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Water vasopressin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#1
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892464/wnt5a-induces-renal-aqp2-expression-by-activating-calcineurin-signalling-pathway
#2
Fumiaki Ando, Eisei Sohara, Tetsuji Morimoto, Naofumi Yui, Naohiro Nomura, Eriko Kikuchi, Daiei Takahashi, Takayasu Mori, Alain Vandewalle, Tatemitsu Rai, Sei Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kondo, Shinichi Uchida
Heritable nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by defective urine concentration mechanisms in the kidney, which are mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor. For the treatment of heritable NDI, novel strategies that bypass the defective vasopressin type 2 receptor are required to activate the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel. Here we show that Wnt5a regulates AQP2 protein expression, phosphorylation and trafficking, suggesting that Wnt5a is an endogenous ligand that can regulate AQP2 without the activation of the classic vasopressin/cAMP signalling pathway...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889609/aquaporin-2-ser-261-phosphorylation-is-regulated-in-combination-with-ser-256-and-ser-269-phosphorylation
#3
Naofumi Yui, Sei Sasaki, Shinichi Uchida
Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a water channel in collecting duct principal cells in the kidney. Vasopressin catalyzes AQP2 phosphorylation at several serine sites in its C-terminus: Ser-256, Ser-261, and Ser-269. Upon stimulation by vasopressin, Ser-269 phosphorylation increases and Ser-261 phosphorylation decreases. Ser-256 phosphorylation is relatively constant. However, whether these types of phospho-regulation occur independently in distinct AQP2 populations or sequentially in the same AQP2 population is unclear...
November 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884088/physiopathology-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#4
Fabrice Gankam Kengne
Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. It develops when the mechanisms regulating water and electrolyte handling are impaired, which in many instances occur in the setting of concurrent diseases such as heart failure, liver failure, renal failure etc… Hyponatremia as an electrolyte disorder has several specificities: when profound it can be quickly fatal and when moderate it carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity, but at the same time incorrect treatment of profound hyponatremia can lead to debilitating neurological disease and it remains unclear if treatment of moderate hyponatremia is associated with a decrease in mortality and morbidity...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852737/role-of-fructose-and-fructokinase-in-acute-dehydration-induced-vasopressin-gene-expression-and-secretion-in-mice
#5
Zhilin Song, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Miguel A Lanaspa-Garcia, Sarah A Oppelt, Masanari Kuwabara, Thomas Jensen, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Takuji Ishimoto, Gabriela E Garcia, Ginger C Johnson, Paul S MacLean, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Dean R Tolan, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. METHODS: Wildtype and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 hours. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818782/randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-tolvaptan-with-furosemide-on-renal-and-neurohumoral-effects-in-acute-heart-failure
#6
Kentaro Jujo, Katsumi Saito, Issei Ishida, Yuho Furuki, Ahsung Kim, Yuki Suzuki, Haruki Sekiguchi, Junichi Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Ogawa, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
AIMS: Loop diuretics are first-line medications for congestive heart failure (CHF); however, they are associated with serious adverse effects, including decreased renal function, and sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin system activation. We tested whether tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, could reduce unfavourable furosemide-induced effects during CHF treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty patients emergently hospitalized owing to CHF-induced dyspnea were randomly assigned to receive either 40 mg intravenous furosemide daily or 7...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815337/development-of-original-metabolically-stable-apelin-17-analogs-with-diuretic-and-cardiovascular-effects
#7
Romain Gerbier, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Jean-Francois Margathe, Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Ji Gao, Nadia De Mota, Hubert Dabire, Bo Li, Emilie Ceraudo, Annette Hus-Citharel, Lucie Esteoulle, Cynthia Bisoo, Marcel Hibert, Alain Berdeaux, Xavier Iturrioz, Dominique Bonnet, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling cardiovascular functions and water balance. Because the in vivo apelin half-life is in the minute range, we aimed to identify metabolically stable apelin-17 (K17F) analogs. We generated P92 by classic chemical substitutions and LIT01-196 by original addition of a fluorocarbon chain to the N terminus of K17F. Both analogs were much more stable in plasma (half-life >24 h for LIT01-196) than K17F (4.6 min). Analogs displayed a subnanomolar affinity for the apelin receptor and behaved as full agonists with regard to cAMP production, ERK phosphorylation, and apelin receptor internalization...
November 4, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807172/nitric-oxide-modulates-hcn-channels-in-magnocellular-neurons-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus-of-rats-by-an-s-nitrosylation-dependent-mechanism
#8
Melina Pires da Silva, Davi José de Almeida Moraes, André de Souza Mecawi, José Antunes Rodrigues, Wamberto Antonio Varanda
: The control of the excitability in magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus has been attributed mainly to synaptic inputs from circunventricular organs. However, nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous messenger produced in this nucleus during isotonic and short-term hypertonic conditions, is an example of a modulator that can act directly on MNCs to modulate their firing rate. NO inhibits the electrical excitability of MNCs, leading to a decrease in the release of vasopressin and oxytocin...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801846/aqp2-plasma-membrane-diffusion-is-altered-by-the-degree-of-aqp2-s256-phosphorylation
#9
Eva C Arnspang, Frédéric H Login, Jennifer S Koffman, Prabuddha Sengupta, Lene N Nejsum
Fine tuning of urine concentration occurs in the renal collecting duct in response to circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP stimulates intracellular cAMP production, which mediates exocytosis of sub-apical vesicles containing the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2). Protein Kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates AQP2 on serine-256 (S256), which triggers plasma membrane accumulation of AQP2. This mediates insertion of AQP2 into the apical plasma membrane, increasing water permeability of the collecting duct...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789808/elevation-of-arginine-vasopressin-levels-following-loop-diuretic-therapy-as-a-prognostic-indicator-in-heart-failure
#10
Shuichi Kitada, Shohei Kikuchi, Hiroo Sonoda, Atsuhiro Yoshida, Nobuyuki Ohte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels and loop diuretic (LD) therapy in patients with heart failure and to determine if AVP levels are a prognostic indicator of treatment failure. METHODS: Patients with stable heart failure and reduced (< 40%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were divided into those treated with (LD) or without LD (NLD). The LD group was separated into subgroups of high (> 6.5 pg/dl) and low (≤ 6...
October 26, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784697/outside-the-mainstream-novel-collecting-duct-proteins-regulating-water-balance
#11
Shamma S Rahman, Erika I Boesen
Body water balance is critical to survival and therefore very tightly regulated by the hypothalamus and kidney. A key mechanism involved in this process, the arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated phosphorylation and apical membrane insertion of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the collecting duct, has been extensively studied; however, with the increased availability of conditional knockout animals, several novel collecting duct proteins have recently been implicated in water homeostasis. In this Mini-Review, we briefly discuss these novel proteins and their roles in the regulation of water homeostasis...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783857/magnocellular-neurons-and-posterior-pituitary-function
#12
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783283/electron-microscopic-study-of-the-inner-medulla-in-rat-kidneys-under-conditions-of-vasopressin-treatment-combined-with-prostaglandin-synthesis-blockade
#13
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko
Ultrastructural changes in cells of the renal inner medulla involved in the realization of the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin under conditions of prostaglandin synthesis blockade were studied in the kidneys of Wistar rats and endogenous vasopressin-deficient homozygous Brattleboro rats. The results indicated uniform trend to an increase in the number of clathrincoated vesicles under conditions of hormone treatment combined with prostaglandin synthesis blockade in animals with different neurohypophyseal status...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773680/vasopressin-v1a-receptor-mediates-cell-proliferation-through-grk2-egfr-erk1-2-pathway-in-a7r5-cells
#14
Lingling Zhang, Xiaojun Wang, Hong Cao, Yunxuan Chen, Xianfan Chen, Xi Zhao, Feifei Xu, Yifan Wang, Anthony Yiu-Ho Woo, Weizhong Zhu
Abnormal proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC), as the main structural component of the vasculature, is an important pathological mechanism of hypertension. Recently, increased levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of provasopressin, have been shown to correlate with the development of preeclampsia. AVP targets on the Gq-coupled vasopressin V1A receptor and the Gs-coupled V2 receptor in VSMC and the kidneys to regulate vascular tone and water homeostasis...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764121/urinary-analysis-of-fluid-retention-in-the-general-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762660/time-dependent-effects-of-arginine-vasopressin-v1-receptor-inhibition-on-secondary-brain-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Sandro M Krieg, Raimund Trabold, Nikolaus Plesnila
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptors are known to mediate brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). So far, however, AVP V1 receptors were only inhibited by genetic deletion or prior to trauma. Therefore the current study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of AVP V1 receptors anatomization after TBI. Male C57BL/6 mice (n=7 per group) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) and 500 ng of a selective peptide V1 receptor antagonist (V1880) were applied by intracerebroventricular injection 5 min, 1, 3, and 6 hours thereafter...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760771/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-aquaporin-2-in-kidney-collecting-duct
#17
Hyun Jun Jung, Tae-Hwan Kwon
Kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for regulation of body water homeostasis and urine concentration. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct principal cells is controlled by vasopressin, a peptide hormone which induces the osmotic water transport across the collecting duct epithelia through regulation of water channel proteins aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). In particular, vasopressin induces both intracellular translocation of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical plasma membrane and transcription of Aqp2 gene to increase AQP2 protein abundance...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760768/ilk-and-cytoskeletal-architecture-an-important-determinant-of-aqp2-recycling-and-subsequent-entry-into-the-exocytotic-pathway
#18
Fahmy A Mamuya, Jose Luis Cano-Peñalver, Wei U Li, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Dennis Brown, Sergio de Frutos, Hua Jenny Lu
Within the past decade tremendous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism behind aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel trafficking and recycling, in order to open a path towards effective diabetes insipidus therapeutics. A recent study has shown that Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) conditional-knockdown mice developed polyuria along with decreased expression of AQP2. To understand whether ILK also regulates AQP2 trafficking in kidney tubular cells, we performed in vitro analysis using LLCPK1 cells stably expressing rat AQP2 (LLC-AQP2 cells)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744052/dissociation-of-adrenocorticotropin-and-corticosterone-as-well-as-aldosterone-secretion-during-stress-of-hypoglycemia-in-vasopressin-deficient-rats
#19
János Varga, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, Ágnes Csáno, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova, Dóra Zelena
AIMS: In vasopressin-deficient rat pups stressor-induced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone elevations markedly dissociate. We have shown recently that during the postnatal period mineralocorticoid secretion is more sensitive to stressor exposure than that of glucocorticoids. We have therefore hypothesized that in vasopressin-deficient pups during hypoglycemia, a stressor triggering aldosterone release mainly via ACTH, aldosterone release will change in parallel with ACTH. An additional aim was to reveal at which stage of the development occurs the shift from aldosterone to corticosterone as primarily stressor-induced adrenocortical hormone...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725713/systems-level-analysis-reveals-selective-regulation-of-aqp2-gene-expression-by-vasopressin
#20
Pablo C Sandoval, J'Neka S Claxton, Jae Wook Lee, Fahad Saeed, Jason D Hoffert, Mark A Knepper
Vasopressin-mediated regulation of renal water excretion is defective in a variety of water balance disorders in humans. It occurs in part through long-term mechanisms that regulate the abundance of the aquaporin-2 water channel in renal collecting duct cells. Here, we use deep DNA sequencing in mouse collecting duct cells to ask whether vasopressin signaling selectively increases Aqp2 gene transcription or whether it triggers a broadly targeted transcriptional network. ChIP-Seq quantification of binding sites for RNA polymerase II was combined with RNA-Seq quantification of transcript abundances to identify genes whose transcription is regulated by vasopressin...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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