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Vasopressin aldosterone angiotensin

Tengis S Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko
Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with renal and vascular dysfunctions which lead to impaired fluid excretion, increased cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. It is commonly accepted that increased renal sodium handling and plasma volume expansion are necessary factors for the development of salt-induced hypertension. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a trimeric ion channel expressed in the distal nephron which plays a critical role in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in both normal and pathological conditions...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Elio Antonucci, Patrick J Gleeson, Filippo Annoni, Sara Agosta, Sergio Orlando, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Dimitrios Velissaris, Sabino Scolletta
Refractory septic shock is defined as persistently low mean arterial blood pressure despite volume resuscitation and titrated vasopressors/inotropes in patients with a proven or suspected infection and concomitant organ dysfunction. Its management typically requires high doses of catecholamines, which can induce significant adverse effects such as ischemia and arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is a vasopressor agent that could be used in conjunction with other vasopressors to stabilize critically ill patients during refractory septic shock, and reduce catecholamine requirements...
November 21, 2016: Shock
Jacqueline Baras Shreibati, Shubin Sheng, Gregg C Fonarow, Adam D DeVore, Clyde W Yancy, Deepak L Bhatt, Phillip Schulte, Eric D Peterson, Adrian Hernandez, Paul A Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: Real-world use of traditional heart failure (HF) medications for patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is not well known. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational analysis of 1,887 advanced HF patients with and without LVADs from 32 LVAD hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry from January 2009 to March 2015. We examined HF medication prescription at discharge, temporal trends, and predictors of prescription among patients with an in-hospital (n = 258) or prior (n = 171) LVAD implant, and those with advanced HF but no LVAD, as defined by a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25% and in-hospital receipt of intravenous inotropes or vasopressin receptor antagonists (n = 1,458)...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Éric Thervet
The pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndromes (SCR) is becoming better understood. The traditional view was that the left ventricular systolic dysfunction leads to a decrease in renal blood flow. Although this mechanism still makes sense as a contributing factor to SCR, its role as the principal pathophysiological SCR component or even as essential hemodynamic underlying factor has been challenged by recent discoveries. Regarding hemodynamic, the role of increased venous pressure is more and more accepted as demonstrated by the increase in abdominal pressure...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
Amar S More, Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin...
August 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Muneyuki Kadota, Takayuki Ise, Shusuke Yagi, Takashi Iwase, Masashi Akaike, Rie Ueno, Yutaka Kawabata, Tomoya Hara, Kozue Ogasawara, Mika Bando, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Koji Yamaguchi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Masataka Sata
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate body fluids. Although conventional diuretics have been used for treating heart failure, they activate RAAS and exacerbate renal function. Tolvaptan, a newly developed vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist, elicits aquaresis and improves volume overload in heart failure patients, however, the predictors of tolvaptan effectiveness and the influence on the RAAS and renal function according to tolvaptan therapy are not established...
July 27, 2016: International Heart Journal
Jenny J Bai, C D Tan, Billy K C Chow
Water and salt metabolism are tightly regulated processes. Maintaining this milieu intérieur within narrow limits is critical for normal physiological processes to take place. Disturbances to this balance can result in disease and even death. Some of the better characterized regulators of water and salt homeostasis include angiotensin II (ANGII), aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin. Although secretin (SCT) was first described more than hundred years ago, little is known about the role of this classic gastrointestinal hormone in the maintenance of water-salt homeostasis...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Blanca Lizaola, Alan Bonder, Elliot B Tapper, Angela Mendez-Bocanegra, Andres Cardenas
Hyponatremia may occur in patients with cirrhosis and ascites mainly due to water retention and an inability of the kidney to excrete free water. The main reason for this abnormality is related to the fact that these patients have portal hypertension and this leads to systemic vasodilation that in turn activates sodium-retaining and water-retaining systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP increases solute-free water retention by acting on the V2 receptors of the kidney-collecting tubes...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
D Kerbi Boughazi, Y Boucherit Benarab, F Nedjar
OBJECTIFS: Rappeler les mécanismes physiologiques et modes d'actions du système rénine angiotensine. MéTHODES: Le système rénine-angiotensine-aldostérone désigne un système hormonal localisé dans le rein et dont le rôle est de maintenir l'homéostasie hydrosodée. Ce système joue un rôle prépondérant dans la régulation de la pression artérielle. En particulier par l'action de l'angiotensine II RéSULTATS: Contrôle de la sécrétion de rénine : Parceque la rénine est le facteur limitant dans la production d'angiotensine II, le contrôle de la libération de rénine constitue le principal régulateur de tout le système rénine-angiotensine...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Thiago Buno Lima Prando, Lorena Neris Barboza, Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo, Francielly Mourão Gasparotto, Lauro Mera de Souza, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
BACKGROUND: Although Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltr.) Michel are used in Brazilian folk medicine as a diuretic drug, to date, no study has evaluated the mechanisms involved in this activity after prolonged administration in rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the prolonged diuretic activity of ethanol soluble fraction obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus (ES-EG) and to assess its relationship with hypotensive and antihypertensive activity using normotensive rats and those with renovascular hypertension (2K1C)...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ashley L Wagoner, Hossam A Shaltout, John E Fortunato, Debra I Diz
Studies of adults with orthostatic intolerance (OI) have revealed altered neurohumoral responses to orthostasis, which provide mechanistic insights into the dysregulation of blood pressure control. Similar studies in children with OI providing a thorough neurohumoral profile are lacking. The objective of the present study was to determine the cardiovascular and neurohumoral profile in adolescent subjects presenting with OI. Subjects at 10-18 yr of age were prospectively recruited if they exhibited two or more traditional OI symptoms and were referred for head-up tilt (HUT) testing...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lorena Rojas-Vega, Gerardo Gamba
The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Janni M Jensen, Frank H Mose, Anna-Ewa O Kulik, Jesper N Bech, Robert A Fenton, Erling B Pedersen
AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1...
July 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Elsa Solà, Pere Ginès
Kidney dysfunction is a common complication of patients with advanced cirrhosis and is associated with poor prognosis. Patients with advanced cirrhosis show circulatory dysfunction characterized by reduced systemic vascular resistance due to splanchnic arterial vasodilation, which is caused by portal hypertension. The progressive reduction in systemic vascular resistance leads to effective arterial hypovolemia. In order to maintain arterial pressure within normal limits in this setting, there is activation of systemic vasoconstrictor systems, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and, in late stages, nonosmotic hypersecretion of vasopressin...
2015: Digestive Diseases
Julie Richer, Hussein Daoud, Pavel Geier, Olga Jarinova, Nancy Carson, Jana Feberova, Nadya Ben Fadel, Nadya Ben Fadfel, Jennifer Unrau, Eric Bareke, Karine Khatchadourian, Dennis E Bulman, Jacek Majewski, Kym M Boycott, David A Dyment
We present the investigation and management of a premature, hypotensive neonate born after a pregnancy complicated by anhydramnios to highlight the impact of early and informed management for rare kidney disease. Vasopressin was used to successfully treat refractory hypotension and anuria in the neonate born at 27 weeks of gestation. Next generation sequencing of a targeted panel of genes was then performed in the neonate and parents. Subsequently, two compound heterozygous deletions leading to frameshift mutations were identified in the angiotensin 1-converting enzyme gene ACE; exon 5:c...
July 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Thomas E Lohmeier, Boshen Liu, Drew A Hildebrandt, Adam W Cates, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Eric D Irwin
Recent technology for chronic electric activation of the carotid baroreflex and renal nerve ablation provide global and renal-specific suppression of sympathetic activity, respectively, but the conditions for favorable antihypertensive responses in resistant hypertension are unclear. Because inappropriately high plasma levels of aldosterone are prevalent in these patients, we investigated the effects of baroreflex activation and surgical renal denervation in dogs with hypertension induced by chronic infusion of aldosterone (12 μg/kg per day)...
June 2015: Hypertension
Savio John, Paul J Thuluvath
Hyponatremia is frequently seen in patients with ascites secondary to advanced cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The development of ascites in patients with cirrhosis is multi-factorial. Portal hypertension and the associated systemic vasodilation lead to activation of the sodium-retaining neurohumoral mechanisms which include the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The net effect is the avid retention of sodium and water to compensate for the low effective circulatory volume resulting in the development of ascites...
March 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Z-Z Li, H Jiang, D Chen, Q Liu, J Geng, J-Q Guo, R-H Sun, G-Q Zhu, Q-J Shan
Varied causative and risk factors can lead to cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac dysfunction often evolves into heart failure by cardiac remodeling due to autonomic nervous system disturbance and neurohumoral abnormalities, even if the detriment factors are removed. Renal sympathetic nerve activity plays a pivotal regulatory role in neurohumoral mechanisms. The present study was designed to determine the therapeutic effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and neurohumoral response in transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rats with chronic pressure overload...
2015: Physiological Research
Roland E Schmieder, Veselin Mitrovic, Christian Hengstenberg
Renal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and an important prognostic factor for adverse outcomes. Worsening of renal function occurs in 30-50% of patients hospitalised for AHF, and is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay and increased risk of readmission. Likely mechanisms involved in the decrease in renal function include impaired haemodynamics and activation of neurohormonal factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system and the arginine-vasopressin system...
August 2015: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Frank H Mose, Janni M Jensen, Safa Therwani, Jesper Mortensen, Annebirthe B Hansen, Jesper N Bech, Erling B Pedersen
AIMS: Nebivolol is a selective β1 -receptor antagonist with vasodilating properties. In patients with essential hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that nebivolol increases systemic and renal nitric oxide (NO) availability using L-N(G) -monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) as an inhibitor of NO production. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, patients with essential hypertension were treated with nebivolol for five days, along with a standardized diet and fluid intake...
September 2015: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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