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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733450/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-volume-regulating-factors-in-healthy-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-women
#2
Nisha Charkoudian, Charlotte W Usselman, Rachel J Skow, Jeffery S Staab, Colleen Glyde Julian, Michael K Stickland, Radha S Chari, Rshmi Khurana, Sandra T Davidge, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494541/-new-therapeutic-paradigm-and-concepts-for-patients-with-cirrhotic-refractory-ascites
#4
S Z Wang, H G Ding
The activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-vasopressin system is a key factor in the formation of ascites due to splanchnic vasodilation in cirrhosis. In theory, aldosterone antagonists, contraction of blood vessels, vasopressin V2 receptor, and angiotensin receptor antagonists are important targets for the prevention and treatment of cirrhotic ascites. The 15%-20% of patients with cirrhotic ascites that show no response to at least one week's treatment with potent diuretics (spironolactone 160 mg/d combined with furosemide 80 mg/d) are considered to have refractory ascites...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490529/effect-of-sodium-nitrite-on-renal-function-and-sodium-and-water-excretion-and-brachial-and-central-blood-pressure-in-healthy-subjects-a-dose-response-study
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Safa Al Therwani, Janni Majgaard Jensen, Frank Holden Mose, Christine Wandall-Frostholm, Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen, Jesper Noergaard Bech
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo and has vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. Our aim was to examine the effects of NaNO2 on hemodynamics, sodium excretion, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused placebo (0.9% NaCl) or 0.58, 1.74, or 3.48 μmol NaNO2·kg(-1)·h(-1) for 2 h in 12 healthy subjects, after 4 days of a standard diet. Subjects were supine and water loaded. We measured brachial and central blood pressure (BP), plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (P-AVP), and plasma nitrite (P-[Formula: see text]), GFR by Cr-EDTA clearance, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) free water clearance (CH2O), and urinary excretion rate of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (U-cGMP)...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426518/pathophysiologic-insight-into-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#6
Magdalena Madero, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is an emerging pathophysiological entity of Chronic kidney desease (CKD) not related to traditional risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) that have caused thousands of deaths in Central America, mainly in sugarcane workers. The focus of this review is to discuss the risk factors and probable mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of this devastating disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Frequent episodes of subclinical Acute kidney injury caused by repetitive heat stress, dehydration, and strenuous work have been regarded as the main risk factors for MeN...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#7
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003189/involvement-of-enac-in-the-development-of-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Tengis S Pavlov, Alexander Staruschenko
Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with renal and vascular dysfunctions, which lead to impaired fluid excretion, increased cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance. It is commonly accepted that increased renal sodium handling and plasma volume expansion are necessary factors for the development of salt-induced hypertension. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a trimeric ion channel expressed in the distal nephron that plays a critical role in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in both normal and pathological conditions...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879559/angiotensin-ii-in-refractory-septic-shock
#9
REVIEW
Elio Antonucci, Patrick J Gleeson, Filippo Annoni, Sara Agosta, Sergio Orlando, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Dimitrios Velissaris, Sabino Scolletta
Refractory septic shock is defined as persistently low mean arterial blood pressure despite volume resuscitation and titrated vasopressors/inotropes in patients with a proven or suspected infection and concomitant organ dysfunction. Its management typically requires high doses of catecholamines, which can induce significant adverse effects such as ischemia and arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is a vasopressor agent that could be used in conjunction with other vasopressors to stabilize critically ill patients during refractory septic shock, and reduce catecholamine requirements...
May 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595684/heart-failure-medications-prescribed-at-discharge-for-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#10
Jacqueline Baras Shreibati, Shubin Sheng, Gregg C Fonarow, Adam D DeVore, Clyde W Yancy, Deepak L Bhatt, Phillip Schulte, Eric D Peterson, Adrian Hernandez, Paul A Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: Real-world use of traditional heart failure (HF) medications for patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is not well known. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational analysis of 1,887 advanced HF patients with and without LVADs from 32 LVAD hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry from January 2009 to March 2015. We examined HF medication prescription at discharge, temporal trends, and predictors of prescription among patients with an in-hospital (n = 258) or prior (n = 171) LVAD implant, and those with advanced HF but no LVAD, as defined by a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25% and in-hospital receipt of intravenous inotropes or vasopressin receptor antagonists (n = 1,458)...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538312/-pathophysiology-of-cardiorenal-syndrome
#11
Éric Thervet
The pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndromes (SCR) is becoming better understood. The traditional view was that the left ventricular systolic dysfunction leads to a decrease in renal blood flow. Although this mechanism still makes sense as a contributing factor to SCR, its role as the principal pathophysiological SCR component or even as essential hemodynamic underlying factor has been challenged by recent discoveries. Regarding hemodynamic, the role of increased venous pressure is more and more accepted as demonstrated by the increase in abdominal pressure...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385784/prenatal-testosterone-exposure-decreases-aldosterone-production-but-maintains-normal-plasma-volume-and-increases-blood-pressure-in-adult-female-rats
#12
Amar S More, Jay S Mishra, Gary D Hankins, Sathish Kumar
Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin...
August 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357439/response-prediction-and-influence-of-tolvaptan-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients-considering-the-interaction-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-and-arginine-vasopressin
#13
Muneyuki Kadota, Takayuki Ise, Shusuke Yagi, Takashi Iwase, Masashi Akaike, Rie Ueno, Yutaka Kawabata, Tomoya Hara, Kozue Ogasawara, Mika Bando, Sachiko Bando, Tomomi Matsuura, Koji Yamaguchi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Masataka Sata
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate body fluids. Although conventional diuretics have been used for treating heart failure, they activate RAAS and exacerbate renal function. Tolvaptan, a newly developed vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist, elicits aquaresis and improves volume overload in heart failure patients, however, the predictors of tolvaptan effectiveness and the influence on the RAAS and renal function according to tolvaptan therapy are not established...
July 27, 2016: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279485/secretin-at-the-hub-of-water-salt-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Jenny Juan Bai, Chong Da Tan, Billy K C Chow
Water and salt metabolism are tightly regulated processes. Maintaining this milieu intérieur within narrow limits is critical for normal physiological processes to take place. Disturbances to this balance can result in disease and even death. Some of the better-characterized regulators of water and salt homeostasis include angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin. Although secretin (SCT) was first described >100 years ago, little is known about the role of this classic gastrointestinal hormone in the maintenance of water-salt homeostasis...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037930/the-changing-role-of-sodium-management-in-cirrhosis
#15
REVIEW
Blanca Lizaola, Alan Bonder, Elliot B Tapper, Angela Mendez-Bocanegra, Andres Cardenas
Hyponatremia may occur in patients with cirrhosis and ascites mainly due to water retention and an inability of the kidney to excrete free water. The main reason for this abnormality is related to the fact that these patients have portal hypertension and this leads to systemic vasodilation that in turn activates sodium-retaining and water-retaining systems such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP increases solute-free water retention by acting on the V2 receptors of the kidney-collecting tubes...
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877468/p-164-action-mode-of-renin-angiotensin-system
#16
D Kerbi Boughazi, Y Boucherit Benarab, F Nedjar
OBJECTIFS: Rappeler les mécanismes physiologiques et modes d'actions du système rénine angiotensine. MéTHODES: Le système rénine-angiotensine-aldostérone désigne un système hormonal localisé dans le rein et dont le rôle est de maintenir l'homéostasie hydrosodée. Ce système joue un rôle prépondérant dans la régulation de la pression artérielle. En particulier par l'action de l'angiotensine II RéSULTATS: Contrôle de la sécrétion de rénine : Parceque la rénine est le facteur limitant dans la production d'angiotensine II, le contrôle de la libération de rénine constitue le principal régulateur de tout le système rénine-angiotensine...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776663/involvement-of-bradykinin-b2-and-muscarinic-receptors-in-the-prolonged-diuretic-and-antihypertensive-properties-of-echinodorus-grandiflorus-cham-schltdl-micheli
#17
Thiago Buno Lima Prando, Lorena Neris Barboza, Valdinei de Oliveira Araújo, Francielly Mourão Gasparotto, Lauro Mera de Souza, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
BACKGROUND: Although Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltr.) Michel are used in Brazilian folk medicine as a diuretic drug, to date, no study has evaluated the mechanisms involved in this activity after prolonged administration in rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the prolonged diuretic activity of ethanol soluble fraction obtained from Echinodorus grandiflorus (ES-EG) and to assess its relationship with hypotensive and antihypertensive activity using normotensive rats and those with renovascular hypertension (2K1C)...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608337/distinct-neurohumoral-biomarker-profiles-in-children-with-hemodynamically-defined-orthostatic-intolerance-may-predict-treatment-options
#18
Ashley L Wagoner, Hossam A Shaltout, John E Fortunato, Debra I Diz
Studies of adults with orthostatic intolerance (OI) have revealed altered neurohumoral responses to orthostasis, which provide mechanistic insights into the dysregulation of blood pressure control. Similar studies in children with OI providing a thorough neurohumoral profile are lacking. The objective of the present study was to determine the cardiovascular and neurohumoral profile in adolescent subjects presenting with OI. Subjects at 10-18 yr of age were prospectively recruited if they exhibited two or more traditional OI symptoms and were referred for head-up tilt (HUT) testing...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511649/mini-review-regulation-of-the-renal-nacl-cotransporter-by-hormones
#19
REVIEW
Lorena Rojas-Vega, Gerardo Gamba
The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26167467/changes-in-urinary-excretion-of-water-and-sodium-transporters-during-amiloride-and-bendroflumethiazide-treatment
#20
Janni M Jensen, Frank H Mose, Anna-Ewa O Kulik, Jesper N Bech, Robert A Fenton, Erling B Pedersen
AIM: To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1...
July 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
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