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Beige adipose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700271/lsd1-a-metabolic-sensor-of-environment-requirements-that-prevents-adipose-tissue-from-aging
#1
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Roland Schüle
Understanding development and maintenance of beige adipocytes provide exciting insights in establishing novel therapies against obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser required for differentiation and function of adipocytes. Lsd1 is involved in early commitment of preadipocytes, but dispensable for terminal differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT). In mature adipocytes, Lsd1 responds to different environmental stimuli to alter metabolic function and enable proper thermogenic and oxidative response...
June 26, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698600/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-brown-and-beige-adipose-cell-fate-and-function
#2
Takeshi Inagaki, Juro Sakai, Shingo Kajimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694301/helminth-antigens-counteract-a-rapid-high-fat-diet-induced-decrease-in-adipose-tissue-eosinophils
#3
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, Menno P de Winther
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4 induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691397/cyanidin-3-glucoside-increases-whole-body-energy-metabolism-by-upregulating-brown-adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-function
#4
Yilin You, Xiaoxue Yuan, Xiaomeng Liu, Chen Liang, Minghui Meng, Yuanyuan Huang, Xue Han, Jielong Guo, Yu Guo, Chenglong Ren, Qianwen Zhang, Xiangyu Sun, Tingting Ma, Guojie Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Weidong Huang, Jicheng Zhan
SCOPE: Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function increases energy expenditure and may protect against obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin compound which occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of C3G on the prevention of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Db/db mice received C3G dissolved in drinking water for 16 weeks; Drinking water served as the vehicle treatment...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686851/characterization-of-brown-adipose-like-tissue-in%C3%A2-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification-in%C3%A2-humans
#5
Elizabeth A Salisbury, Austin R Dickerson, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg, Alan R Davis, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis
Heterotopic ossification (HO), the abnormal formation of bone within soft tissues, is a major complication after severe trauma or amputation. Transient brown adipocytes have been shown to be a critical regulator of this process in a mouse model of HO. In this study, we evaluated the presence of brown fat within human HO lesions. Most of the excised tissue samples displayed histological characteristics of bone, fibroproliferative cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed extensive expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a definitive marker of brown adipocytes, within HO-containing tissues but not normal tissues...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684864/induction-of-thermogenic-adipocytes-molecular-targets-and-thermogenic-small-molecules
#6
REVIEW
No-Joon Song, Seo-Hyuk Chang, Dean Y Li, Claudio J Villanueva, Kye Won Park
Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ that controls energy homeostasis of the whole body. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy in the form of heat through mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). A newly identified adipose tissue called 'beige fat' (BAT-like) is produced through a process called WAT browning. This tissue mainly resides in WAT depots and displays intermediate characteristics of both WAT and BAT...
July 7, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683320/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#7
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683281/how-does-fat-transition-from-white-to-beige
#8
Marc L Reitman
Fischer et al. (2017) recently reported that interleukin-4 (IL-4) does not increase adipose thermogenesis and that activated macrophages do not synthesize catecholamines. These findings are unexpected because IL-4 activation of macrophages has been proposed to have a pivotal role in cold-induced thermogenesis by stimulating macrophage catecholamine production to recruit thermogenic beige or brite fat.
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679625/adaptive-facultative-diet-induced-thermogenesis-in-wild-type-but-not-in-ucp1-ablated-mice
#9
Gabriella von Essen, Erik Lindsund, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The significance of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for metabolic control is still debated. Although obesogenic diets recruit UCP1 and adrenergically inducible thermogenesis, and although the absence of UCP1 may promote the development of obesity, no actual UCP1-related thermogenesis identifiable as diet-induced thermogenesis has to date been unambiguously demonstrated. Examining mice living at thermoneutrality, we have identified a process of facultative (directly elicited by acute eating), adaptive (magnitude develops over weeks on an obesogenic diet) and fully UCP1-dependent thermogenesis...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679528/moderate-alcohol-intake-induces-thermogenic-brown-beige-adipocyte-formation-via-elevating-retinoic-acid-signaling
#10
Bo Wang, Zhixiu Wang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Faya Zhang, Noe Alberto Gomez, Liang Zhao, Qiyu Tian, Junxing Zhao, Joseph Maricelli, Hui Zhang, Buel D Rodgers, Min Du
Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo...
July 5, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672737/beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-weight-loss-in-humans
#11
REVIEW
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Michelle T Foster
An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Adiposity associated with obesity progressively causes inflammation, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Excessive dietary intake of fat results in its accumulation and storage in the white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas energy expenditure by fat utilization and oxidation predominately occurs in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recently, the presence of a third type of fat, referred to as beige or brite (brown in white), has been recognized in certain kinds of WAT depots...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672736/innate-immunity-orchestrates-adipose-tissue-homeostasis
#12
Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei
Obesity is strongly associated with multiple diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers, etc. Adipose tissue (AT), mainly brown AT (BAT) and white AT (WAT), is an important metabolic and endocrine organ that maintains whole-body homeostasis. BAT contributes to non-shivering thermogenesis in a cold environment; WAT stores energy and produces adipokines that fine-tune metabolic and inflammatory responses. Obesity is often characterized by over-expansion and inflammation of WAT where inflammatory cells/mediators are abundant, especially pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation and leading to insulin resistance and metabolic complications...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642596/sgbs-cells-as-a-model-of-human-adipocyte-browning-a-comprehensive-comparative-study-with-primary-human-white-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#13
Chia Rou Yeo, Madhur Agrawal, Shawn Hoon, Asim Shabbir, Manu Kunaal Shrivastava, Shiqi Huang, Chin Meng Khoo, Vanna Chhay, M Shabeer Yassin, E Shyong Tai, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Sue-Anne Toh
The Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocyte cell strain is widely considered to be a representative in vitro model of human white pre-adipocytes. A recent study suggested that SGBS adipocytes exhibit an unexpected transient brown phenotype. Here, we comprehensively examined key differences between SGBS adipocytes and primary human white subcutaneous (PHWSC) adipocytes. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and metabolic pathways were the top two KEGG pathways significantly enriched in SGBS adipocytes, which included positively enriched mitochondrial respiration and oxidation pathways...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#14
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640444/impact-of-growth-hormone-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#15
Katie M Troike, Brooke E Henry, Elizabeth A Jensen, Jonathan A Young, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636934/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#16
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626215/genetic-variation-in-the-obesity-gene-fto-is-not-associated-with-decreased-fat-oxidation-the-neo-study
#17
L L Blauw, R Noordam, S Trompet, J F P Berbée, F R Rosendaal, D van Heemst, K W van Dijk, D O Mook-Kanamori, R de Mutsert, P C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbours the strongest common genetic variant associated with obesity. Recently, rs1421085-T to -C substitution mapped in FTO was shown to induce a developmental shift of human adipocytes from an energy-combusting beige to an energy-storing white phenotype in vitro. As browning of adipocytes selectively enhances fat oxidation (FatOx), we hypothesized that rs1421085-C in FTO is associated with deceased FatOx compared with carbohydrate oxidation (CarbOx) and an increased respiratory quotient (RQ)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624262/dibenzazepine-loaded-nanoparticles-induce-local-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-to-counteract-obesity
#18
Chunhui Jiang, Mario Alberto Cano-Vega, Feng Yue, Liangju Kuang, Naagarajan Narayanan, Gozde Uzunalli, Madeline P Merkel, Shihuan Kuang, Meng Deng
Inhibition of Notch signaling via systemic drug administration triggers conversion of white adipocytes into beige adipocytes (browning) and reduces adiposity. However, translation of this discovery into clinical practice is challenged by potential off-target side effects and lack of control over the location and temporal extent of beige adipocyte biogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach to stimulate browning using nanoparticles (NPs) composed of FDA-approved poly(lactide-co-glycolide) that enable sustained local release of a Notch inhibitor (dibenzazepine, DBZ)...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#19
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
July 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593918/beyond-obesity-thermogenic-adipocytes-and-cardiometabolic-health
#20
Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, Harold Sacks, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds
The global prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic disease continues to increase through the 21st century. Whilst multi-factorial, obesity is ultimately caused by chronic caloric excess. However, despite numerous interventions focussing on reducing caloric intake these either fail or only elicit short-term changes in body mass. There is now a focus on increasing energy expenditure instead which has stemmed from the recent 're-discovery' of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and inducible 'beige' adipocytes...
May 26, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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