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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728124/thin-ferrihydrite-sediment-capping-sequestrates-phosphorus-experiencing-redox-conditions-in-a-shallow-temperate-lacustrine-wetland
#1
Yuanchun Zou, Michael R Grace, Keryn L Roberts, Xiaofei Yu
Synthesized ferrihydrite (Fh) with the dosages of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 cm thickness (labeled as Fh, 2Fh and 3Fh respectively, equivalent to 248-774 g/m(2)) were deployed to serve as the reactive capping layer covering the Ornamental Lake sediments, the Royal Botanic Garden of Melbourne. The sediments were exposed to an alternating regime of oxic/anoxic conditions using laboratory reactors for 45 days. Dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), filterable ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrate and nitrite (NOx), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved iron (Fe) of overlying water were examined...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727421/shallow-representation-learning-via-kernel-pca-improves-qsar-modelability
#2
Stefano E Rensi, Russ B Altman
Linear models offer a robust, flexible, and computationally efficient set of tools for modeling quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR), but have been eclipsed in performance by non-linear methods. Support vector machines (SVMs) and neural networks are currently among the most popular and accurate QSAR methods because they learn new representations of the data that greatly improve modelability. In this work we use shallow representation learning to improve the accuracy of L1 regularized logistic regression (LASSO) and meet the performance of Tanimoto SVM...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727261/more-than-meets-the-eye-the-barrier-effect-of-the-yangtze-river-outflow
#3
Gang Ni, Elizabeth Kern, Yun-Wei Dong, Qi Li, Joong-Ki Park
The Yangtze (Changjiang) River enters the East China Sea with huge annual freshwater and sediment deposits. This outflow, known as the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW), causes striking ecological gradients that potentially shape coastal species' distribution and differentiation. The CDW has long been rendered as a marine biogeographic boundary separating cold-temperature and warm-water faunas, but it remains unclear whether and to what extent it acts as an intraspecific barrier. Here we synthesize published phylogeographic studies related to the CDW to address these issues...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727210/thermal-affinity-as-the-dominant-factor-changing-mediterranean-fish-abundances
#4
Or Givan, Dor Edelist, Oren Sonin, Jonathan Belmaker
Recent decades have seen profound changes in species abundance and community composition. In the marine environment, the major anthropogenic drivers of change comprise exploitation, invasion by non-indigenous species, and climate change. However, the magnitude of these stressors has been widely debated and we lack empirical estimates of their relative importance. In this study, we focused on Eastern Mediterranean, a region exposed to an invasion of species of Red Sea origin, extreme climate change, and high fishing pressure...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726696/a-novel-freeze-protection-strategy-for-shallow-buried-sewer-pipes-temperature-modelling-and-field-investigation
#5
Youen Pericault, Mikael Risberg, Mattias Vesterlund, Maria Viklander, Annelie Hedström
The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726693/nitrogen-removal-in-a-shallow-maturation-pond-with-sludge-accumulated-during-10-years-of-operation-in-brazil
#6
V A J Rodrigues, E F A Mac Conell, D F C Dias, M von Sperling, J C de Araújo, J L Vasel
Accumulated sludge in polishing (maturation) ponds reduces the hydraulic retention time (smaller useful volume), and this could potentially lead to a decrease in performance. However, settled biomass, present in the sediments, can contribute to nitrogen removal by different mechanisms such as nitrification and denitrification. This study investigated the influence of the bottom sludge present in a shallow maturation pond treating the effluent from an anaerobic reactor on the nitrification and denitrification processes...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724985/increased-neural-noise-and-impaired-brain-synchronization-in-fibromyalgia-patients-during-cognitive-interference
#7
A J González-Villar, N Samartin-Veiga, M Arias, M T Carrillo-de-la-Peña
Fibromyalgia (FM) and other chronic pain syndromes are associated with cognitive dysfunction and attentional deficits, but the neural basis of such alterations is poorly understood. Dyscognition may be related to high levels of neural noise, understood as increased random electrical fluctuations that impair neural communication; however, this hypothesis has not yet been tested in any chronic pain condition. Here we compared electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in 18 FM patients -with high self-reported levels of cognitive dysfunction- and 22 controls during a cognitive control task...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724648/mass-scaling-of-metabolic-rates-in-carabid-beetles-carabidae-the-importance-of-phylogeny-regression-models-and-gas-exchange-patterns
#8
Agnieszka Gudowska, Bartosz W Schramm, Marcin Czarnoleski, Andrzej Antoł, Ulf Bauchinger, Jan Kozłowski
The origin of the allometric relationship between standard metabolic rate (MR) and body mass (M), often described as MR=aM (b) , remains puzzling and interpretation of the mass-scaling exponent, b may depend on the methodological approach, shapes of residuals, coefficient of determination (r(2) ) and sample size. We investigated the mass scaling of MRs within and between species of Carabidae beetles. We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, phylogenetically generalized least squares (PGLS) regression and standardized major axis (SMA) regression to explore the effects of different model-fitting methods and data clustering caused by phylogenetic clades (grade shift) and gas exchange patterns (discontinuous, cyclic and continuous)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724231/arsenic-speciation-in-aquifer-sediment-under-varying-groundwater-regime-and-redox-conditions-at-jianghan-plain-of-central-china
#9
Yanhua Duan, Yiqun Gan, Yanxin Wang, Chongxuan Liu, Kai Yu, Yamin Deng, Ke Zhao, Chuangju Dong
At Jianghan Plain of central Yangtze basins where the health of >73, 000 people has been affected by long term intake of high arsenic groundwater, over 100 sediment samples from four boreholes at the field monitoring sites were collected and analyzed to delineate the distribution and speciation of As in the shallow aquifer sediment. Results showed that sediment As concentration is generally dependent on the lithological conditions, with the higher As concentration present in fine particle sediment, especially in the silty sand layers underlying clay or silty clay layers...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724108/yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-mercury-unaffected-by-wildland-fires-in-northern-minnesota
#10
Charlotte E Riggs, Randall K Kolka, Edward A Nater, Emma L Witt, Trent R Wickman, Laurel G Woodruff, Jason T Butcher
Wildland fire can alter mercury (Hg) cycling on land and in adjacent aquatic environments. In addition to enhancing local atmospheric Hg redeposition, fire can influence terrestrial movement of Hg and other elements into lakes via runoff from burned upland soil. However, the impact of fire on water quality and the accumulation of Hg in fish remain equivocal. We investigated the effects of fire-specifically, a low-severity prescribed fire and moderate-severity wildfire-on young-of-the-year yellow perch () and lake chemistry in a small remote watershed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northeastern Minnesota...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723968/new-library-construction-method-for-single-cell-genomes
#11
Larry Xi, Alexander Belyaev, Sandra Spurgeon, Xiaohui Wang, Haibiao Gong, Robert Aboukhalil, Richard Fekete
A central challenge in sequencing single-cell genomes is the accurate determination of point mutations, phasing of these mutations, and identifying copy number variations with few assumptions. Ideally, this is accomplished under as low sequencing coverage as possible. Here we report our attempt to meet these goals with a novel library construction and library amplification methodology. In our approach, single-cell genomic DNA is first fragmented with saturated transposition to make a primary library that uniformly covers the whole genome by short fragments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723935/responses-of-molluscan-communities-to-centuries-of-human-impact-in-the-northern-adriatic-sea
#12
Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Adam Tomašových, Michael Stachowitsch, Martin Zuschin
In sediment cores spanning ~500 years of history in the Gulf of Trieste, down-core changes in molluscan community structure are characterized by marked shifts in species and functional composition. Between the 16th and 19th century, a strong heavy metal contamination of the sediments, most notably by Hg, together with the effects of natural climatic oscillations (increased sedimentation and organic enrichment) drive community changes. Since the early 20th century up to 2013, the combined impacts of cultural eutrophication, frequent hypoxic events and intensifying bottom trawling replace heavy metal contamination and climatic factors as the main drivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723783/novel-surgical-management-of-cyclodialysis-cleft-via-anterior-chamber-perfusion-case-report
#13
Jinfei Tang, Ergang Du, Jie Wang
RATIONALE: Cyclodialysis cleft is a relatively rare but severe condition with persistent ocular hypotony, which can cause morphologic changes and visual loss. Here we report a case of a traumatic cyclodialysis cleft that was successfully managed with direct cyclopexy via anterior chamber perfusion. During the operation, if there is aqueous humor flowing out of the deep scleral incision, the cleft is not closed, and surgery should continue until there is no aqueous outflow. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old man was treated for severe blunt ocular trauma of the left eye and a resultant cyclodialysis cleft, lens subluxation, choroidal detachment and a cataract...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723093/plasmonic-aerogels-as-a-3d-nanoscale-platform-for-solar-fuels-photocatalysis
#14
Paul A DeSario, Jeremy J Pietron, Adam Dunkelberger, Todd H Brintlinger, Olga Baturina, Rhonda M Stroud, Jeffrey C Owrutsky, Debra R Rolison
We use plasmonic Au-TiO2 aerogels as a platform in which to marry synthetically thickened particle-particle junctions in TiO2 aerogel networks and Au||TiO2 interfaces and then investigate their cooperative influence on photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) generation under both broadband (i.e., UV + visible light) and visible-only excitation. In doing so, we elucidate the dual functions that incorporated Au can play as a water reduction/H2 generation co-catalyst and as a plasmonic sensitizer. We also introduce non-plasmonic Pt co-catalyst nanoparticles into our composite aerogels in order to leverage the catalytic water-reducing abilities of Pt...
July 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721625/key-indicator-tools-for-shallow-slope-failure-assessment-using-soil-chemical-property-signatures-and-soil-colour-variables
#15
Rashidi Othman, Shah Irani Hasni, Zainul Mukrim Baharuddin, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun Hashim, Lukman Hakim Mahamod
Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721503/salinity-drives-the-virioplankton-abundance-but-not-production-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#16
Pedro C Junger, André M Amado, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Saulo M S Jacques, Vinicius F Farjalla
Viruses are the most abundant components of microbial food webs and play important ecological and biogeochemical roles in aquatic ecosystems. Virioplankton is regulated by several environmental factors, such as salinity, turbidity, and humic substances. However, most of the studies aimed to investigate virioplankton regulation were conducted in temperate systems combining a limited range of environmental variables. In this study, virus abundance and production were determined and their relation to bacterial and limnological variables was assessed in 20 neighboring shallow tropical coastal lagoons that present wide environmental gradients of turbidity (2...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720760/exploring-spatial-and-temporal-trends-in-the-soundscape-of-an-ecologically-significant-embayment
#17
R L Putland, R Constantine, C A Radford
The Hauraki Gulf, a shallow embayment in north-eastern New Zealand, provides an interesting environment for ecological soundscape research. It is situated on a tectonic plate boundary, contains one of the busiest ports in the southern hemisphere and is home to a diverse range of soniferous animals. The underwater soundscape was monitored for spatial and temporal trends at six different listening stations using passive acoustic recorders. The RMS sound pressure level of ambient sound (50-24,000 Hz) at the six listening stations was similar, ranging from 90-110 dB re 1 μPa throughout the recording period...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719623/moderate-irrigation-intervals-facilitate-establishment-of-two-desert-shrubs-in-the-taklimakan-desert-highway-shelterbelt-in-china
#18
Congjuan Li, Xiang Shi, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Jie Gao, Xinwen Xu, Yijun Xie
BACKGROUND: Water influences various physiological and ecological processes of plants in different ecosystems, especially in desert ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in irrigation intervals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The irrigation frequency was set as 1-, 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals respectively from March to October during 2012-2014 to investigate the response of physiological and morphological acclimation of two desert shrubs Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicunl to variations in the irrigation system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718028/predicting-attenuation-of-solar-radiation-uv-b-uv-a-and-par-in-waste-stabilization-ponds-under-sahelian-climatic-conditions
#19
Ynoussa Maiga, Joseph Wethé, Aboubakar Sidiki Ouattara, Alfred S Traoré
Because of its importance in pathogen removal and algal productivity in waste stabilization ponds, sunlight penetration was measured in microcosms and in situ under Sahelian climatic conditions. The different wavelengths were detected using a submersible radiometer equipped with three sensors: UV-B (311 nm), UV-A (369 nm) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). UV-B was more attenuated than UV-A and PAR. Facultative pond was more light-attenuating than maturation pond. The mean euphotic depths for UV-B were 0...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717594/effect-of-freshwater-mussels-on-the-vertical-distribution-of-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidizers-and-other-nitrogen-transforming-microorganisms-in-upper-mississippi-river-sediment
#20
Ellen M Black, Michael S Chimenti, Craig L Just
Targeted qPCR and non-targeted amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes within sediment layers identified the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) niche and characterized microbial community changes attributable to freshwater mussels. Anammox bacteria were normally distributed (Shapiro-Wilk normality test, W-statistic =0.954, p = 0.773) between 1 and 15 cm depth and were increased by a factor of 2.2 (p < 0.001) at 3 cm below the water-sediment interface when mussels were present. Amplicon sequencing of sediment at depths relevant to mussel burrowing (3 and 5 cm) showed that mussel presence reduced observed species richness (p = 0...
2017: PeerJ
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