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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775133/preservation-of-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity-after-partial-corpus-callosotomy-case-report
#1
Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Prior studies of functional connectivity following callosotomy have disagreed in the observed effects on interhemispheric functional connectivity. These connectivity studies, in multiple electrophysiological methods and functional MRI, have found conflicting reductions in connectivity or patterns resembling typical individuals. The authors examined a case of partial anterior corpus callosum connection, where pairs of bilateral electrocorticographic electrodes had been placed over homologous regions in the left and right hemispheres...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692963/anterior-corpus-callosotomy-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy-invasive-eeg-findings-and-seizure-outcomes
#2
Olga Taraschenko, Swetha Pedavally, Kaeli K Samson, Mark J Puccioni, Deepak Madhavan
Corpus callosotomy (CC) is used in patients with drug-resistant seizures who are not candidates for excisional surgery and failed neurostimulation. We examined ictal scalp and intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings in 16 patients being evaluated for anterior CC alone or CC in combination with focal resection, to determine the role of the iEEG in predicting postoperative seizure outcomes. In our cohort, CC improved generalized atonic seizures and focal seizures with impaired awareness but did not alter outcomes for generalized tonic-clonic or tonic seizures...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622280/effectiveness-of-total-corpus-callosotomy-for-diffuse-bilateral-polymicrogyria-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#3
Shimpei Baba, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Shinji Itamura, Takayuki Suzuki, Yosuke Masuda, Hideo Enoki, Ayataka Fujimoto
PURPOSE: Polymicrogyria, a malformation of the cerebral cortex, frequently causes epilepsy. Diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria (DBP) is related to poor epilepsy prognosis, but most patients with DBP are not good candidates for resective epilepsy surgery and effectiveness of corpus callosotomy (CC), a palliative surgery, for patients without resective epileptogenic cortices, has not been established in DBP. Because CC might be effective against DBP-related epilepsy, we conducted total CC in three pediatric DBP cases...
April 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570389/anterior-two-thirds-corpus-callosotomy-via-stereotactic-laser-ablation
#4
Michael Karsy, Daxa M Patel, Kyle Halvorson, Vance Mortimer, Robert J Bollo
Anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomy is a common palliative surgical intervention most commonly employed in patients with atonic or drop seizures. Recently, stereotactic laser ablation of the corpus callosum without a craniotomy has shown promise in achieving similar outcomes with fewer side effects and shorter hospitalizations. The authors demonstrate ablation of the anterior two-thirds corpus callosum in a patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and drug-resistant drop seizures. Technical nuances of laser ablation with 3 laser fibers are described...
April 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525400/safety-and-effectiveness-of-surgery-for-epilepsy-in-children-experience-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ecuador
#5
O Fernández-Concepción, M López Jiménez, C Valencia-Calderón, A Calderón-Valdivieso, A Recasén-Linares, L Reyes-Haro, C Vásquez-Ham
INTRODUCTION: There is sufficient evidence on the usefulness of surgery as a therapeutic alternative for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy; however this treatment is underutilized, especially in developing countries. METHODS: We describe the outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 27 paediatric patients at Hospital Baca Ortiz in Quito, Ecuador. Our analysis considered the following variables: reduction in seizure frequency, surgery outcome according to the Engel classification, improvement in quality of life, and serious complications due to surgery...
March 7, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467376/changes-in-functional-brain-network-topology-after-successful-and-unsuccessful-corpus-callosotomy-for-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#6
Jun-Ge Liang, Nam-Young Kim, Ara Ko, Heung Dong Kim, Dongpyo Lee
Corpus callosotomy (CC) is an effective palliative surgical treatment for patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). However, research on the long-term functional effects of CC is sparse. We aimed to investigate these effects and their associated clinical conditions over the two years after CC. Long-term clinical EEG recordings of 30 patients with LGS who had good and bad seizure outcome after CC were collected and retrospectively studied. It was found that CC caused brain network 'hubs' to shift from paramedian to lateral regions in the good-recovery group, which reorganized the brain network into a more homogeneous state...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219786/periinsular-anterior-quadrantotomy-technical-note
#7
Giulia Cossu, Sebastien Lebon, Margitta Seeck, Etienne Pralong, Mahmoud Messerer, Eliane Roulet-Perez, Roy Thomas Daniel
Refractory frontal lobe epilepsy has been traditionally treated through a frontal lobectomy. A disconnective technique may allow similar seizure outcomes while avoiding the complications associated with large brain resections. The aim of this study was to describe a new technique of selective disconnection of the frontal lobe that can be performed in cases of refractory epilepsy due to epileptogenic foci involving 1 frontal lobe (anterior to the motor cortex), with preservation of motor function. In addition to the description of the technique, an illustrative case is also presented...
February 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201120/long-term-video-eeg-monitoring-findings-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intractable-epilepsy
#8
Yasaman Ghazavi, Ebrahim Asayesh Zarchi, Taher Taheri, Mahdi Safiabadi, Elham Rahimian, Susan Amirsalari
Objective: Long Term Video-EEG Monitoring (LTM) may give us important information in the preoperative assessment of these patients. We performed this study for the first time in pediatric age group in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 43 children between 4 to 18 yr, with intractable epilepsy referred to Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran, Iranfrom2007-2012, were enrolled to study in order to evaluate their long-term video EEG findings...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194578/long-term-effects-of-corpus-callosotomy-for-therapy-resistant-epileptic-seizures
#9
Bertil Rydenhag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183973/on-the-role-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-in-humans
#10
Jarod L Roland, Abraham Z Snyder, Carl D Hacker, Anish Mitra, Joshua S Shimony, David D Limbrick, Marcus E Raichle, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt
Resting state functional connectivity is defined in terms of temporal correlations between physiologic signals, most commonly studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Major features of functional connectivity correspond to structural (axonal) connectivity. However, this relation is not one-to-one. Interhemispheric functional connectivity in relation to the corpus callosum presents a case in point. Specifically, several reports have documented nearly intact interhemispheric functional connectivity in individuals in whom the corpus callosum (the major commissure between the hemispheres) never develops...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174639/callosotomy-affects-performance-iq-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#11
René Westerhausen, Celine M R Karud
Morphometric neuroimaging studies on healthy adult individuals regularly report a positive association between intelligence test performance (IQ) and structural properties of the corpus callosum (CC). At the same time, studies examining the effect of callosotomy on epilepsy patients report only negligible changes in IQ as result of the surgery, partially contradicting the findings of the morphometry studies. Objective of the present meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) of 87 cases from 16 reports was to re-investigate the effect of callosotomy on full scale IQ as well as on the verbal and performance subscale under special consideration of two possible moderating factors: pre-surgical IQ levels and the extent of the surgery (complete vs...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124439/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#12
Ali A Asadi-Pooya
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is considered an epileptic encephalopathy and is defined by a triad of multiple drug-resistant seizure types, a specific EEG pattern showing bursts of slow spike-wave complexes or generalized paroxysmal fast activity, and intellectual disability. The prevalence of LGS is estimated between 1 and 2% of all patients with epilepsy. The etiology of LGS is often divided into two groups: identifiable (genetic-structural-metabolic) in 65 to 75% of the patients and LGS of unknown cause in others...
November 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058318/seizure-outcome-after-corpus-callosotomy-in-a-large-paediatric-series
#13
David Graham, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale, Martin M Tisdall
AIM: To describe 20 years of experience with corpus callosotomy at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. METHOD: Records of patients who underwent corpus callosotomy between January 1995 and December 2015 were reviewed. Complications of surgery and changes in seizure type and frequency, injuries, and use of antiepileptic drugs were recorded. Drop attacks were analysed using Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves...
February 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986567/enhancing-excitatory-activity-of-somatosensory-cortex-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-through-regulating-homeostatic-plasticity
#14
Wenhui Xiong, Xingjie Ping, Matthew S Ripsch, Grace Santa Cruz Chavez, Heidi Elise Hannon, Kewen Jiang, Chunhui Bao, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Lifang Chen, Zhi Chai, Cungen Ma, Huangan Wu, Jianqiao Feng, Armin Blesch, Fletcher A White, Xiaoming Jin
Central sensitization and network hyperexcitability of the nociceptive system is a basic mechanism of neuropathic pain. We hypothesize that development of cortical hyperexcitability underlying neuropathic pain may involve homeostatic plasticity in response to lesion-induced somatosensory deprivation and activity loss, and can be controlled by enhancing cortical activity. In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, in vivo two-photon imaging and patch clamp recording showed initial loss and subsequent recovery and enhancement of spontaneous firings of somatosensory cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939289/radiosurgery-for-epilepsy-systematic-review-and-international-stereotactic-radiosurgery-society-isrs-practice-guideline
#15
REVIEW
Aileen McGonigal, Arjun Sahgal, Antonio De Salles, Motohiro Hayashi, Marc Levivier, Lijun Ma, Roberto Martinez, Ian Paddick, Samuel Ryu, Ben J Slotman, Jean Régis
BACKGROUND: While there are many reports of radiosurgery for treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, a literature review is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize current literature on the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) for treatment of epilepsy. METHODS: Literature search was performed using various combinations of the search terms "radiosurgery", "stereotactic radiosurgery", "Gamma Knife", "epilepsy" and "seizure", from 1990 until October 2015...
November 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928710/electroencephalography-network-effects-of-corpus-callosotomy-in-patients-with-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#16
Jun-Ge Liang, Dongpyo Lee, Song Ee Youn, Heung Dong Kim, Nam-Young Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the functional network effects of corpus callosotomy (CC), a well-recognized palliative surgical therapy for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Specifically, we sought to gain insight into the effects of CC on LGS remission, based on brain networks in LGS by calculating network metrics and evaluating by network measures before and after surgery. METHODS: Electroencephalographic recordings made during preoperative and 3-month postoperative states in 14 patients with LGS who had undergone successful CC were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815309/elimination-of-medically-intractable-epileptic-drop-attacks-following-endoscopic-total-corpus-callosotomy-in-rett-syndrome
#17
Keisuke Ueda, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano, Ajay Kumar, Aimee F Luat
INTRODUCTION: Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, characterized by developmental delay, hand stereotypies, abnormal gait, and acquired microcephaly. Epilepsy is very common in Rett syndrome and can be medically intractable. It remains uncertain if a patient with epileptic drop attacks associated with this genetic disease can benefit from corpus callosotomy. CASE REPORT: We report an 8-year-old girl with Rett syndrome and medically intractable epileptic drop attacks who underwent endoscopic total corpus callosotomy without any complications that led to the successful elimination of her seizures...
November 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673533/successful-corpus-callosotomy-for-doose-syndrome
#18
Sotaro Kanai, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Kentaro Iijima, Takuya Yokota, Tomohiro Yamazoe, Ayataka Fujimoto, Hideo Enoki, Takamichi Yamamoto
Doose syndrome (epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures) is an epilepsy syndrome with an incidence of approximately 1-2% of childhood-onset epilepsies. Although this syndrome is associated with multiple types of generalized seizures, the diagnosis is based on the presence of myoclonic-atonic seizures. Eighteen percent of patients have refractory seizures and intellectual disabilities. There have, however, been a few reports on the efficacy of surgical treatment for Doose syndrome. We describe a case of Doose syndrome in a 10-year-old boy...
June 30, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669265/contralateral-transcallosal-resection-of-a-ventricular-body-arteriovenous-malformation-3d-operative-video
#19
Brian P Walcott, Jae Seung Bang, Omar Choudhri, Sirin Gandhi, Halima Tabani, Arnau Benet, Michael T Lawton
A 46-year-old male presented with an incidentally discovered left ventricular body arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It measured 2 cm in diameter and had drainage via an atrial vein into the internal cerebral vein (Spetzler-Martin Grade III, Supplementary Grade 4). Preoperative embolization of the posterior medial choroidal artery reduced nidus size by 50%. Subsequently, he underwent a right-sided craniotomy for a contralateral transcallosal approach to resect the AVM. This case demonstrates strategic circumferential disconnection of feeding arteries (FAs) to the nidus, the use of aneurysm clips to control large FAs, and the use of dynamic retraction and importance of a generous callosotomy...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640803/brain-network-eigenmodes-provide-a-robust-and-compact-representation-of-the-structural-connectome-in-health-and-disease
#20
Maxwell B Wang, Julia P Owen, Pratik Mukherjee, Ashish Raj
Recent research has demonstrated the use of the structural connectome as a powerful tool to characterize the network architecture of the brain and potentially generate biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In particular, the anatomic embedding of the edges of the cerebral graph have been postulated to elucidate the relative importance of white matter tracts to the overall network connectivity, explaining the varying effects of localized white matter pathology on cognition and behavior. Here, we demonstrate the use of a linear diffusion model to quantify the impact of these perturbations on brain connectivity...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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