Read by QxMD icon Read

pre-exposure effect

Takashi Ishida, Sachie Suzuki, Chen-Yi Lai, Satoshi Yamazaki, Shigeru Kakuta, Yoichiro Iwakura, Masanori Nojima, Yasuo Takeuchi, Masaaki Higashihara, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Makoto Otsu
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT) for malignancy requires toxic pre-conditioning to maximize anti-tumor effects and donor-HSC engraftment. While this induces bone marrow (BM)-localized inflammation, how this BM environmental change affects transplanted HSCs in vivo remains largely unknown. We here report that, depending on interval between irradiation and HSCT, residence within lethally irradiated recipient BM compromises donor-HSC reconstitution ability. Both in vivo and in vitro we demonstrate that, among inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α plays a role in HSC damage: TNF-α stimulation leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in highly purified hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HSPCs)...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cells
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Yuguang Wang, Ying-Ying Huang, Yong Wang, Peijun Lyu, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) using red or near-infrared (NIR) light has been used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The use of NIR wavelengths such as 810nm is reasonably well accepted to stimulate mitochondrial activity and ATP production via absorption of photons by cytochrome c oxidase. However, the mechanism of action of 980nm is less well understood. Here we study the effects of both wavelengths (810nm and 980nm) on adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Both wavelengths showed a biphasic dose response, but 810nm had a peak dose response at 3J/cm(2) for stimulation of proliferation at 24h, while the peak dose for 980nm was 10-100 times lower at 0...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wei-Jie Guan, Xue-Yan Zheng, Kian Fan Chung, Nan-Shan Zhong
In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Xuejing Cui, Bin Wan, Liang-Hong Guo, Yu Yang, Xiao-Min Ren
Co-existence of nanomaterials and environmental pollutants requires in-depth understanding of combined toxicity and underlying mechanism. In this work, we found that co-exposure to the mixture of non-cytotoxic level of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) (10 µg/mL) and Ni2+ (20 µM) induced significant cytotoxicity in macrophages. However, almost equal amount of intracellular Ni2+ was detected after Ni2+/SWCNT co-exposure or Ni2+ single exposure, indicating no enhanced cellular uptake of Ni2+ occurred...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Derek D Satre, Andrea Altschuler, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Michael J Silverberg, Paul Volberding, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: This study examined implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in relation to HIV-positive patient enrollment in an integrated health care system; as well as changes in new enrollee characteristics, benefit structure and health care utilization after key ACA provisions went into effect in 2014. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was set in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Qualitative interviews with 29 KPNC leaders explored planning for ACA implementation...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, Shanice Battle, Jeffrey H Herbst, Damian Denson, Nicole Pitts, Jeremy Holman, Stewart Landers, Gordon Mansergh
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Jeffery G Grigsby, Donald M Allen, Ana S Ferrigno, Sandeep Vellanki, Cindy E Pouw, Whitney A Hejny, Andrew T C Tsin
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well established as the main agent responsible for vascular leakage and angiogenesis in the diabetic retina. While VEGF can have positive effects on hyperglycemia stressed retinal tissues, it also plays a role in events progressing to the oxygen-stressed, i.e. hypoxic, diabetic retina. Some VEGF makes it way to the retina from systemic sources and some is produced locally within the eye. Hyperglycemia, oxidants, inflammation, and advanced glycation end-products are all stimulants to VEGF production, both in the hypoxic and the pre-hypoxic retina...
October 7, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Joseph E Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. METHODS: Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Enrique Regidor, Fernando Vallejo, José A Tapia Granados, Francisco J Viciana-Fernández, Luis de la Fuente, Gregorio Barrio
BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of macroeconomic fluctuations on mortality in different socioeconomic groups are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. We analyse mortality trends in Spain before and during the Great Recession in different socioeconomic groups, quantifying the change within each group. METHODS: We did a nationwide prospective study, in which we took data from the 2001 Census. All people living in Spain on Nov 1, 2001, were followed up until Dec 31, 2011...
October 13, 2016: Lancet
Martin Sack, Stefanie Zehl, Alexander Otti, Claas Lahmann, Peter Henningsen, Johannes Kruse, Markus Stingl
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is controversy on the possible benefits of dual-attention tasks during eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: A total of 139 consecutive patients (including 85 females) suffering from PTSD were allocated randomly among 3 different treatment conditions: exposure with eyes moving while fixating on the therapist's moving hand (EM), exposure with eyes fixating on the therapist's nonmoving hand (EF), and exposure without explicit visual focus of attention as control condition (EC)...
October 15, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Mei-Chun Lu, Panchalli Wang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Chun-Pai Yang, Yuan-Horng Yan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the indicators of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 3589 non-diabetic pregnant women who underwent a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were enrolled from a tertiary teaching hospital in Chiayi City, Taiwan between 2006 and 2014. Fasting, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h glucose levels after an OGTT were used as indicators of glucose homeostasis. PM2.5 and other air pollution data were obtained from one fixed-site monitoring station (Chiayi City station) operated by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Research
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Flora Clément, Xinyi Xu, Caterina F Donini, Alice Clément, Soleilmane Omarjee, Emmanuel Delay, Isabelle Treilleux, Béatrice Fervers, Muriel Le Romancer, Pascale A Cohen, Véronique Maguer-Satta
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 are key regulators of the fate and differentiation of human mammary epithelial stem cells (SCs), as well as of their niches, and are involved in breast cancer development. We established that MCF10A immature mammary epithelial cells reliably reproduce the BMP response that we previously identified in human primary epithelial SCs. In this model, we observed that BMP2 promotes luminal progenitor commitment and expansion, whereas BMP4 prevents lineage differentiation...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Raimon H R Pruim, Maarten Mennes, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
We recently reported that the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the relation between stress exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity. This gene-environment interaction (GxE) has been previously tied to the processing of emotional stimuli, which is increasingly recognized to be a key factor in ADHD-related impairment. The executive control and default mode brain networks play an important role in the regulation of emotion processing, and altered connectivity of these networks has also been associated with ADHD...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sarah Qureshi, Jennifer Y Lin
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality in the treatment of acne. While ablative fractional lasers have been used to enhance drug delivery into the epidermis, recent evidence suggests that non-ablative fractional photothermolysis may also improve uptake of ALA. We explored the use of non-ablative 1550 nm laser as a safe alternative in the delivery of ALA prior to red-light PDT for refractory inflammatory and cystic acne. Subjects referred for treatment of acne refractory to several topical and oral regimens, including isotretinoin, were pre-treated with non-ablative fractional photothermolysis (NAFP)...
October 14, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Maria Lalouni, Ola Olén, Marianne Bonnert, Erik Hedman, Eva Serlachius, Brjánn Ljótsson
BACKGROUND: Children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs) have an increased risk for school absenteeism, depression, anxiety and low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has shown large treatment effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but has not been tested for children 8-12 years with P-FGIDs. AIM: The aim of this trial was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a newly developed exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs...
2016: PloS One
Isla S Mackenzie, Steven V Morant, Li Wei, Alastair M Thompson, Thomas M MacDonald
AIMS: Spironolactone is widely used to treat heart failure, hypertension and liver disease with increased usage in recent years. Spironolactone has endocrine effects that could influence cancer risks and historical reports suggest possible links with increased risk of certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence. METHODS: A pharmacoepidemiological propensity score-matched cohort study was performed to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jin Han Lim, Kyung Pyo Kang, Sik Lee, Sung Kwang Park, Won Kim
Heparin has remained the most commonly used anticoagulant for patients undergoing hemodialysis. It is usually safe to use but can have severe adverse effects in some cases. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening complication of exposure to heparin. It results from an autoantibody directed against endogenous platelet factor 4 (PF4) in complex with heparin, which activates platelets and can cause catastrophic arterial and venous thromboses. Here, we present the case of an 80-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of chronic renal failure who developed acute HIT (platelet count nadir, 15 × 10(9) /L) on day 7 of hemodialysis performed with routine heparin anticoagulation, who despite subsequent heparin-free hemodialysis (with argatroban and warfarin) developed recurrent HIT (complicated by acute cerebral infarction) on day 11 that we attributed to "rinsing" of the circuit with heparin-containing saline (3,000 units of unfractionated heparin, with subsequent saline washing) performed pre-dialysis as per routine...
October 13, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"