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Immunomodulatory agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693583/adenylate-cyclases-of-trypanosoma-brucei-environmental-sensors-and-controllers-of-host-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Didier Salmon
Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA)...
April 25, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693024/the-role-of-flavonoids-in-inhibiting-th17-responses-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
Dimitra Kelepouri, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Lazaros I Sakkas
Flavonoids have been considered powerful anti-inflammatory agents, and their exact immunomodulatory action as therapeutic agents in autoimmune diseases has started to emerge. Their role in the manipulation of immunoregulation is less understood. Several studies attempted to investigate the role of various flavonoids mainly in experimental models of autoimmune diseases, especially in the context of their potential effect on the increase of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their ability to stimulate an overexpression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, in particular that of IL-10...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691900/a-dual-immunotherapy-nanoparticle-improves-t-cell-activation-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Yu Mi, Christof C Smith, Feifei Yang, Yanfei Qi, Kyle C Roche, Jonathan S Serody, Benjamin G Vincent, Andrew Z Wang
Combination immunotherapy has recently emerged as a powerful cancer treatment strategy. A promising treatment approach utilizes coadministration of antagonistic antibodies to block checkpoint inhibitor receptors, such as antiprogrammed cell death-1 (aPD1), alongside agonistic antibodies to activate costimulatory receptors, such as antitumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (aOX40). Optimal T-cell activation is achieved when both immunomodulatory agents simultaneously engage T-cells and promote synergistic proactivation signaling...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682916/pediatric-uveitis
#4
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Jessy Choi, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Pediatric uveitis differs from adult-onset uveitis and is a topic of special interest because of its diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Children with uveitis are often asymptomatic and the uveitis is often chronic, persistent, recurrent, and resistant to conventional treatment. Anterior uveitis is the most common type of uveitis in children; the prevalence of intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis varies geographically and among ethnic groups. Regarding etiology, most cases of pediatric uveitis are idiopathic but can be due to systemic inflammatory disorders, infections, or a manifestation of masquerade syndrome...
April 23, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680236/chimeric-small-antibody-fragments-as-strategy-to-deliver-therapeutic-payloads
#5
Sandra Aguiar, Joana Dias, Ana M Manuel, Roberto Russo, Pedro M P Gois, Frederico A da Silva, Joao Goncalves
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an innovative class of biopharmaceuticals, which aim at achieving a site-specific delivery of cytotoxic agents to the target cell. The use of ADCs represents a promising strategy to overcome the disadvantages of conventional pharmacotherapy of cancer or neurological diseases, based on cytotoxic or immunomodulatory agents. ADCs consist of monoclonal antibodies attached to biologically active drugs by means of cleavable chemical linkers. Advances in technologies for the coupling of antibodies to cytotoxic drugs promise to deliver greater control of drug pharmacokinetic properties and to significantly improve pharmacodelivery applications, minimizing exposure of healthy tissue...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678603/chebulagic-acid-chebulinic-acid-and-gallic-acid-the-active-principles-of-triphala-inhibit-tnf%C3%AE-induced-pro-angiogenic-and-pro-inflammatory-activities-in-retinal-capillary-endothelial-cells-by-inhibiting-p38-erk-and-nfkb-phosphorylation
#6
Sivasankar Shanmuganathan, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) a pleiotropic cytokine induces pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and neovascular age related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Hence, inhibition of TNFα mediated changes can benefit the management of DR and NV-AMD. Triphala, an ayurvedic herbal preparation is known to have immunomodulatry functions. In this study we evaluated the alcoholic extract of triphala (AlE) and its compounds Chebulagic acid (CA), Chebulinic acid (CI) and Gallic acid (GA) for their anti-TNFα activity...
April 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676460/resistance-to-proteasome-inhibitors-and-other-targeted-therapies-in-myeloma
#7
REVIEW
Craig T Wallington-Beddoe, Magdalena Sobieraj-Teague, Bryone J Kuss, Stuart M Pitson
The number of novel therapies for the treatment of myeloma is rapidly increasing, as are the clinical trials evaluating them in combination with other novel and established therapies. Proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents and monoclonal antibodies are the most well known and studied classes of novel agents targeting myeloma, with histone deacetylase inhibitors, nuclear export inhibitors and several other approaches also being actively investigated. However, in parallel with the development and clinical use of these novel myeloma therapies is the emergence of novel mechanisms of resistance, many of which remain elusive, particularly for more recently developed agents...
April 20, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672235/interleukin-7-regulates-t-follicular-helper-cell-function-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#8
Zhi-Hong Zhang, Ben-Chun Jiang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Zhen-Sheng-Nan Li, Guang-Ze Zhu
Signaling through interleukin (IL)-7 is essential and required for development, differentiation, proliferation, and homeostasis of T cells. However, the role of IL-7 in regulation of CD4+ T cells in chronic viral infections was not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of IL-7 to T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and its contribution to pathogenesis of chronic HCV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 19 normal controls were enrolled...
April 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669962/renal-protective-effect-of-paeoniflorin-by-inhibition-of-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Xinyu Li, Yan Wang, Kun Wang, Yonggui Wu
Paeoniflorin is the main bioactive components of the root of P.lactiflora Pall., and has been widely used as an anti-inflammation and immunomodulatory agent. However, the effect and mechanisms of Paeoniflorin in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains to be elucidated. In the present study, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice model was used to investigate the protective effect of Paeoniflorin and the role of the Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer (STAT) 3 signaling pathway on DN. After treatment with Paeoniflorin at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg once a day for 12 weeks, both the functional and histological damage to diabetic mice kidney had been attenuated significantly...
April 19, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667789/updates-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#10
Ethan Meltzer, Sashank Prasad
Optic neuritis remains a common diagnosis with controversial management. Although typical optic neuritis is often associated with "good" recovery of visual acuity, patients are often left with persistent impairments of contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visual field. These permanent visual deficits correlate with structural injury to the anterior visual pathway and are closely linked to visual quality of life. High dose corticosteroids are commonly used for patients with acute optic neuritis...
April 18, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666297/phase-ii-study-of-everolimus-in-metastatic-malignant-melanoma-ncctg-n0377-alliance
#11
Jesus Vera Aguilera, Ravi D Rao, Jacob B Allred, Vera J Suman, Harold E Windschitl, Judith S Kaur, William J Maples, Val J Lowe, Edward T Creagan, Lori A Erickson, Svetomir Markovic
LESSONS LEARNED: Everolimus does not have sufficient activity to justify its use as single agent in metastatic melanoma.Patients treated with 10 mg per day dose were most likely to require dose reductions.Everolimus appeared to reduce the numbers of regulatory T cells in approximately half of the treated patients; unfortunately, these effects were not correlated with clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND: Everolimus (RAD-001) is an orally active rapamycin analogue shown in preclinical data to produce cytostatic cell inhibition, which may be potentially beneficial in treating melanoma...
April 17, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665938/-research-and-applications-progress-of-lenalidomide-in-relapsed-refractory-blood-system-diseases-review
#12
Wen-Jing Fan, Zhi-Qiao Fan, Tao Wu, Hai Bai
Lenalidomide, a novel immunomodulatory agent, is a kind of thalidomide derivatives, which shows a good efficacy and safety for hematological system diseases. This review is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in treatment of patients with multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and POEMS syndrome at their replased or refractory state. At the same time, this review focuses on the newest clinical research and the latest application progress of lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory hematological system diseases...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661513/cinnamon-a-systematic-review-of-adverse-events
#13
REVIEW
Mahdie Hajimonfarednejad, Mohadeseh Ostovar, Mohammad Javad Raee, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Johannes Gottfried Mayer, Mojtaba Heydari
Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661456/severe-renal-allograft-rejection-resulting-from-lenalidomide-therapy-for-multiple-myeloma-case-report
#14
V Walavalkar, D B Adey, Z G Laszik, K-Y Jen
Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, is an immunomodulatory drug currently used as a chemotherapeutic agent in treating certain hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma. The antineoplastic effect of lenalidomide may be due to its ability to modulate different components of the immune system as well as its antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and direct cytotoxic activity. Given its immunomodulatory effects, lenalidomide may potentially elicit unintended immune activity against allografts in solid organ transplant recipients...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659599/profiling-extracellular-vesicle-release-by-the-filarial-nematode-brugia-malayi-reveals-sex-specific-differences-in-cargo-and-a-sensitivity-to-ivermectin
#15
Hiruni Harischandra, Wang Yuan, Hannah J Loghry, Mostafa Zamanian, Michael J Kimber
The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656422/role-of-lactoferrin-and-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Kabilan Velliyagounder, Dania Bahdila, Siddhi Pawar, Daniel H Fine
The oral cavity harbors different taxonomic groups, the evolutionary co-existence of which develops the oral ecosystem. These resident microorganisms can alter the balance between the physiologic and pathologic conditions that affect the host, both locally and systemically. This highly sophisticated nature of the oral cavity poses a significant therapeutic challenge. Numerous human and animal studies have been conducted to potentiate the efficacy and competence of current treatments of pathologic conditions as well as to develop novel therapeutic modalities...
April 14, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#17
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644062/granulomatous-interstitial-nephritis-secondary-to-adalimumab-therapy
#18
Vicki Sandys, Brona Moloney, Louise Lane, Junaid Qazi, Brendan Doyle, Maurice Barry, Sean Leavey, Peter Conlon
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors are frequently used for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Conversely, cytokine therapy has the potential to paradoxically induce autoimmunity. A number of case reports have emerged concerning sarcoid-like granulomatosis secondary to TNF-α therapy, an adverse effect that typically affects the pulmonary and cutaneous systems. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a relatively unknown, relatively under-reported consequence of adalimumab therapy that can have important clinical implications...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643807/antimicrobial-peptides-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-bacterial-skin-infections-and-wounds
#19
REVIEW
Anja Pfalzgraff, Klaus Brandenburg, Günther Weindl
Alarming data about increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics are reported, while at the same time the development of new antibiotics is stagnating. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are mainly caused by the so called ESKAPE pathogens ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) which belong to the most recalcitrant bacteria and are resistant to almost all common antibiotics. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are the most frequent pathogens isolated from chronic wounds and increasing resistance to topical antibiotics has become a major issue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642953/impact-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-immunomodulation-on-the-osteogenic-effects-of-laponite
#20
Tao Li, Zhong Long Liu, Ming Xiao, Ze Zheng Yang, Ming Zheng Peng, Cui Di Li, Xiao Jun Zhou, Jin Wu Wang
BACKGROUND: With the development of osteoimmunology and bone tissue engineering (BTE), it has been recognized that the immunomodulatory properties of bone biomaterials have considerable impact in determining their fate after implantation. In this regard, the polarization of macrophages secondary to biomaterials is postulated to play a crucial role in modulating their osteogenesis; thus, strategies that may facilitate this process engender increasing levels of attention. Whereas a variety of reports highlight the immunomodulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in cell therapy or their osteogenesis in BTE, few have focused on the effect of BMSCs in promoting osteogenesis in BTE through regulating the phenotype of macrophages...
April 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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