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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918610/the-role-of-tnf-%C3%AE-in-aflatoxin-b-1-induced-hepatic-toxicity-in-isolated-perfused-rat-liver-model
#1
Kazem Koohi Mohammad, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Farzad Hayati, Hamid Staji, Morteza Keywanloo, Ebrahim Shahroozian
Aflatoxin B-1 (AFB1) is one of the major mycotoxins causing food contamination. Previous studies have shown that AFB1 can induce carcinogenicity and toxic effects in the isolated perfused rat liver and these effects are associated with its metabolites and peroxidation activity. Here we surveyed whether these pathogenic effects of AFB1 are associated with TNF-α as an inflammatory cytokine in general liver damages. In this study, we used twenty male Wistar rats (250-300 g). Rats were divided into four groups...
July 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917208/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-birth-outcomes-in-a-spanish-birth-cohort
#2
Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Maribel Casas, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, David Martinez, Olga Costa, Loreto Santa-Marina, Eva Pereda-Pereda, Thomas Schettgen, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917191/enhanced-arabidopsis-disease-resistance-against-botrytis-cinerea-induced-by-sulfur-dioxide
#3
Meizhao Xue, Huilan Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that has complex impacts on plants. The effect of prior exposure to 30mgm(-3) SO2 on defence against Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) in Arabidopsis thaliana and the possible mechanisms of action were investigated. The results indicated that pre-exposure to 30mgm(-3) SO2 resulted in significantly enhanced resistance to B. cinerea infection. SO2 pre-treatment significantly enhanced the activities of defence-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-1,3-glucanase (BGL) and chitinase (CHI)...
September 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916907/pharmacokinetic-study-of-piracetam-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#4
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913659/will-gay-and-bisexual-men-taking-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-switch-to-long-acting-injectable-prep-should-it-become-available
#5
Steven A John, Thomas H F Whitfield, H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons, Christian Grov
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at reducing HIV transmission risk and is CDC recommended for many gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We sought to investigate awareness of and preference for using long-acting injectable PrEP (LAI-PrEP) among GBM currently taking oral PrEP (n = 104), and identify their concerns. About half of GBM had heard of LAI-PrEP, and 30.8% specifically preferred LAI-PrEP. GBM with more concerns about the level of protection and drug half-life of LAI-PrEP had lower odds of preferring LAI-PrEP...
September 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912736/understanding-the-uncanny-both-atypical-features-and-category-ambiguity-provoke-aversion-toward-humanlike-robots
#6
Megan K Strait, Victoria A Floerke, Wendy Ju, Keith Maddox, Jessica D Remedios, Malte F Jung, Heather L Urry
Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912462/impacts-of-light-limitation-on-corals-and-crustose-coralline-algae
#7
Pia Bessell-Browne, Andrew P Negri, Rebecca Fisher, Peta L Clode, Ross Jones
Turbidity associated with elevated suspended sediment concentrations can significantly reduce underwater light availability. Understanding the consequences for sensitive organisms such as corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA), requires an understanding of tolerance levels and the time course of effects. Adult colonies of Acropora millepora and Pocillopora acuta, juvenile P. acuta, and the CCA Porolithon onkodes were exposed to six light treatments of ~0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.4, 1.1 and 4.3 mol photons m(-2) d(-1), and their physiological responses were monitored over 30 d...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905173/pharmacokinetic-and-tissue-distribution-profile-of-long-acting-tenofovir-alafenamide-and-elvitegravir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-humanized-mice-model
#8
Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Subhra Mandal, Gregory Pon, Renuga Vivekanandan, Christopher J Destache
PURPOSE: Non-adherence to the antiretroviral (ARV) regimen is a critical factor in determining efficacy of ARV drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A long-acting parenteral formulation may be an effective alternative to daily oral dosing. A pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of drug-loaded nanoparticle (NP) was performed in female humanized CD34(+)-NSG mice. METHODS: Mice received 200 mg/kg each of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) as free drugs (TAF + EVG solution) or as drug loaded NP (TAF + EVG NP) formulation by subcutaneous (SubQ) administration...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903730/routine-monitoring-and-assessment-of-adults-living-with-hiv-results-of-the-british-hiv-association-bhiva-national-audit-2015
#9
A Molloy, H Curtis, F Burns, A Freedman
BACKGROUND: The clinical care of people living with HIV changed fundamentally as a result of the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV infection is now a long-term treatable condition. We report a national audit to assess adherence to British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: All UK sites known as providers of adult HIV outpatient services were invited to complete a case-note review and a brief survey of local clinic practices...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902919/factors-associated-with-pulmonary-impairment-in-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#10
Akshay N Gupte, Michelle L Wong, Reginah Msandiwa, Grace L Barnes, Jonathan Golub, Richard E Chaisson, Christopher J Hoffmann, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD). Studies from developed countries report high viral load, low CD4 counts, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to be associated with OLD; but these findings may not be generalizable to populations in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lung function in 730 HIV-infected black South African adults. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed at enrollment and repeated annually for three years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902074/plasma-tenofovir-levels-to-support-adherence-to-tdf-ftc-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-msm-in-los-angeles-california
#11
Raphael J Landovitz, Matthew Beymer, Ryan Kofron, K Rivet Amico, Christina Psaros, Lane Bushman, Peter L Anderson, Risa Flynn, David P Lee, Robert K Bolan, Wilbert C Jordan, Chi-Hong Tseng, Rhodri Dierst-Davies, Jim Rooney, Amy Rock Wohl
BACKGROUND: TDF/FTC PrEP is effective against rectal HIV acquisition when taken as prescribed. Strategies that identify and intervene with those challenged by adherence to daily medication are needed. SETTING: PATH-PrEP was an open-label single arm interventional cohort study conducted at 2 community-based clinical sites in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: We enrolled self-identified MSM and TGW ≥18 years of age at elevated risk of HIV acquisition...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900827/lifetime-radiation-exposure-in-patients-with-recurrent-nephrolithiasis
#12
REVIEW
Mohamed A Elkoushy, Sero Andonian
Patients presenting with nephrolithiasis often undergo repeated imaging studies before, during, and after management. Considering the significant risk of stone recurrence in primary stone-formers, repeated imaging studies are not uncommon. Cumulative effects of ionizing radiation exposure from various imaging studies could potentially increase the risk for developing cataracts and solid malignancies in urolithiasis patients. Therefore, practitioners planning or performing imaging studies with ionizing radiation are compelled to keep radiation exposure to humans and the environment as low as possible, thus strictly adhering to the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principles...
September 12, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#13
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899842/identifying-which-urban-children-with-asthma-benefit-most-from-clinician-prompting-sub-analyses-from-the-pair-up-trial
#14
Nicolas P N Goldstein, Sean M Frey, Maria Fagnano, Sande O Okelo, Jill S Halterman
OBJECTIVE: Clinician prompts increase the likelihood of guideline-recommended corrective actions (preventive medication prescription, dose change, and/or adherence promotion) for symptomatic children with poorly controlled or persistent asthma in the primary care setting, but it is unclear if all children benefit equally. The objectives of this study were to identify whether asthma severity, visit type, and current preventive medication use were predictive of corrective actions during visits for children with symptomatic asthma, and determine whether these factors modified the impact of a prompting intervention...
September 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898934/the-associations-between-phthalate-exposure-and-insulin-resistance-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-blood-glucose-control-in-a-population-based-sample
#15
Robert Edgar Dales, Lisa Marie Kauri, Sabit Cakmak
In developed countries, phthalate exposure is ubiquitous. Previous studies have shown an association between phthalate levels and health effects. To test associations between phthalate exposures, estimated from urinary phthalate metabolites, and insulin resistance, β-cell function and glucose control. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional, nationally representative study; the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, 2009-2011). Participants under the age of 12, those with diabetes, who were pregnant or who had not fasted overnight were excluded...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893727/development-of-a-virtual-reality-exposure-tool-as-psychological-preparation-for-elective-pediatric-day-care-surgery-methodological-approach-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Robin Eijlers, Jeroen S Legerstee, Bram Dierckx, Lonneke M Staals, Johan Berghmans, Marc P van der Schroeff, Rene Mh Wijnen, Elisabeth Mwj Utens
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU)...
September 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892167/effect-of-cadmium-on-kitl-pre-mrna-alternative-splicing-in-murine-ovarian-granulosa-cells-and-its-associated-regulation-by-mirnas
#17
Wenxiang Wang, Jie Chen, Lingfeng Luo, Yuchen Li, Jin Liu, Wenchang Zhang
In this study, we established an in vitro exposure model of murine ovarian granulosa cells to observe the effect of Cd on alternative splicing of the kitl pre-mRNA and subsequently to explore the role of kitl gene expression regulation-related miRNAs through miRNA prediction, miRNA chip, bioinformatics and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results showed that the kitl1/kitl2 mRNA ratio was significantly different (P < 0.05) at different dosages and times. The miRNA chip analysis showed that the miRNA expression profiles for the Cd treatment were significantly changed, and the expression of 29 miRNAs involved in alternative splicing of the kitl pre-mRNA was changed...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891864/photosensitization-of-trpa1-and-trpv1-by-7-dehydrocholesterol-implications-for-the-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#18
Alexandru Babes, Cosmin I Ciotu, Tal Hoffmann, Tatjana I Kichko, Tudor Selescu, Cristian Neacsu, Susanne K Sauer, Peter W Reeh, Michael J M Fischer
Loss of function mutations in the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase are responsible for the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, in which 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels are markedly increased in the plasma and tissues of patients. This increase in 7-DHC is probably associated with the painful and itchy photosensitivity reported by the large majority of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients. In order to identify the molecular targets involved in the activation and photosensitization of primary afferents by 7-DHC we focused on TRPA1 and TRPV1, two ion channels expressed in nociceptive nerve endings and previously shown to respond to ultraviolet and visible light under pathophysiological circumstances...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886551/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-early-life-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-obesity-related-outcomes-in-rodents
#19
REVIEW
Pim Nicolaas Hubertus Wassenaar, Juliette Legler
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exerts obesogenic effects after pre- or perinatal exposure. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review with meta-analyses was conducted of early life exposure to DEHP, or its biologically active metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), on the obesity related outcome measures body weight, fat (pad) weight, triglycerides, free fatty acids and leptin in experimental rodent studies. METHODS: The applied methodology was pre-specified in a rigorous protocol...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886429/pre-treatment-with-melatonin-decreases-abamectin-induced-toxicity-in-a-nocturnal-insect-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#20
Subramanian P Subala, Eduardo E Zubero, Moises A Alatorre-Jimenez, Muthugounder S Shivakumar
AIM: Oxidative stress is an important component of the mechanism of pesticide toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent melatonin effects against abamectin-induced oxidative stress in a S.litura model. Larvae were divided into 5 different groups; (1) control group,(2) Melatonin group (4.3×10(-5)M/100ml diet), (3) Abamectin group 1.5ml/L, (4) Pre-melatonin treated group (PM) (4.3×10(-5)M/100ml diet) before abamectin exposure 1.5ml/L, (5) Post-melatonin treated group (TM) after abamectin exposure...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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