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Max coltheart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776504/a-quasi-randomized-feasibility-pilot-study-of-specific-treatments-to-improve-emotion-recognition-and-mental-state-reasoning-impairments-in-schizophrenia
#1
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613333/confabulation-and-conversation
#2
Max Coltheart
Confabulation is sometimes defined - by Berlyne, for example - as a symptom that is seen only in one neuropsychological condition, amnesia. In this paper I argue for a somewhat more liberal - and, I contend, more productive - conception of confabulation, according to which it is seen not only in amnesia but also in other neuropsychological conditions such as delusion - and, indeed, even in healthy people. I also argue that it follows from this that in neuropsychological conditions where confabulations are seen, these are responses to abnormal experiences brought about by brain damage, but the occurrence of confabulation itself need not be seen as due to any impairment of cognitive processes due to the brain damage...
August 13, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341507/analytic-cognitive-style-not-delusional-ideation-predicts-data-gathering-in-a-large-beads-task-study
#3
Robert M Ross, Gordon Pennycook, Ryan McKay, Will M Gervais, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that deluded and delusion-prone individuals gather less evidence before forming beliefs than those who are not deluded or delusion-prone. The primary source of evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias is provided by research that utilises the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the cognitive mechanisms subserving data gathering in this task are poorly understood. METHODS: In the largest published beads task study to date (n = 558), we examined data gathering in the context of influential dual-process theories of reasoning...
July 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258929/beliefs-about-hearing-voices
#4
Michael H Connors, Serje Robidoux, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause...
July 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691734/prefixes-repel-stress-in-reading-aloud-evidence-from-surface-dyslexia
#5
Maria Ktori, Jeremy J Tree, Petroula Mousikou, Max Coltheart, Kathleen Rastle
This study examined the importance of prefixes as sublexical cues for stress assignment during reading aloud English disyllabic words. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that prefixes repel stress (Rastle & Coltheart, 2000) by investigating the likelihood with which patients with surface dyslexia assign second-syllable stress to prefixed words. Five such patients were presented with three types of disyllabic words for reading aloud: 'regular' prefixed words with weak-strong stress pattern (e.g., remind); 'irregular' prefixed words with strong-weak stress pattern (e...
January 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641449/phonotactic-constraints-implications-for-models-of-oral-reading-in-russian
#6
Anastasia Ulicheva, Max Coltheart, Steven Saunders, Conrad Perry
The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article, we analyze the orthography-to-phonology and phonology-to-phonology (i.e., phonotactic) relationships in Russian monosyllabic words. In Part 2 of the article, we report empirical data from an oral word reading task that show an effect of phonotactic dependencies on skilled reading in Russian: humans are slower when reading words where letter-phoneme correspondences are highly constrained by phonotactic rules compared with those where there are few or no such constraints present...
April 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289649/morpho-orthographic-segmentation-without-semantics
#7
Elisabeth Beyersmann, Johannes C Ziegler, Anne Castles, Max Coltheart, Yvette Kezilas, Jonathan Grainger
Masked priming studies have repeatedly provided evidence for a form-based morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism that blindly decomposes any word with the mere appearance of morphological complexity (e.g., corn + er). This account has been called into question by Baayen et al. Psychological Review, 118, 438-482 (2011), who pointed out that the prime words previously tested in the morpho-orthographic condition vary in the extent to which the suffix conveys regular meaning. In the present study, we investigated whether evidence for morpho-orthographic segmentation can be obtained with a set of tightly controlled prime words that are entirely semantically opaque...
April 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26172256/how-can-functional-neuroimaging-inform-cognitive-theories
#8
Max Coltheart
Work on functional neuroimaging of cognition falls into two categories. The first aims at localizing specific cognitive subsystems in specific brain regions. In this research, the cognitive subsystems in question need to be defined independently of the neuroimaging data because the interpretation of the data requires such definition; so functional neuroimaging is informed by cognitive theories rather than informing them. The second category uses neuroimaging data to test cognitive theories. As cognitive theories are expressed in cognitive terms, such theories have to be embellished by explicit proposals about relationships between cognition and the brain if they are to become capable of generating predictions about the results of experiments that use functional neuroimaging...
January 2013: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26043336/phenomenological-and-neurocognitive-perspectives-on-polythematic-and-monothematic-delusions
#9
Max Coltheart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26002490/the-relative-importance-of-heads-bodies-and-movement-to-person-recognition-across-development
#10
Rachel A Robbins, Max Coltheart
Children have been shown to be worse at face recognition than adults even into their early teens. However, there is debate about whether this is due to face-specific mechanisms or general perceptual and memory development. Here, we considered a slightly different option--that children use different cues to recognition. To test this, we showed 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults whole body, head only, and body only stimuli that were either moving or static. These were shown in two tasks, a match-to-sample task with unfamiliar people and a learning task, to test recognition of experimentally familiar people...
October 2015: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25893713/getting-to-the-bottom-of-orthographic-depth
#11
REVIEW
Xenia Schmalz, Eva Marinus, Max Coltheart, Anne Castles
Orthographic depth has been studied intensively as one of the sources of cross-linguistic differences in reading, and yet there has been little detailed analysis of what is meant by orthographic depth. Here we propose that orthographic depth is a conglomerate of two separate constructs: the complexity of print-to-speech correspondences and the unpredictability of the derivation of the pronunciations of words on the basis of their orthography. We show that on a linguistic level, these two concepts can be dissociated...
December 2015: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25616503/jumping-to-conclusions-about-the-beads-task-a-meta-analysis-of-delusional-ideation-and-data-gathering
#12
Robert Malcolm Ross, Ryan McKay, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon
It has been claimed that delusional and delusion-prone individuals have a tendency to gather less data before forming beliefs. Most of the evidence for this "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) bias comes from studies using the "beads task" data-gathering paradigm. However, the evidence for the JTC bias is mixed. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from 38 clinical and nonclinical samples (n = 2,237) to investigate the relationship between data gathering in the beads task (using the "draws to decision" measure) and delusional ideation (as indexed by the "Peters et al Delusions Inventory"; PDI)...
September 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25528095/the-locus-of-serial-processing-in-reading-aloud-orthography-to-phonology-computation-or-speech-planning
#13
Petroula Mousikou, Kathleen Rastle, Derek Besner, Max Coltheart
Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However, both effects may arise during speech planning, in the phonological encoding process, which also occurs serially and from left to right. In the present paper, we sought to determine the locus of serial processing in reading aloud by testing the contrasting predictions that the dual-route and speech planning accounts make in relation to the MOPE and the PSE...
July 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25412386/the-visual-magnocellular-dorsal-dysfunction-in-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-impedes-chinese-character-recognition
#14
Jing Zhao, Yi Qian, Hong-Yan Bi, Max Coltheart
The visual magnocellular-dorsal (M-D) deficit theory of developmental dyslexia (DD) is still highly debated. Many researchers have made great efforts to investigate the relationship between M-D dysfunction and reading disability. Given that visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese reading, the present study tried to examine how the M-D dysfunction affected Chinese character recognition in Chinese children with DD. Sixteen DD children with M-D deficit, fifteen DD children with normal M-D function and twenty-seven age-matched typically developing children participated in this study...
2014: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25219764/the-fregoli-delusion-a-disorder-of-person-identification-and-tracking
#15
REVIEW
Robyn Langdon, Emily Connaughton, Max Coltheart
Fregoli delusion is the mistaken belief that some person currently present in the deluded person's environment (typically a stranger) is a familiar person in disguise. The stranger is believed to be psychologically identical to this known person (who is not present) even though the deluded person perceives the physical appearance of the stranger as being different from the known person's typical appearance. To gain a deeper understanding of this contradictory error in the normal system for tracking and identifying known persons, we conducted a detailed survey of all the Fregoli cases reported in the literature since the seminal Courbon and Fail (1927) paper...
October 2014: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25163617/lessons-from-cognitive-neuropsychology-for-cognitive-science-a-reply-to-patterson-and-plaut-2009
#16
COMMENT
Max Coltheart
A recent article in this journal (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has told us very little over the past 30 or 40 years about "how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business." This may well be true, but it is not important, because the principal aim of cognitive neuropsychology is not to learn about the brain. Its principal aim is instead to learn about the mind, that is, to elucidate the functional architecture of cognition. I show that this is so (a) via extensive quotations from leading figures in this field and (b) by analysis of the subject matter of articles in the leading journal in the field, Cognitive Neuropsychology...
January 2010: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25052252/what-can-we-learn-about-visual-attention-to-multiple-words-from-the-word-word-interference-task
#17
Claudio Mulatti, Lisa Ceccherini, Max Coltheart
In this work, we develop an empirically driven model of visual attention to multiple words using the word-word interference (WWI) task. In this task, two words are simultaneously presented visually: a to-be-ignored distractor word at fixation, and a to-be-read-aloud target word above or below the distractor word. Experiment 1 showed that low-frequency distractor words interfere more than high-frequency distractor words. Experiment 2 showed that distractor frequency (high vs. low) and target frequency (high vs...
January 2015: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24994973/using-hypnosis-to-disrupt-face-processing-mirrored-self-misidentification-delusion-and-different-visual-media
#18
Michael H Connors, Amanda J Barnier, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Rochelle E Cox, Davide Rivolta, Peter W Halligan
Mirrored-self misidentification delusion is the belief that one's reflection in the mirror is not oneself. This experiment used hypnotic suggestion to impair normal face processing in healthy participants and recreate key aspects of the delusion in the laboratory. From a pool of 439 participants, 22 high hypnotisable participants ("highs") and 20 low hypnotisable participants were selected on the basis of their extreme scores on two separately administered measures of hypnotisability. These participants received a hypnotic induction and a suggestion for either impaired (i) self-face recognition or (ii) impaired recognition of all faces...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24853396/the-serial-nature-of-the-masked-onset-priming-effect-revisited
#19
Petroula Mousikou, Max Coltheart
Reading aloud is faster when target words/nonwords are preceded by masked prime words/nonwords that share their first sound with the target (e.g., save-SINK) compared to when primes and targets are unrelated to each other (e.g., farm-SINK). This empirical phenomenon is the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and is known to be due to serial left-to-right processing of the prime by a sublexical reading mechanism. However, the literature in this domain lacks a critical experiment. It is possible that when primes are real words their orthographic/phonological representations are activated in parallel and holistically during prime presentation, so any phoneme overlap between primes and targets (and not just initial-phoneme overlap) could facilitate target reading aloud...
2014: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24702287/delusions-and-prediction-error-re-examining-the-behavioural-evidence-for-disrupted-error-signalling-in-delusion-formation
#20
Oren Griffiths, Robyn Langdon, Mike E Le Pelley, Max Coltheart
INTRODUCTION: There is now significant evidence that prediction error signalling is mediated by dopamine in the midbrain, and that dopamine dysfunction is implicated in people experiencing psychotic symptoms, including delusions. There has also been significant theorizing and experimentation concerning the remaining link in this triad, namely that deviant prediction error signalling produces or maintains psychotic symptoms. METHODS: The research supporting the link between prediction error signalling and delusional symptoms was reviewed...
2014: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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