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Jong Ho Noh, Sung Jun Koh, Kee Haeng Lee
Antibiotic cement-coated intramedullary nails maintain a locally high antibiotic concentration while contributing to bone stability. We present a case of femoral subtrochanteric fracture in a patient with an infected nonunion who was successfully treated for an infection and nonunion using an antibiotic cement-coated tibial intramedullary nail. A 79-year-old woman with a right femoral subtrochanteric fracture underwent internal fixation using proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). She developed osteomyelitis with nonunion at the surgical site 10 months postoperatively...
March 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Carl G Meyer, James M Anderson, Daniel M Coffey, Melanie R Hutchinson, Mark A Royer, Kim N Holland
We compared tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) spatial behaviour among 4 Hawaiian Islands to evaluate whether local patterns of movement could explain higher numbers of shark bites seen around Maui than other islands. Our sample consisted of 96 electronically-tagged (satellite and acoustic transmitters) tiger sharks, individually tracked for up to 6 years. Most individuals showed fidelity to a specific 'home' island, but also swam between islands and sometimes ranged far (up to 1,400 km) offshore. Movements were primarily oriented to insular shelf habitat (0-200 m depth) in coastal waters, and individual sharks utilized core-structured home ranges within this habitat...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Surma, S Assonov, D Herwartz, C Voigt, M Staubwasser
This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰.17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor (* RV ) and of inflowing water (* RWI ) determine the isotope distribution in17 O-excess over δ18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth Bevan, Scott Whiting, Tony Tucker, Michael Guinea, Andrew Raith, Ryan Douglas
Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1...
2018: PloS One
C C Baldwin, L Tornabene, D R Robertson
Mesophotic coral ecosystems, which occur at depths of ~40 to 150 m, have received recent scientific attention as potential refugia for organisms inhabiting deteriorating shallow reefs. These ecosystems merit research in their own right, as they harbor both depth-generalist species and a distinctive reef-fish fauna. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic are globally underexplored, and the scant recent literature that mentions them often suggests that mesophotic ecosystems transition directly into those of the deep sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abdulaziz Anazi Alshamrani, Sami Al-Shahwan
BACKGROUND: Crouzon syndrome is the most common form of craniosynostosis, and mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2 and FGFR3) genes are implicated in its pathogenesis. OBSERVATION: A 10-year-old female patient with Crouzon syndrome and congenital glaucoma treated with trabeculectomy and ocular hypotensive medications was examined. The patient had proptosis, exposure keratopathy, megalocornea, thin central corneal thickness, a shallow anterior chamber, mild anterior subcapsular cataract, and a cup-to-disc ratio of 0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Emmanuel Igumbor, Okikiola Olaniyan, Edwin Mapasha, Helga Danga, Ezekiel Omotoso, Walter Meyer
Electrically active induced energy levels in semiconductor devices could be beneficial to the discovery of an enhanced p or n-type semiconductor. N implanted into 4H-SiC is a high energy process that produced high defect concentrations which could be removed during dopant activation annealing. On the other hand, B substituted for silicon in SiC causes a reduction in the number of defects. This scenario leads to a decrease in the dielectric properties and induced deep donor and shallow acceptor levels. Complexes formed by N, such as the N-vacancy centre, have been reported to play a significant role in the application of quantum bits...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
Unique intrinsic properties of peptides like low toxicity, high biological activity and specificity make them attractive therapeutic agents. PDZ binding peptide inhibitors have been demonstrated for curing of Alzheimer, Parkinson, Dementia and other central nervous system ailments. In this article, we report the successful use of an integrated computational protocol to analyze the structural basis of how peptides bind to the shallow groove of the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) from the Post Synaptic Density (PSD-95) protein...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Joseph Asante, David K Kreamer
In the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern U.S.A., deep carbonate groundwater has been suggested as a significant source to many overlying basin-fill alluvial aquifer systems. Notwithstanding, testing this hypothesis is limited by obtaining data from such considerable depths and complex geology. This study uses δ2 H and δ18 O data from springs, rivers, and wells tapping shallow basin-fill groundwater to test the hydrochemical interpretation of deep regional carbonate groundwater flow into the basin-fill aquifers...
March 20, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Yen-Chen Shih, Leeyih Wang, Hsiao-Chi Hsieh, King-Fu Lin
Ion accumulation of organometal halide perovskite (OHP) induced by electrode polarization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under illumination has been intensely studied and associated with widely observed current-voltage hysteresis behavior. This work dedicates to the investigation of charged species' behavior at the compact TiO2/OHP interface with respect to electrode polarization in PSC devices. By providing a comprehensive discussion of open-circuit voltage (VOC) buildup and VOC decay under illumination and in the dark for the PSCs modified with [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at the TiO2/OHP interface and their corresponding electrochemical impedance spectroscopies (EIS), a justified mechanism is proposed attempting to elucidate the dynamics of interfacial species with respect to the time and frequency domains...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guangshuai Zhang, Xiubo Yu, Jun Xu, Houlang Duan, Loretta Rafay, Quanjun Zhang, Ya Li, Yu Liu, Shaoxia Xia
Unique hydrological characteristics and complex topography can create wide-ranging dry season environmental heterogeneity in response to groundwater level across China's Jiangxi Province Poyang Lake wetland. Soil traits are one of several fluctuating environmental variables. To determine the effects of soil variables on stable isotope (δ13 C and δ15 N) abundances during decomposition, we performed a field experiment using Carex cinerascens along a groundwater level gradient (GT-L: -25 to -50cm, GT-LM: -15 to -25cm, GT-MH: -5 to -15cm, GT-H: 5 to -5cm) in a shallow lake...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Xiao, Si-Yang Wang, Zi-Jun Zhou, Yao Zhang, Chun-Lei Song, Yi-Yong Zhou, Xiu-Yun Cao
The over-enrichment of lake waters with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has become a serious environmental problem, but modes of change in stoichiometry and enzymatic regeneration along trophic gradients are largely unknown. Seasonal variations in the kinetics of extracellular aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP), together with the composition of phytoplankton and concentrations of N and P, were examined from Jun 2013 to September 2014 in a Chinese shallow lake in which two basins had contrasting trophic states...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Theophilus Aanuoluwa Adagunodo, Sebastian Lüning, Adekunle Michael Adeleke, Julius Oluwasegun Omidiora, Ahzegbobor Philips Aizebeokhai, Kehinde David Oyeyemi, Olaide Sakiru Hammed
This article evaluates the occurrence of 0 [Formula: see text] M [Formula: see text] 8 earthquake data sets for the period of 50 years (that is, January 1, 1966 to December 31, 2015) in African and Western Asia region. It is bounded by latitude 40° S to 40° N and longitude 30° W to 60° E with the focal depth of 0-700 km. Seventy seven thousand, six hundred and ninety-six data points were presented for the analysis. The data used were extracted from earthquake catalog of Advanced National Seismic system via http://quake...
April 2018: Data in Brief
J Walton, N J Mottram, G McKay
We consider a shallow rectangular well of nematic liquid crystal subject to weak anchoring on the sides of the well. By considering weak anchoring instead of infinitely strong anchoring, we are able to analyze nematic equilibria in the well without the need to exclude point defects at the corners, as done in previous work in the area. For relatively weak anchoring, we are able to derive analytic expressions for the director alignment angle in terms of an infinite series of modes, involving roots of a transcendental equation...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Arantxa Alonso, Isabel Mercader, Oriol Batiste
This paper reports on numerical investigations of the effect of a slight inclination α on pattern formation in a shallow vertical cylindrical cell heated from below for binary mixtures with a positive value of the Soret coefficient. By using direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations with Soret effect in cylindrical geometry, we show that a slight inclination of the cell in the range α≈0.036rad=2^{∘} strongly influences pattern selection. The large-scale shear flow (LSSF) induced by the small tilt of gravity overcomes the squarelike arrangements observed in noninclined cylinders in the Soret regime, stratifies the fluid along the direction of inclination, and produces an enhanced separation of the two components of the mixture...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Davide Bartesaghi, Adam H Slavney, María C Gélvez-Rueda, Bridget A Connor, Ferdinand C Grozema, Hemamala I Karunadasa, Tom J Savenije
Double perovskites, comprising two different cations, are potential nontoxic alternatives to lead halide perovskites. Here, we characterized thin films and crystals of Cs2 AgBiBr6 by time-resolved microwave conductance (TRMC), which probes formation and decay of mobile charges upon pulsed irradiation. Optical excitation of films results in the formation of charges with a yield times mobility product, φΣμ > 1 cm2 /Vs. On excitation of millimeter-sized crystals, the TRMC signals show, apart from a fast decay, a long-lived tail...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Jamey R Szalay, Petr Pokorný, Peter Jenniskens, Mihály Horányi
The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer mission orbited the Moon from 2013 October to 2014 April and detected impact ejecta generated by the continual bombardment of meteoroids to the lunar surface. While the Moon transited the Geminid meteoroid stream, LDEX observed a large enhancement in the lunar impact ejecta cloud, particularly above the portion of lunar surface normal to the Geminids radiant. Here, we present the LDEX measurements during the Geminids, using the surface density of impact ejecta at the Moon as a proxy for meteoroid activity...
March 2018: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
J D Drummond, F Boano, E R Atwill, X Li, T Harter, A I Packman
Rivers are a means of rapid and long-distance transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from upstream terrestrial sources. Pathogens enter streams and rivers via overland flow, shallow groundwater discharge, and direct inputs. Of concern is the protozoal parasite, Cryptosporidium, which can remain infective for weeks to months under cool and moist conditions, with the infectious stage (oocysts) largely resistant to chlorination. We applied a mobile-immobile model framework to assess Cryptosporidium transport and retention in streams, that also accounts for inactivation...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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