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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194573/hyponatremia-and-cyst-growth-in-neonatal-polycystic-kidney-disease-a-case-for-aquaretics
#1
EDITORIAL
Detlef Bockenhauer
Hyponatremia is a common complication in neonatal polycystic kidney disease and is thought to be due to water retention. Aquaretics are drugs that promote free water excretion by blocking the arginine vasopressin receptor type 2 (AVPR2) in the collecting duct and thus impair urinary concentration. AVPR2 is also a key stimulant for cyclic AMP production in the collecting duct and in this way promotes cyst proliferation and pathologic kidney growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Consequently, the aquaretic tolvaptan is now used to slow down progression of ADPKD in adult patients...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179252/aquaporin-2-membrane-targeting-still-a-conundrum
#2
Emma Tina Bisgaard Olesen, Robert A Fenton
The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis. In this brief review we assess the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and discuss the emerging concept that V2R-mediated AQP2 trafficking is cAMP-independent.
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174217/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia-compilation-of-the-guidelines
#3
Ewout J Hoorn, Robert Zietse
Hyponatremia is a common water balance disorder that often poses a diagnostic or therapeutic challenge. Therefore, guidelines were developed by professional organizations, one from within the United States (2013) and one from within Europe (2014). This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia, comparing the two guidelines and highlighting recent developments. Diagnostically, the initial step is to differentiate hypotonic from nonhypotonic hyponatremia. Hypotonic hyponatremia is further differentiated on the basis of urine osmolality, urine sodium level, and volume status...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173768/-bowel-prep-hyponatremia-a-state-of-acute-water-intoxication-facilitated-by-low-dietary-solute-intake-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Martin Windpessl, Christoph Schwarz, Manfred Wallner
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic hyponatremia is considered a rare complication of oral bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The pathophysiology underlying this phenomenon has been widely regarded as a mere sequela of excessive arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a 61-year old woman who developed acute hyponatremic encephalopathy when preparing for elective outpatient lower endoscopy. She had had negligible oral solute intake for two days and ingested four liters of clear fluid within two hours...
February 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161696/l-carnitine-ameliorates-the-decrease-of-aquaporin-2-levels-in-rats-with-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury
#5
Jianjun Gao, Zhaoyan Gu, Min Li, Yongxing Xu, Yuehua Gao, Jiamei Wei, Boran Liang, Yu Na
BACKGROUND: It has been found that L-carnitine ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. However, the detailed role of L-carnitine in improving the renal urinary concentration function in cisplatin-induced AKI is not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, cisplatin (CIS), L-carnitine (CAR), L-carnitine plus cisplatin (CAR + CIS), and cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR) groups...
February 4, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145416/criterion-values-for-urine-specific-gravity-and-urine-color-representing-adequate-water-intake-in-healthy-adults
#6
E T Perrier, J H Bottin, M Vecchio, G Lemetais
Growing evidence suggests a distinction between water intake necessary for maintaining a euhydrated state, and water intake considered to be adequate from a perspective of long-term health. Previously, we have proposed that maintaining a 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) of ⩽500 mOsm/kg is a desirable target for urine concentration to ensure sufficient urinary output to reduce renal health risk and circulating vasopressin. In clinical practice and field monitoring, the measurement of UOsm is not practical. In this analysis, we calculate criterion values for urine-specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCol), two measures which have broad applicability in clinical and field settings...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134709/nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#7
D Bockenhauer, Daniel G Bichet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#8
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108651/roflumilast-and-aquaporin-2-regulation-in-rat-renal-inner-medullary-collecting-duct
#9
Ezigbobiara N Umejiego, Yanhua Wang, Mark A Knepper, Chung-Lin Chou
Roflumilast is a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is FDA-approved for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. With a view toward possible use for treatment of patients with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) due to hemizygous mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor, this study sought to determine the effect of roflumilast on aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylation, AQP2 trafficking, and water permeability in the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In the presence of the vasopressin analog dDAVP (0...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090219/integrated-microfluidic-aptasensor-for-mass-spectrometric-detection-of-vasopressin-in-human-plasma-ultrafiltrate
#10
J Yang, J Zhu, R Pei, J A Oliver, D W Landry, M N Stojanovic, Q Lin
We present a microfluidic aptamer-based biosensor for detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers in patient samples. Using a microfluidic device that integrates aptamer-based specific analyte extraction, isocratic elution, and detection by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we demonstrate rapid, sensitive and label-free detection of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma ultrafiltrate. AVP molecules in complex matrices are specifically captured by an aptamer that is immobilized on microbeads via affinity binding in a microchamber...
July 14, 2016: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081165/urine-concentrating-capacity-vasopressin-and-copeptin-in-adpkd-and-iga-nephropathy-patients-with-renal-impairment
#11
Debbie Zittema, Niek F Casteleijn, Stephan J L Bakker, Lianne S M Boesten, A A Margreeth Duit, Casper F M Franssen, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) patients have an impaired urine concentrating capacity. Increased circulating vasopressin (AVP) concentrations are supposed to play a role in the progression of ADPKD. We hypothesized that ADPKD patients have a more severely impaired urine concentrating capacity in comparison to other patients with chronic kidney disease at a similar level of kidney function, with consequently an enhanced AVP response to water deprivation with higher circulating AVP concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081152/increased-serum-sodium-and-serum-osmolarity-are-independent-risk-factors-for-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-5-year-cohort-study
#12
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072656/isosorbide-induced-decompression-effect-on-the-scala-media-participation-of-plasma-osmolality-and-plasma-arginine-vasopressin
#13
Taizo Takeda, Setsuko Takeda, Natsumi Uehara, Shungaku Yanagisawa, Tatsuya Furukawa, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Akinobu Kakigi
OBJECTIVE: The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1...
January 9, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057871/copeptin-a-surrogate-marker-for-arginine-vasopressin-is-associated-with-disease-severity-and-progression-in-iga-nephropathy-patients
#14
Debbie Zittema, Jan A J G van den Brand, Stephan J L Bakker, Jack F Wetzels, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: Besides its essential role for water homeostasis, arginine vasopressin (AVP) may have deleterious effects on the kidney. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for AVP, has been shown to be related to renal outcome in patients with diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. We investigated the association of copeptin with disease severity and progression in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: We included a prospective cohort of 59 patients with biopsy proven IgAN...
January 5, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008190/central-diabetes-insipidus
#15
REVIEW
Hiroshi Arima, Yoshinori Azuma, Yoshiaki Morishita, Daisuke Hagiwara
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is caused by deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone which acts on V2 receptors in kidney to promote reabsorption of free water. CDI is classified into three subtypes; idiopathic, secondary and familial. A previous study suggests that infundibulo-neurohypophysitis might be an underlying cause of idiopathic CDI. Among secondary CDI, the tumors in the central nervous system such as craniopharyngioma and germ cell tumors are the most frequent causes...
December 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003190/the-effects-of-exogenous-desmopressin-on-a-model-of-heat-stress-nephropathy-in-mice
#16
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Masanari Kuwabara, Thomas Jensen, Zhilin Song, Petter Bjornstad, Gabriela E Garcia, Yuka Sato, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Recurrent heat stress and dehydration have recently been shown experimentally to cause chronic kidney disease (CKD). One potential mediator may be vasopressin, acting via the type 2 vasopressin receptor (V2 receptor). We tested the hypothesis that desmopressin accelerates CKD in mice subjected to heat stress and recurrent dehydration. METHODS: Recurrent exposure to heat with limited water availability was performed in male mice over a 5 week period, with one group receiving desmopressin twice daily and the other group received vehicle...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998960/acute-and-chronic-hyperglycemic-effects-of-vasopressin-in-normal-rats-involvement-of-v1a-receptors
#17
Christopher Taveau, Catherine Chollet, Daniel G Bichet, Gilberto Velho, Gilles Guillon, Maithe Corbani, Ronan Roussel, Lise Bankir, Olle Melander, Nadine Bouby
Recent epidemiological studies have revealed novel relationships between low water intake or high vasopressin (AVP) and the risk of hyperglycemia and diabetes. AVP V1A and V1B receptors (R) are expressed in liver and pancreatic islets, respectively. The present study was designed to determine the impact of different levels of circulating AVP on glucose homeostasis in normal Sprague Dawley rats, and the respective roles of V1AR and V1BR. We showed that acute injection of AVP induces a dose-dependent increase in glycemia...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989461/bidirectional-anticipation-of-future-osmotic-challenges-by-vasopressin-neurons
#18
Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Angela Kim, Christian R Burgess, Siva Subramanian, Bakhos A Tannous, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Ingestion of water and food are major hypo- and hyperosmotic challenges. To protect the body from osmotic stress, posterior pituitary-projecting, vasopressin-secreting neurons (VPpp neurons) counter osmotic perturbations by altering their release of vasopressin, which controls renal water excretion. Vasopressin levels begin to fall within minutes of water consumption, even prior to changes in blood osmolality. To ascertain the precise temporal dynamics by which water or food ingestion affect VPpp neuron activity, we directly recorded the spiking and calcium activity of genetically defined VPpp neurons...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980741/a-case-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-associated-with-cardiac-dysfunction
#19
Nobumasa Ohara, Masanori Kaneko, Tatsuya Suwabe, Tasuku Yoshie, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Katsuya Ebe, Toshio Fujita, Koichi Fuse, Kenzo Kaneko, Kyuzi Kamoi
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) results from a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. It is treated by replacement therapy with the synthetic AVP analogue desmopressin. To prevent heart failure in patients with CDI accompanied by cardiac dysfunction, controlling sodium and water intake is essential, using the minimum effective dose of desmopressin.
December 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935121/urea-is-successful-in-treating-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-an-infant
#20
Stephanie Dufek, Christine Booth, Adrian Carroll, William Van't Hoff, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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