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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913889/ocular-pharmacology-of-tear-film-dry-eye-and-allergic-conjunctivitis
#1
Shilpa Gulati, Sandeep Jain
Dry Eye Disease (DED) is "a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface." DED comprises two etiologic categories: aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye (EDE). Diagnostic workup of DED should include clinical history, symptom questionnaire, fluorescein TBUT, ocular surface staining grading, Schirmer I/II, lid and meibomian pathology, meibomian expression, followed by other available tests...
December 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913523/advances-and-practical-use-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-multiple-myeloma-therapy
#2
Hans C Lee, Donna M Weber
The use of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of myeloma have resulted in significant improvements in patient outcomes over the last decade. Although these agents now form the backbone of current myeloma treatment regimens both in the frontline and in a relapsed setting, drug resistance remains an inevitable challenge that most patients will encounter during their disease course. Hence, new treatment strategies continue to be explored, and the recent regulatory approvals of the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) daratumumab (DARA) and elotuzumab (ELO), which target the plasma cell surface proteins CD38 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7), respectively, have heralded the long-awaited era of antibody-based approaches in the treatment of myeloma...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913522/role-of-stem-cell-transplant-and-maintenance-therapy-in-plasma-cell-disorders
#3
Philip L McCarthy, Sarah A Holstein
Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) has been an important component of therapy for myeloma patients eligible for high-dose chemotherapy. Recent studies comparing early transplant to low-dose chemotherapy support the continued use of ASCT as consolidation following induction therapy, even in the era of immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors, and other novel agents. Despite the marked improvements in outcomes with this approach, most patients will eventually experience disease progression. Thus, inclusion of post-ASCT consolidation/maintenance strategies is used to improve long-term disease control...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913520/myeloma-management-of-the-newly-diagnosed-high-risk-patient
#4
Angela Dispenzieri
Although there have been many definitions for high-risk (HR) myeloma, most recent consensus for classifying risk in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NMM) comes from the International Myeloma Working Group. This recently published revised International Staging System includes del(17p) or t(4;14) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, β-2 microglobulin, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase. These elements should be captured in all NMM patients. The optimal treatments for HR myeloma have not been fully worked out; therefore, these patients should be considered for clinical trials...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913503/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-r-chop-failure-what-to-do
#5
Bertrand Coiffier, Clémentine Sarkozy
Although rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), ∼30% to 50% of patients are not cured by this treatment, depending on disease stage or prognostic index. Among patients for whom R-CHOP therapy fails, 20% suffer from primary refractory disease (progress during or right after treatment) whereas 30% relapse after achieving complete remission (CR). Currently, there is no good definition enabling us to identify these 2 groups upon diagnosis...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912816/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-role-in-dental-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Xueli Mao, Yao Liu, Chider Chen, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been discovered in almost every organ and tissue. MSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with the capacity to self-renew and show multilineage differentiation. MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties by regulating multiple types of immune cells. They are emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, and have been widely used for cell-based tissue regeneration and immune therapies. A further understanding of the biological characteristics of MSCs is a prerequisite to develop more efficient MSC-based therapies...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910963/daratumumab-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-to-treat-multiple-myeloma
#7
C Xia, M Ribeiro, S Scott, S Lonial
Daratumumab (Darzalex[TM]) is a human monoclonal antibody (MAb) that targets CD38; a surface protein highly expressed across multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), apoptosis upon secondary crosslinking and immunomodulatory effects via a decrease in immune suppressive cells. Daratumumab has a favorable toxicity profile and encouraging clinical activity as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide in heavily pretreated, relapsed patients in whom other novel agents (such as bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide) and stem cell transplant have already failed...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910767/immunostimulatory-effects-of-melphalan-and-usefulness-in-adoptive-cell-therapy-with-antitumor-cd4-t-cells
#8
Michal Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Gang Zhou
The alkylating agent melphalan is used in the treatment of hematological malignancies, especially multiple myeloma. In the past, the usefulness of melphalan has been solely attributed to its cytotoxicity on fastgrowing cancerous cells. Although the immunomodulatory effects of melphalan were suggested many years ago, only recently has this aspect of melphalan's activity begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. Emerging evidence indicates that melphalan can foster an immunogenic microenvironment by inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) as characterized by membrane translocation of endoplasmic reticulum protein calreticulin (CRT) and by release of chromatin-binding protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904945/-sarcoidosis-and-uveitis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
J G Garweg
Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to one third of patients and is frequently manifested before the underlying systemic disease has been diagnosed. With a view to the therapeutic consequences an early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous. In cases of visual loss early diagnostic measures include invasive procedures, such as ultrasound-guided bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy, if nodular conjunctival or cutaneous manifestations which would confirm the diagnosis are not present...
November 30, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894203/management-of-adverse-events-induced-by-next-generation-immunomodulatory-drug-and-proteasome-inhibitors-in-multiple-myeloma
#11
Marco Salvini, Francesca Bonello, Mario Boccadoro, Alessandra Larocca
In the last decade the introduction of novel agents has strongly improved multiple myeloma prognosis by doubling median overall survival. Unfortunately disease relapse is very common and patients may become refractory to previous drugs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered. We have reviewed the available data on next generation novel agents, particularly immunomodulatory drug pomalidomide and proteasome inhibitors carfilzomib and ixazomib, the latter being the first-in-class orally available...
November 29, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888768/multiple-myeloma-treatment-at-relapse-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-a-practical-analysis
#12
REVIEW
F Malard, J L Harousseau, M Mohty
Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the field of multiple myeloma. Introduction of the so-called novel agents, proteasome inhibitors (PI) and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD), and improved supportive care have resulted in significantly better outcome. Standard first line treatment in fit patients include PI and IMiD based induction, high dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and consolidation/maintenance. However, despite these progresses MM remains incurable for the majority of patients and most patients will relapse...
November 15, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886700/sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome-and-other-causes-of-sicca-in-older-adults
#13
REVIEW
Alan N Baer, Brian Walitt
Dry eye and dry mouth symptoms are each reported by up to 30% of persons more than 65 years of age, particularly in women. Medication side effects are the most common contributing factors. The evaluation of these symptoms requires measures of ocular and oral dryness. Sjögren syndrome is the prototypic disease associated with dryness of the eyes and mouth and predominantly affects women in their perimenopausal and postmenopausal years. In addition to topical treatment of the mucosal dryness, patients with Sjögren syndrome may require treatment with systemic immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents to manage a variety of extraglandular manifestations...
February 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885144/treatment-of-multiple-myeloma-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-focus-on-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-lenalidomide
#14
Lola Xie, Bartosz Jozwik, Phillip Weeks, L Maximilian Buja, Robert Brown, Sriram Nathan, Keshava Rajagopal, Christina Paruthi, Biswajit Kar, Pranav Loyalka, Indranee Rajapreyar
Malignancy following solid organ transplant remains a significant threat to the survival of cardiac transplant recipients. Plasma cell dyscrasias including multiple myeloma have been encountered in this population, and medication treatments traditionally used to treat these disorders demonstrate immunomodulatory effects that may have implications on the transplanted allograft. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that has been used to treat plasma cell disorders, including light-chain amyloidosis (AL) and multiple myeloma, and represents such a class of medications in which the risks and benefits in the solid organ transplant population remain to be fully elucidated...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884765/efficacy-of-clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir-combination-in-the-treatment-of-patients-hospitalized-for-influenza-a-h3n2-infection-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-phase-2b-3-trial
#15
Ivan Fn Hung, Kelvin Kw To, Jasper Fw Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Kevin Sh Liu, Anthony Tam, Tuen-Ching Chan, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Patrick Li, Tin-Lun Wong, Ricky Zhang, Michael Ks Cheung, William Leung, Johnson Yn Lau, Manson Fok, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes excessive hospitalizations and deaths. Single agent treatment with oseltamivir in severe influenza might be insufficient. The study assessed the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir-clarithromycin-naproxen combination for treatment of serious influenza. METHODS: From February to April 2015, we conducted a prospective open-label randomized-controlled trial. Adult patients hospitalized for A(H3N2) influenza were randomly assigned to a 2-day combination of clarithromycin 500mg, naproxen 200mg and oseltamivir 75mg twice daily, followed by 3 days of oseltamivir; or oseltamivir 75mg twice daily without placebos for 5 days as control (1:1)...
November 21, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879679/hydrostatin-tl1-an-anti-inflammatory-active-peptide-from-the-venom-gland-of-hydrophis-cyanocinctus-in-the-south-china-sea
#16
Ningyuan Wang, Yan Huang, An Li, Hailong Jiang, Jie Wang, Jianzhong Li, Lei Qiu, Ka Li, Yiming Lu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pleiotropic cytokine with intense pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and anti-TNF-α biologics are effective therapies for various inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and sepsis. Snake venom, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in China for centuries. In this research, we constructed a venom gland T7 phage display library of the sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus to screen bioactive compounds that antagonize TNF-α and identified a novel nine-amino-acid peptide, termed hydrostatin-TL1 (H-TL1)...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879147/pre-transplantation-novel-agent-induction-predicts-progression-free-survival-for-patients-with-immunoglobulin-light-chain-amyloidosis-undergoing-high-dose-melphalan-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Andrew J Cowan, Zandra K Klippel, Philip A Stevenson, Teresa S Hyun, Sherilyn Tuazon, Pamela S Becker, Damian J Green, Leona A Holmberg, David G Coffey, Ajay K Gopal, Edward N Libby
INTRODUCTION: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) is an effective treatment modality for immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis; however, its application remains restricted to patients with good performance status and limited organ involvement. In recent years, the paradigm for AL amyloidosis has changed with the introduction of novel agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs). We hypothesized that use of novel agent induction regimens has improved outcomes for patients with AL amyloidosis undergoing HDM/SCT at our center...
December 2016: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876536/the-protective-effect-of-1alpha-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-and-metformin-on-liver-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#18
REVIEW
Samah Elattar, Suzanne Estaphan, Enas A Mohamed, Ahmed Elzainy, Mary Naguib
There is an accumulating evidence suggesting an immunomodulatory role of 1α,25(OH)2D3. Altered 1α,25(OH)2D3 level may play a role in the development of T2DM and contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Our study was designed to study and compare the effect of metformin and 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation on liver injury in type 2 diabetic rat. Sixty male Albino rats were divided into 5 groups; group 1: control rats. the remaining rats were fed high fat diet for 2 weeks and injected with streptozotocin (35mg/kg BW, i...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873163/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunomodulators-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#19
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
The genomic revolution in the past decade fuelled by breathtaking advances in sequencing technologies has defined several new genetic diseases of the immune system. Many of these newly characterized diseases are a result of defects in genes involved in immune regulation. The discovery of these diseases has opened a vista of new therapeutic possibilities. Immunomodulatory agents, a hitherto unexplored therapeutic option in primary immunodeficiency diseases have been tried in a host of these newly described maladies...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872741/novel-drugs-in-follicular-lymphoma
#20
REVIEW
Antonella Anastasia, Giuseppe Rossi
Follicular lymphoma(FL) is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes 15% to 30% of lymphoma diagnoses. The natural history of the disease is characterized by recurrent relapses and progressively shorter remissions with a median survival of 10yrs. The impossibility of achieving a definite cure, have prompted investigations into the possible role of more active and less toxic strategies with innovative therapeutic agents. Recently Casulo et al. demonstrated that approximately 20% of patients with FL relapse within two years after achieving remission with R-CHOP and have a poor prognosis...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
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