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Sten König, Olivier Gros, Stefan E Heiden, Tjorven Hinzke, Andrea Thürmer, Anja Poehlein, Susann Meyer, Magalie Vatin, Didier Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Jennifer Tocny, Ruby Ponnudurai, Rolf Daniel, Dörte Becher, Thomas Schweder, Stephanie Markert
The shallow water bivalve Codakia orbicularis lives in symbiotic association with a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in its gills. The endosymbiont fixes CO2 and thus generates organic carbon compounds, which support the host's growth. To investigate the uncultured symbiont's metabolism and symbiont-host interactions in detail we conducted a proteogenomic analysis of purified bacteria. Unexpectedly, our results reveal a hitherto completely unrecognized feature of the C. orbicularis symbiont's physiology: the symbiont's genome encodes all proteins necessary for biological nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy)...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Tara Blakey, Assefa Melesse, Michael C Sukop, Georgio Tachiev, Dean Whitman, Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm
This study evaluated the ability to improve Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) chl-a retrieval from optically shallow coastal waters by applying algorithms specific to the pixels' benthic class. The form of the Ocean Color (OC) algorithm was assumed for this study. The operational atmospheric correction producing Level 2 SeaWiFS data was retained since the focus of this study was on establishing the benefit from the alternative specification of the bio-optical algorithm. Benthic class was determined through satellite image-based classification methods...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
Adisak Boonchun, Pakpoom Reunchan, Naoto Umezawa
The energetics and electronic structures of native defects in anatase TiO2 are comprehensively studied using hybrid density functional calculations. We demonstrate that oxygen vacancies (VO) and titanium interstitials (Tii) act as shallow donors, and can form at substantial concentrations, giving rise to free electrons with carrier densities from 10(11) to 10(19) cm(-3) under oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor conditions, respectively. The titanium vacancies (VTi), identified as deep acceptors and induced hole carriers, are incapable of fully compensating for the free electrons originating from the donor-type defects at any oxygen chemical potential...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Maarten de Moor, A Aiuppa, G Avard, H Wehrmann, N Dunbar, C Muller, G Tamburello, G Giudice, M Liuzzo, R Moretti, V Conde, B Galle
Eruptive activity at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) has escalated significantly since 2014, causing airport and school closures in the capital city of San José. Whether or not new magma is involved in the current unrest seems probable but remains a matter of debate as ash deposits are dominated by hydrothermal material. Here we use high-frequency gas monitoring to track the behavior of the volcano between 2014 and 2015 and to decipher magmatic versus hydrothermal contributions to the eruptions. Pulses of deeply derived CO2-rich gas (CO2/Stotal > 4...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
R D'Aleo, M Bitetto, D Delle Donne, G Tamburello, A Battaglia, M Coltelli, D Patanè, M Prestifilippo, M Sciotto, A Aiuppa
We report on a systematic record of SO2 flux emissions from individual vents of Etna volcano (Sicily), which we obtained using a permanent UV camera network. Observations were carried out in summer 2014, a period encompassing two eruptive episodes of the New South East Crater (NSEC) and a fissure-fed eruption in the upper Valle del Bove. We demonstrate that our vent-resolved SO2 flux time series allow capturing shifts in activity from one vent to another and contribute to our understanding of Etna's shallow plumbing system structure...
July 28, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
Y F Zhang, D Y Li, J X Yu, H T He
OBJECTIVE: To determine the thickness and nanomechanical properties of salivary pellicle formed on tooth enamel. METHODS: In vitro adsorption experiments were conducted by immersing enamel samples in centrifuged saliva for 1min, and then the nanomechanical properties of the salivary pellicle/tooth enamel system were measured firstly using nanoindentation based on a continuous stiffness measurement technique. Finally, a model was proposed to obtain the thickness and the intrinsic nanohardness of this biofilm...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
D Kerem, O Goffman, M Elasar, N Hadar, A Scheinin, T Lewis
Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
R Esteban, P Verborgh, P Gauffier, D Alarcón, J M Salazar-Sierra, J Giménez, A D Foote, R de Stephanis
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Daniel Shane Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G G Groothuis, Martine E Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
W Y Licuanan, R Robles, M Dygico, A Songco, R van Woesik
There is an urgent need to quantify coral reef benchmarks that assess changes and recovery rates through time and serve as goals for management. Yet, few studies have identified benchmarks for hard coral cover and diversity in the center of marine diversity. In this study, we estimated coral cover and generic diversity benchmarks on the Tubbataha reefs, the largest and best-enforced no-take marine protected area in the Philippines. The shallow (2-6m) reef slopes of Tubbataha were monitored annually, from 2012 to 2015, using hierarchical sampling...
October 18, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Michael C Sklar, Karen Burns, Nuttapol Rittayamai, Ashley Lanys, Michela Rauseo, Lu Chen, Martin Dres, Guang-Qiang Chen, Ewan C Goligher, Neill Kj Adhikari, Laurent Brochard, Jan O Friedrich
Introduction Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are designed to simulate conditions following extubation and it is essential to understand the physiological impact of different methods. We conducted a systematic review and pooled measures reflecting patient respiratory effort among studies comparing SBT methods in a meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to January 2016 to identify randomized and non-randomized clinical trials reporting physiological measurements of respiratory effort (pressure-time product, PTP) or work of breathing during at least 2 SBT techniques...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
James Starrett, Shahan Derkarabetian, Marshal Hedin, Robert W Bryson, John E McCormack, Brant C Faircloth
Arachnida is an ancient, diverse, and ecologically important animal group that contains a number of species of interest for medical, agricultural, and engineering applications. Despite their importance, many aspects of the arachnid tree of life remain unresolved, hindering comparative approaches to arachnid biology. Biologists have made considerable efforts to resolve the arachnid phylogeny; yet, limited and challenging morphological characters, as well as a dearth of genetic resources, have hindered progress...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Xiaohong Liu, Hehua Ye, Qi Zhang, Xuan Cai, Wenjing Yu, Siyi Yu, Tianyu Wang, Wuyi Lu, Xiang Li, Peiquan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Myopia subjects usually have long axial lengths and are predisposed to deep anterior chamber depths and open angles. Jiangning eye study is a randomized, population based study in Shanghai to determine whether myopia has an effect on the prevalence of occludable angles. METHODS: A total of 2478 residents aged 50 years and over were randomly selected, and 2044 (82.5%) individuals of them participated in ophthalmic examinations between November 2012 and February 2013...
2016: PloS One
A C Rietzler, C R Botta, M M Ribeiro, O Rocha, A L Fonseca
The aim of this study was to jointly show the results of three independent ecotoxicological studies performed to investigate pollutants in three Brazilian tropical reservoirs undergoing accelerated eutrophication. In order to accomplish this goal, the full toxicity identification and evaluation procedure (TIE approach) was performed, at Pampulha (Minas Gerais State) and Salto Grande and Barra Bonita reservoirs (São Paulo State). Acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed using the cladocerans Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia (exotic) and Daphnia laevis and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (native) as test organisms...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Mohnish Pandey, Karsten W Jacobsen, Kristian S Thygesen
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics, but suffer from low stability which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability, and facile routes to synthesise these compounds have also been explored. Here we report first-principles calculations of the electronic structure of the two-dimensional (2D) organometallic halide perovskites (C$_4$H$_9$NH$_3$)$_2$MX$_2$Y$_2$ where M=Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y=Cl, Br, I...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Rafael C Duarte, Martin Stevens, Augusto A V Flores
BACKGROUND: Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Shauna M Baillie, Andrew M Muir, Michael J Hansen, Charles C Krueger, Paul Bentzen
BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Crystal L Moyer, Dafna M Abelson, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Piyal Aravinna, Namal Priyantha, Amarasooriya Pitawala, Sudharma K Yatigammana
Pesticides applied on agricultural lands reach groundwater by leaching, and move to offsite water bodies by direct runoff, erosion and spray drift. Therefore, an assessment of the mobility of pesticides in water resources is important to safeguard such resources. Mobility of pesticides on agricultural lands of Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka has not been reported to date. In this context, the mobility potential of 32 pesticides on surface water and groundwater was assessed by widely used pesticide risk indicators, such as Attenuation Factor (AF) index and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) with some modifications...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
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