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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212671/an-adaptive-variant-of-trib2-rs1057001-is-associated-with-higher-expression-levels-of-thermogenic-genes-in-human-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#1
Kazuhiro Nakayama, Sadahiko Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: An obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Tribbles pseudokinase 2 gene (TRIB2) was shown to have underwent adaptive evolution in the last glacial period, suggesting a selective advantage of this SNP in human populations in cold environments. In order to verify this hypothesis, the effect of the TRIB2 SNP on the expression of genes involved in adaptive thermogenesis was tested using messenger RNAs prepared from adipose tissues of Japanese adults. METHODS: Complementary DNA was prepared from subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) obtained from 48 Japanese adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186086/hoxc10-suppresses-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues
#2
Yvonne Ng, Shi-Xiong Tan, Sook Yoong Chia, Hwee Yim Angeline Tan, Sin Yee Gun, Lei Sun, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes...
February 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140654/genome-wide-methylation-analysis-identifies-novel-cpg-loci-for-perimembranous-ventricular-septal-defects-in-human
#3
Kim Pj Wijnands, Jun Chen, Liming Liang, Michael Mpj Verbiest, Xihong Lin, Willem A Helbing, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Peter J van der Spek, André G Uitterlinden, Régine Pm Steegers-Theunissen
AIM: Congenital heart diseases are the most common birth defects worldwide and leading cause of infant mortality. The perimembranous ventricular septal defect is most prevalent. Epigenetics may provide an underlying mechanism of the gene-environment interactions involved. MATERIALS & METHODS: We examined epigenome-wide DNA methylation using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 84 case children and 196 control children. RESULTS: We identified differential methylation of a CpG locus (cg17001566) within the PRDM16 gene after Bonferroni correction (p = 9...
January 31, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127622/differential-methylation-of-genes-in-individuals-exposed-to-maternal-diabetes-in-utero
#4
Peng Chen, Paolo Piaggi, Michael Traurig, Clifton Bogardus, William C Knowler, Leslie J Baier, Robert L Hanson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals exposed to maternal diabetes in utero are more likely to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. This may be partially attributable to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We performed an epigenome-wide association study to examine whether differential DNA methylation, a major source of epigenetic regulation, can be observed in offspring of mothers with type 2 diabetes during the pregnancy (OMD) compared with offspring of mothers with no diabetes during the pregnancy (OMND)...
January 26, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117277/loss-of-myod-promotes-fate-transdifferentiation-of-myoblasts-into-brown-adipocytes
#5
Chao Wang, Weiyi Liu, Yaohui Nie, Mulan Qaher, Hannah Elizabeth Horton, Feng Yue, Atsushi Asakura, Shihuan Kuang
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a promising agent to ameliorate obesity and other metabolic disorders. However, the abundance of BAT decreases with age and BAT paucity is a common feature of obese subjects. As brown adipocytes and myoblasts share a common Myf5 lineage origin, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the fate choices of brown adipocytes versus myoblasts may lead to novel approaches to expand BAT mass. Here we identify MyoD as a key negative regulator of brown adipocyte development...
January 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#6
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058730/multilocus-analysis-reveals-three-candidate-genes-for-chinese-migraine-susceptibility
#7
Xing-Kai An, Jie Fang, Zhen-Zhen Yu, Qing Lin, Cong-Xia Lu, Hong-Li Qu, Qi-Lin Ma
Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Caucasian populations have identified 12 loci that are significantly associated with migraine. More evidence suggests that serotonin receptors are also involved in migraine pathophysiology. In the present study, a case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 581 migraine cases and 533 ethnically matched controls among a Chinese population. Eighteen polymorphisms from serotonin receptors and GWASs were selected, and genotyping was performed using a Sequenom MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry iPLEX platform...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046166/expression-of-uncoupling-protein-1-in-bovine-muscle-cells
#8
M A Abd Eldaim, O Hashimoto, H Ohtsuki, T Yamada, M Murakami, K Onda, R Sato, Y Kanamori, Y Qiao, S Tomonaga, T Matsui, M Funaba
Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is predominantly expressed in brown/beige adipocytes in mammals. Although myogenic cells have been suggested to commit to a brown adipocyte lineage through the induction of Prdm16 expression, Prdm16 is also expressed in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined expression of Ucp1 in bovine myogenic cells. Considering that Ucp1 is a principle molecule that induces energy expenditure in brown/beige adipocytes, expression of Ucp1 is not preferable in beef cattle because of potential decrease in energy (fattening) efficiency...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993981/prdm16-is-crucial-for-progression-of-the-multipolar-phase-during-neural-differentiation-of-the-developing-neocortex
#9
Mayuko Inoue, Ryota Iwai, Hidenori Tabata, Daijiro Konno, Mariko Komabayashi-Suzuki, Chisato Watanabe, Hiroko Iwanari, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Takao Hamakubo, Fumio Matsuzaki, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Ken-Ichi Mizutani
The precise control of neuronal migration and morphological changes during differentiation is essential for neocortical development. We hypothesized that the transition of progenitors through progressive stages of differentiation involves dynamic changes in levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), depending on cell requirements. We found that progenitors had higher levels of mtROS, but that these levels were significantly decreased with differentiation. The Prdm16 gene was identified as a candidate modulator of mtROS using microarray analysis, and was specifically expressed by progenitors in the ventricular zone...
February 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982067/brown-adipogenic-potential-of-brown-adipocytes-and-peri-renal-adipocytes-from-human-embryo
#10
Nan-Nan Wu, Chuan-Hai Zhang, Hyuek-Jong Lee, Yan Ma, Xin Wang, Xiao-Juan Ma, Wei Ma, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng
Both brown adipocytes (BAC) and beige cells hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Unfortunately, the amount and activity of these cells are limited in adults. Although BAC marker expression has been shown in peri-renal adipose tissues in children and adults, functional assessment is lacking. Furthermore, it is entirely unknown whether adipose progenitors are present in human embryo and able to give rise to BAC in situ during evolution. Therefore, adipose tissues in the interscapular and peri-renal regions were dissected from human embryo and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT) were obtained from an adult...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893424/accumulated-promoter-methylation-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-esophageal-cancer
#11
Xianzhen Peng, Hengchuan Xue, Lingshuang Lü, Peiyi Shi, Jianping Wang, Jianming Wang
We performed a two-stage molecular epidemiological study to explore DNA methylation profiles for potential biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese population. Infinium Methylation 450K BeadChip was used to identify genes with differentially methylated CpG sites. Sixteen candidate genes were validated by sequencing 1160 CpG sites in their promoter regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. When excluding sites with negative changes, 10 genes (BNIP3, BRCA1, CCND1, CDKN2A, HTATIP2, ITGAV, NFKB1, PIK3R1, PRDM16 and PTX3) showed significantly different methylation levels among cancer lesions, remote normal-appearing tissues, and healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873458/resveratrol-enhances-brown-adipocyte-formation-and-function-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#12
Songbo Wang, Xingwei Liang, Qiyuan Yang, Xing Fu, Meijun Zhu, B D Rodgers, Qingyan Jiang, Michael V Dodson, Min Du
SCOPE: Enhancing the formation and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases thermogenesis and hence reduces obesity. Thus, we investigate the effects of resveratrol (Resv) on brown adipocyte formation and function in mouse interscapular BAT (iBAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: CD1 mice and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) isolated from iBAT were treated with Resv. Expression of brown adipogenic and thermogenic markers, and involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 were assessed...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833050/eicosapentaenoic-acid-regulates-brown-adipose-tissue-metabolism-in-high-fat-fed-mice-and-in-clonal-brown-adipocytes
#13
Mandana Pahlavani, Fitia Razafimanjato, Latha Ramalingam, Nishan S Kalupahana, Hanna Moussa, Shane Scoggin, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure through its specialized thermogenic function. Therefore, BAT activation may help prevent and/or treat obesity. Interestingly, subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) also has the ability to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes and may potentially contribute to increased thermogenesis. We have previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces high-fat (HF)-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Whether BAT mediates some of these beneficial effects of EPA has not been determined...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824141/nesfatin-1-promotes-brown-adipocyte-phenotype
#14
Yuexin Wang, Ziru Li, Xinyu Zhang, Xinxin Xiang, Yin Li, Michael W Mulholland, Weizhen Zhang
Nesfatin-1, an 82 amino acid gastric peptide, is involved in regulation of food uptake and in multiple metabolic activities. Whether nesfatin-1 modulates the differentiation and lipid metabolism of brown adipocytes remains unknown. In the present study, we found that nesfatin-1 mRNA and protein were detectable in isolated brown adipocytes and gradually decreased during differentiation (95% CI 0.6057 to 1.034, p = 0.0001). The decrease in nesfatin-1 was associated with a significant reduction in p-S6. Exposure to nesfatin-1 promoted differentiation of brown adipocytes as revealed by a significant increase in UCP1 mRNA (p = 0...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802075/kinase-inactive-tyrosine-kinase-tyk2-supports-differentiation-of-brown-fat-cells
#15
Vidisha Raje, Marta Derecka, Marc Cantwell, Jeremy Meier, Karol Szczepanek, Jennifer D Sisler, Birgit Strobl, Ana Gamero, Thurl E Harris, Andrew C Larner
It has been known for decades that brown adipose tissue plays a central role in maintaining body temperature in hibernating animals, and human infants. Recently it has become evident that there are also depots of brown fat in adult humans, and the mass of brown fat is inversely correlated with body weight. There are a variety of transcription factors implicated in the differentiation of classical Myf5+ brown preadipocytes, one of the most important of which is PRDM16. We have recently identified that in addition to PRDM16, the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 and the STAT3 transcription factor are required for the differentiation of Myf5 positive brown preadipocytes both in cell culture and in mice...
November 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758866/mitochondrial-activity-in-human-white-adipocytes-is-regulated-by-the-ubiquitin-carrier-protein-9-microrna-30a-axis
#16
Eun Hee Koh, Yong Chen, David A Bader, Mark P Hamilton, Bin He, Brian York, Shingo Kajimura, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
The acquisition of beige adipocyte features by white fat cells corresponds to protection against obesity-induced metabolic diseases in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, expression of the E2 small ubiquitin-like modifier ligase ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) is positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and corresponds with impaired browning of human white adipocytes. However, the molecular regulation of Ubc9 expression in adipocytes and other cells remains unclear...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693382/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-myokines-expression-and-brown-adipose-like-phenotype-modulation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#17
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642787/ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-reveal-abnormal-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-in-left-ventricular-non-compaction-cardiomyopathy
#18
Kazuki Kodo, Sang-Ging Ong, Fereshteh Jahanbani, Vittavat Termglinchan, Keiichi Hirono, Kolsoum InanlooRahatloo, Antje D Ebert, Praveen Shukla, Oscar J Abilez, Jared M Churko, Ioannis Karakikes, Gwanghyun Jung, Fukiko Ichida, Sean M Wu, Michael P Snyder, Daniel Bernstein, Joseph C Wu
Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is the third most prevalent cardiomyopathy in children and its pathogenesis has been associated with the developmental defect of the embryonic myocardium. We show that patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) generated from LVNC patients carrying a mutation in the cardiac transcription factor TBX20 recapitulate a key aspect of the pathological phenotype at the single-cell level and this was associated with perturbed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling...
October 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641099/ampk-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-axis-dynamically-mediates-dna-demethylation-in-the-prdm16-promoter-and-brown-adipogenesis
#19
Qiyuan Yang, Xingwei Liang, Xiaofei Sun, Lupei Zhang, Xing Fu, Carl J Rogers, Anna Berim, Shuming Zhang, Songbo Wang, Bo Wang, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, David R Gang, Buel D Rodgers, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is an attractive strategy for the treatment of obesity, as activated BAT dissipates energy through thermogenesis; however, the mechanisms controlling BAT formation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that as a master regulator of energy metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may play a direct role in the process and found that AMPKα1 (PRKAA1) ablation reduced Prdm16 expression and impaired BAT development. During early brown adipogenesis, the cellular levels of α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a key metabolite required for TET-mediated DNA demethylation, were profoundly increased and required for active DNA demethylation of the Prdm16 promoter...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601528/lsd1-a-pivotal-epigenetic-regulator-of-brown-and-beige-fat-differentiation-and-homeostasis
#20
Jean Z Lin, Stephen R Farmer
In this issue of Genes & Development, Zeng and colleagues (pp. 1822-1836) identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) as a pivotal regulator of whole-body energy expenditure by controlling the oxidative and thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). They show that LSD1 interacts with PRDM16 to repress select white adipose tissue (WAT) genes but also represses hydroxysteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) independently of PRDM16 to prevent production of glucocorticoids that impair BAT functions. Their study provides important insight into epigenetic mechanisms regulating the function of BAT...
August 15, 2016: Genes & Development
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