-accumulation-in-the-fasted-mouse-is-dependent-upon-serum-free-fatty-acids
#20
Diego Scerbo, Ni-Huiping Son, Alaa Sirwi, Lixia Zeng, Kelli M Sas, Vincenza Cifarelli, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Lesley-Ann Huggins, Namrata Gumaste, Yunying Hu, Subramaniam Pennathur, Nada A Abumrad, Erin E Kershaw, M Mahmood Hussain, Katalin Susztak, Ira J Goldberg
Lipid accumulation is a pathological feature of every type of kidney injury. Despite this striking histological feature, physiological accumulation of lipids in the kidney is poorly understood. We studied whether the accumulation of lipids in the fasted kidney are derived from lipoproteins or NEFAs. With overnight fasting, kidneys accumulated triglyceride, but had reduced levels of ceramide and glycosphingolipid species. Fasting led to a nearly 5-fold increase in kidney uptake of plasma [(14)C]oleic acid. Increasing circulating NEFAs using a β adrenergic receptor agonist caused a 15-fold greater accumulation of lipid in the kidney, while mice with reduced NEFAs due to adipose tissue deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase had reduced triglycerides...
June 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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