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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905441/the-vasopressin-system-new-insights-for-patients-with-kidney-diseases-epidemiological-evidence-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#2
W F Clark, O Devuyst, R Roussel
People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of severe outcomes, such as end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular disease, and CKD is a globally increasing health burden with a high personal and economic cost. Despite major progresses in prevention and therapeutics in last decades, research is still needed to reverse this epidemic trend. The regulation of water balance and the state of activation of the vasopressin system have emerged as factors tightly associated with kidney health, in the general population but also in specific conditions; among them, various stages of CKD, diabetes and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889231/favorable-effects-of-early-tolvaptan-administration-in-very-elderly-patients-after-repeat-hospitalizations-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#3
Masaki Kinoshita, Hideki Okayama, Tetsuya Kosaki, Saki Hosokawa, Go Kawamura, Tatsuya Shigematsu, Tatsunori Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kawada, Go Hiasa, Tadakatsu Yamada, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yukio Kazatani
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin 2 receptor antagonist that acts on the distal nephrons, causing a loss of electrolyte-free water. To date, its early administration in very elderly patients after repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) despite receiving optimal medical therapy has not been evaluated. Fifty-six ADHF patients who were >80 years old and had been repeatedly hospitalized were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients (14 men; mean age 86...
September 9, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852457/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-associated-with-rectal-small-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-case-report
#4
Jeffrey D Howard, Peter G Deveaux
Neuroendocrine tumors can arise from any portion of the gastrointestinal tract including the colon and rectum. In the scope of all colon and rectal malignancies, they are a rare cause of colorectal carcinoma. Relating to their pluripotent neuroendocrine cellular origins these carcinomas can produce a variety of biologically active peptides with several resultant paraneoplastic syndromes. One of these paraneoplastic syndromes is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In the SIADH, supraphysiologic levels of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, AVP) precipitates exorbitant free water retention and resultant electrolyte abnormalities, most notably hyponatremia...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843412/single-tubule-rna-seq-uncovers-signaling-mechanisms-that-defend-against-hyponatremia-in-siadh
#5
Jae Wook Lee, Mohammad Alsady, Chung-Lin Chou, Theun de Groot, Peter M T Deen, Mark A Knepper, Carolyn M Ecelbarger
In the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hyponatremia is limited by onset of vasopressin-escape caused by loss of the water channel aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct despite high circulating vasopressin. Here, we use the methods of systems biology in a well-established rat model of SIADH to identify signaling pathways activated at the onset of vasopressin-escape. Using single-tubule RNA-Seq, full transcriptomes were determined in microdissected cortical collecting ducts of vasopressin-treated rats at 1, 2, and 4 days after initiation of oral water loading in comparison to time-control rats without water loading...
August 23, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833692/central-angiotensin-1-7-increases-osmotic-thirst
#6
Raoni Conceição Dos-Santos, Lívia da Rocha Natalino Monteiro, Bruno Paes-Leme, Danilo Lustrino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, André Souza Mecawi, Luís Carlos Reis
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7) is generated by type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2) and binds to MAS receptor. Although it is well known that angiotensin 1-7 functionally antagonizes the effects of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in several situations, the role of ANG 1-7 in hydromineral homeostasis is not clear. This study aimed to assess the role of ANG 1-7 on neuroendocrine responses to hyperosmolality in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: control, 24 hours of water deprivation (WD) and 24 hours of salt loading (SL, 1...
August 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810844/effect-of-tolvaptan-on-renal-handling-of-water-and-sodium-gfr-and-central-hemodynamics-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-during-inhibition-of-the-nitric-oxide-system-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#7
Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown during tolvaptan treatment in ADPKD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with ADPKD received tolvaptan 60 mg or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study. L-NMMA (L-NG-monomethyl-arginine) was given as a bolus followed by continuous infusion during 60 min...
August 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806046/electrolytes-sodium-disorders
#8
Michael M Braun, Megan Mahowald
Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone)...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790225/diagnostic-performance-of-afternoon-urine-osmolality-to-assess-optimal-hydration-status-in-an-adult-healthy-population
#9
Ni Made Hustrini, Parlindungan Siregar, Ginova Nainggolan, Kuntjoro Harimurti
BACKGROUND: optimal hydration represents adequate total daily fluid intake to compensate for daily water losses, ensure adequate urine output to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and also avoid the production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Twenty-four-hour urine osmolality has been used to assess hydration status, but it is challenging because of the possibility of spilling urine and limitation of daily activities. This study is aimed to determine the performance of the afternoon urine osmolality to assess the optimal hydration status compared with 24-hour urine osmolality...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777197/elabela-improves-cardio-renal-outcome-in-fatal-experimental-septic-shock
#10
David Coquerel, Frédéric Chagnon, Xavier Sainsily, Lauralyne Dumont, Alexandre Murza, Jérôme Côté, Robert Dumaine, Philippe Sarret, Éric Marsault, Dany Salvail, Mannix Auger-Messier, Olivier Lesur
OBJECTIVES: Apelin-13 was recently proposed as an alternative to the recommended β-adrenergic drugs for supporting endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Since Apelin-13 signals through its receptor (Apelin peptide jejunum) to exert singular inotropic/vasotropic actions and to optimize body fluid balance, this candidate pathway might benefit septic shock management. Whether the newly discovered ELABELA (ELA), a second endogenous ligand of the Apelin peptide jejunum receptor highly expressed in the kidney, further improves cardio-renal impairment remains unknown...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754689/direct-interaction-of-ezrin-and-aqp2-and-its-role-in-aqp2-trafficking
#11
Wei Li, William W Jin, Kenji Tsuji, Ying Chen, Naohiro Nomura, Limin Su, Naofumi Yui, Julian Arthur, Susanna Cotecchia, Teodor G Păunescu, Dennis Brown, Hua A J Lu
The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a major regulator of water homeostasis in response to vasopressin (VP). Dynamic trafficking of AQP2 relies on its close interaction with trafficking machinery proteins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report the identification of ezrin, an actin binding protein from the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family as an AQP2 interacting protein. Ezrin was first detected in a co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) complex using an anti-AQP2 antibody by proteomic analysis. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the co-expression of ezrin and AQP2 in collecting duct principal cells, and VP treatment caused redistribution of both proteins to the apical membrane...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730833/short-term-administration-of-melatonin-or-ghrelin-on-diabetic-rats-effects-on-angiotensin-ii-and-vasopressin-induced-uterine-contractility
#12
D Sugár, R Agócs, E Tatár, G Tóth, P Horváth, E Sulyok, A J Szabó
The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) molecules are a group of high molecular weight, negatively charged polysaccharides present abundantly in the mammalian organism. By their virtue of ion and water binding capacity, they may affect the redistribution of body fluids and ultimately the blood pressure. Data from the literature suggests that the mitogens Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C are able to regulate the amount and charge density of GAGs and their detachment from the cell surface. Based on these findings we investigated the relationship between the level of dietary sodium intake, the expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C, and the amount of the skin GAGs hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate in an in vivo rat model...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#13
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#14
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710278/phosphorylation-of-human-aquaporin-2-aqp2-allosterically-controls-its-interaction-with-the-lysosomal-trafficking-protein-lip5
#15
Jennifer Virginia Roche, Sabeen Survery, Stefan Kreida, Veronika Nesverova, Henry Ampah-Korsah, Maria Gourdon, Peter M T Deen, Susanna Törnroth-Horsefield
The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser(256), Ser(261), Ser(264), and Thr(269)), of which Ser(256) is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701677/mechanisms-of-diuresis-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-by-tolvaptan
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hidetsugu Nomoto, Yasuhiro Satoh, Mayu Kamiyama, Kento Yabe, Mayumi Masumura, Atsushi Sakakibara, Shu Yamashita, Masahito Suzuki, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Tetsuo Oumi, Masakazu Ohno, Yoshihide Takahashi, Mitsuaki Isobe
Tolvaptan, a vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist, does not affect kidney circulation or cause worsening of renal function (WRF) in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) can be used to evaluate intravascular volume by calculating the ratio of extracellular water (ECW) to intracellular water (ICW). There have been no reports examining the mechanisms of tolvaptan-induced diuresis using BIA. We investigated whether tolvaptan decreases excess volume while maintaining intravascular volume in ADHF patients...
August 3, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691402/osmolality-and-blood-pressure-stability-during-hemodialysis
#17
Anika T Singh, Finnian R Mc Causland
Homeostatic regulation of plasma osmolality (POsm) is critical for normal cellular function in humans. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the major hormone responsible for the maintenance of POsm and acts to promote renal water retention in conditions of increased POsm. However, AVP also exerts pressor effects, and its release can be stimulated by the development of effective arterial blood volume depletion. Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, particularly those with minimal or no residual renal function, have impaired ability to regulate water retention in response to AVP...
July 9, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678861/ecstasy-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-kidney-water-absorption-and-rhabdomyolysis-in-normal-rats-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-allopurinol-in-oxidative-stress-and-muscle-fiber-damage
#18
Ana C de Bragança, Regina L M Moreau, Thales de Brito, Maria H M Shimizu, Daniele Canale, Denise A de Jesus, Ana M G Silva, Pedro H Gois, Antonio C Seguro, Antonio J Magaldi
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy (Ec) use produces hyperthermia, excessive sweating, intense thirst, an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a multisystemic toxicity due to oxidative stress (OS). Intense thirst induces high intake of pure water, which associated with SIADH, usually develops into acute hyponatremia (Hn). As Hn is induced rapidly, experiments to check if Ec acted directly on the Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts (IMCD) of rats were conducted. Rhabdomyolysis and OS were also studied because Ec is known to induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and tissue damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656120/the-circadian-rhythm-of-copeptin-the-c-terminal-portion-of-arginine-vasopressin
#19
Svetlana Beglinger, Jürgen Drewe, Mirjam Christ-Crain
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated copeptin as a prognostic marker of different acute diseases and as a diagnostic marker in disorders of water and salt homeostasis. However, no data of the normal circadian rhythm of copeptin in healthy subjects are available. AIM: To investigate the circadian rhythm of copeptin in healthy subjects under standardized conditions. METHODS: 19 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 53 years, male and female, were studied in a prospective observational study...
2017: Journal of Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649750/vasopressin-physiology-assessment-and-osmosensation
#20
L Bankir, D G Bichet, N G Morgenthaler
Vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the regulation of water and sodium homeostasis by its antidiuretic action on the kidney, mediated by V2 receptors. AVP secretion is stimulated by a rise in plasma osmolality, a decline in blood volume or stress. V1a receptors are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, but the role of vasopressin in blood pressure regulation is still a matter of debate. AVP may also play a role in some metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, through its action on V1a receptors expressed in the liver...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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