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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150676/severe-pollution-in-china-amplified-by-atmospheric-moisture
#1
Xuexi Tie, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Di Chang, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Uli Dusek, Guohui Li, Douglas R Worsnop, Colin D O'Dowd
In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146435/epidemiology-and-management-of-spinal-trauma-in-children-and-adolescents-under-18-years-old
#2
Asdrubal Falavigna, Orlando Righesso, Pedro Guarise da Silva, Felix Adolfo Sanchez Chavez, Ericson Sfreddo, Leandro Pelegrini de Almeida, Manuel Jose Valencia Carrasco, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: Report the epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of spinal trauma in children and adolescents. METHODS: Multicenter study of 215 cases of spinal trauma in individuals younger than 18 years of age. All patients were submitted to preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical evaluation. The fractures were classified according to the AOSpine fracture classification. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Frankel Scale at admission to hospital and at the last follow-up...
November 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146202/effects-of-polystyrene-microplastics-on-early-stages-of-two-marine-invertebrates-with-different-feeding-strategies
#3
Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Marco Parolini, Michela Sugni, Roberta Pennati
Nowadays, microplastics represent one of the main threats to marine ecosystems, being able to affect organisms at different stages of their life cycle and at different levels of the food web. Although the presence of plastic debris has been reported in different habitats and the ability to ingest it has been confirmed for different taxa, few studies have been performed to elucidate the effects on survival and development of marine animals. Thus, we explored the effects of different environmental concentrations of polystyrene microbeads on the early stages of two invertebrate species widespread in the Mediterranean shallow waters: the pelagic planktotrophic pluteus larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the filter-feeding sessile juveniles of the ascidian Ciona robusta...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145160/larval-development-ratio-test-with-the-calanoid-copepod-acartia-tonsa-as-a-new-bioassay-to-assess-marine-sediment-quality
#4
Isabella Buttino, Valentina Vitiello, Simona Macchia, Alice Scuderi, David Pellegrini
The copepod Acartia tonsa was used as a model species to assess marine sediment quality. Acute and chronic bioassays, such as larval development ratio (LDR) and different end-points were evaluated. As a pelagic species, A. tonsa is mainly exposed to water-soluble toxicants and bioassays are commonly performed in seawater. However, an interaction among A. tonsa eggs and the first larval stages with marine sediments might occur in shallow water environments. Here we tested two different LDR protocols by incubating A...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145044/image-processing-for-precise-three-dimensional-registration-and-stitching-of-thick-high-resolution-laser-scanning-microscopy-image-stacks
#5
Chloé Murtin, Carole Frindel, David Rousseau, Kei Ito
The possible depth of imaging of laser-scanning microscopy is limited not only by the working distances of objective lenses but also by image degradation caused by attenuation and diffraction of light passing through the specimen. To tackle this problem, one can either flip the sample to record images from both sides of the specimen or consecutively cut off shallow parts of the sample after taking serial images of certain thickness. Multiple image substacks acquired in these ways should be combined afterwards to generate a single stack...
November 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145028/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-alvinocaridid-shrimp-shinkaicaris-leurokolos-decapoda-caridea-insight-into-the-mitochondrial-genetic-basis-of-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-adaptation-in-the-shrimp
#6
Shao'e Sun, Ming Hui, Minxiao Wang, Zhongli Sha
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144843/brevicollum-a-new-genus-in-neohendersoniaceae-pleosporales
#7
Kazuaki Tanaka, Akira Hashimoto, Misato Matsumura, Toyozo Sato
A new genus, Brevicollum, is established for two new species, B. hyalosporum on Syzygium samarangense and B. versicolor on Volkameria inermis, in Japan. This genus is characterized by the presence of immersed ascomata with an excentric to central, short cylindrical ostiolar neck, thin ascomatal wall, clavate asci with a shallow ocular chamber, and broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with a sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a combined data set of sequences of 18S and 28S nuc rDNA genes and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) revealed that Brevicollum is a member of Neohendersoniaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes)...
October 5, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144444/benthic-habitat-mapping-using-multispectral-high-resolution-imagery-evaluation-of-shallow-water-atmospheric-correction-techniques
#8
Francisco Eugenio, Javier Marcello, Javier Martin, Dionisio Rodríguez-Esparragón
Remote multispectral data can provide valuable information for monitoring coastal water ecosystems. Specifically, high-resolution satellite-based imaging systems, as WorldView-2 (WV-2), can generate information at spatial scales needed to implement conservation actions for protected littoral zones. However, coastal water-leaving radiance arriving at the space-based sensor is often small as compared to reflected radiance. In this work, complex approaches, which usually use an accurate radiative transfer code to correct the atmospheric effects, such as FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S, have been implemented for high-resolution imagery...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143883/rooting-depth-varies-differentially-in-trees-and-grasses-as-a-function-of-mean-annual-rainfall-in-an-african-savanna
#9
Ricardo M Holdo, Jesse B Nippert, Michelle C Mack
A significant fraction of the terrestrial biosphere comprises biomes containing tree-grass mixtures. Forecasting vegetation dynamics in these environments requires a thorough understanding of how trees and grasses use and compete for key belowground resources. There is disagreement about the extent to which tree-grass vertical root separation occurs in these ecosystems, how this overlap varies across large-scale environmental gradients, and what these rooting differences imply for water resource availability and tree-grass competition and coexistence...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142373/a-pilot-study-of-nebulized-heparin-for-prevention-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-comparative-effects-with-an-inhaled-corticosteroid
#10
Farzin Ghiasi, Mohsen Sadeghian, Mohammad Emami, Babak Ali Kiaie, Sarah Mousavi
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a side effect of mechanical ventilation. Lung inflammation and pulmonary activation of coagulation are induced by mechanical stress. Clinical and preclinical studies show that heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we assessed the effects of nebulized heparin in VILI. Methods: Sixty critically ill adult patients who require mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h were included in this prospective, nonrandomized controlled study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141235/bioremediation-of-pcb-contaminated-shallow-river-sediments-the-efficacy-of-biodegradation-using-individual-bacterial-strains-and-their-consortia
#11
Hana Horváthová, Katarína Lászlová, Katarína Dercová
Elimination of dangerous toxic and hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic compounds, mainly PCBs from the environment, is one of the most important aims of the environmental biotechnologies. In this work, biodegradation of an industrial mixture of PCBs (Delor 103, equivalent to Aroclor 1242) was performed using bacterial consortia composed of four bacterial strains isolated from the historically PCB-contaminated sediments and characterized as Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Rhodococcus ruber...
November 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139370/perianal-ulcer-in-an-asian-man
#12
Nilanthy Sharon Anthony Pillai, Choon Chiat Oh, Michelle Chan Mei Fung, Limin Wijaya
A 79-year-old Chinese man presented with a 2-month history of pruritic, tender ulceration covering his perianal region. He was initially treated with oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancyclovir, with no improvement. His history included hypertension. On physical examination, there was a 1.5-cm solitary, pink shallow ulcer with a tender erythematous base on the right side of the buttock cleft (Figure 1).
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138695/risk-factors-of-malignant-glaucoma-occurrence-after-glaucoma-surgery
#13
Karolina Krix-Jachym, Tomasz Żarnowski, Marek Rękas
Purpose: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the predisposing factors for occurrence of malignant glaucoma and second, to compare frequency of malignant glaucoma depending on the type of primary glaucoma surgery. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed in 1689 consecutive patients who underwent glaucoma surgery alone or combined with phacoemulsification. Data collected included the type of surgery, width of the filtration angle, presence or absence of malignant glaucoma in the postoperative period, and time from the primary surgery to malignant glaucoma occurrence...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138511/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-factors-drive-ontogeny-of-early-life-at-sea-behaviour-in-a-marine-top-predator
#14
Matt I D Carter, Deborah J F Russell, Clare B Embling, Clint J Blight, David Thompson, Philip J Hosegood, Kimberley A Bennett
Young animals must learn to forage effectively to survive the transition from parental provisioning to independent feeding. Rapid development of successful foraging strategies is particularly important for capital breeders that do not receive parental guidance after weaning. The intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of variation in ontogeny of foraging are poorly understood for many species. Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are typical capital breeders; pups are abandoned on the natal site after a brief suckling phase, and must develop foraging skills without external input...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138065/comparison-of-lipid-dependent-bilayer-insertion-of-phlip-and-its-p20g-variant
#15
Victor Vasquez-Montes, Janessa Gerhart, Kelly E King, Damien Thévenin, Alexey S Ladokhin
The ability of the pH-Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP) to insert into lipid membranes in a transbilayer conformation makes it an important tool for targeting acidic diseased tissues. pHLIP can also serve as a model template for thermodynamic studies of membrane insertion. We use intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy to examine the effect of replacing pHLIP's central proline on the pH-triggered lipid-dependent conformational switching of the peptide. We find that the P20G variant (pHLIP-P20G) has a higher helical propensity than the native pHLIP (pHLIP-WT), in both water:organic solvent mixtures and in the presence of lipid bilayers...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136309/comparison-of-fit-of-dentures-fabricated-by-traditional-techniques-versus-cad-cam-technology
#16
J Bryan McLaughlin, Van Ramos, Douglas P Dickinson
PURPOSE: To compare the shrinkage of denture bases fabricated by three methods: CAD/CAM, compression molding, and injection molding. The effect of arch form and palate depth was also tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine titanium casts, representing combinations of tapered, ovoid, and square arch forms and shallow, medium, and deep palate depths, were fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM) technology. For each base fabrication method, three poly(vinyl siloxane) impressions were made from each cast, 27 dentures for each method...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135301/microbialite-biosignature-analysis-by-mesoscale-x-ray-fluorescence-%C3%AE-xrf-mapping
#17
Michael M Tice, Kimbra Quezergue, Michael C Pope
As part of its biosignature detection package, the Mars 2020 rover will carry PIXL, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, a spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) spectrometer. Understanding the types of biosignatures detectable by μXRF and the rock types μXRF is most effective at analyzing is therefore an important goal in preparation for in situ Mars 2020 science and sample selection. We tested mesoscale chemical mapping for biosignature interpretation in microbialites. In particular, we used μXRF to identify spatial distributions and associations between various elements ("fluorescence microfacies") to infer the physical, biological, and chemical processes that produced the observed compositional distributions...
November 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134068/living-with-own-or-husband-s-mother-in-the-household-is-associated-with-lower-number-of-children-a-cross-cultural-analysis
#18
Susanne Huber, Patricia Zahourek, Martin Fieder
It has been discussed in the literature that the presence of kin, particularly the presence of a women's own mother or her mother in law, may have fertility effects. We aimed to examine the effects of the presence of a woman's own or her husband's mother in the household on a woman's fertility in terms of number of children on a broad basis by analysing census data of over two million married women aged between 15 and 34 years from 14 countries worldwide. We find that with the exception of Iraq, across all countries, the majority of women live only with their spouse in the household...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133878/past-emergent-phase-of-shatsky-rise-deep-marine-igneous-plateau
#19
Moriaki Yasuhara, Atsushi Ando, Yasuhiro Iba
The Cretaceous Period stands out in Earth's geologic history by ubiquitous and sustained massive eruption of lava, forming several enormous igneous plateaus in the ocean basins worldwide. It has been proposed that the subaerial phases of Cretaceous oceanic plateau formation spurred the global environmental deterioration, yet this view is supported by patchy fossil and/or rock evidence for uplifting of the plateau summits above the sea level. Reported here is by far the most comprehensive case of Cretaceous plateau emergence at northern Shatsky Rise, Northwest Pacific, based on the integration of unique micropalaeontological and seismic evidence...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133809/stromatolites-on-the-rise-in-peat-bound-karstic-wetlands
#20
Bernadette C Proemse, Rolan S Eberhard, Chris Sharples, John P Bowman, Karen Richards, Michael Comfort, Leon A Barmuta
Stromatolites are the oldest evidence for life on Earth, but modern living examples are rare and predominantly occur in shallow marine or (hyper-) saline lacustrine environments, subject to exotic physico-chemical conditions. Here we report the discovery of living freshwater stromatolites in cool-temperate karstic wetlands in the Giblin River catchment of the UNESCO-listed Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Australia. These stromatolites colonize the slopes of karstic spring mounds which create mildly alkaline (pH of 7...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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