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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160401/fluoride-varnishes-against-dental-erosion-caused-by-soft-drink-combined-with-pediatric-liquid-medicine
#1
Adílis Kalina Alexandria, Ana Maria Gondim Valença, Lúcio Mendes Cabral, Lucianne Cople Maia
The present study evaluated the effect of NaF and CPP-ACP/NaF varnishes to reduce erosion produced by soft drink (SD) combined or not with pediatric liquid medicine. Enamel specimens were pre-treated with fluoride varnish, according to the following groups: NaF varnish (Duraphat®) or CPP-ACP/NaF varnish (MI varnishTM). Two types of erosive cycles were made: by soft drink erosion (SDE) or by pediatric liquid medicine plus soft drink erosion (PLM/SDE). Bovine enamel specimens were randomly assigned in six groups (n=10): G1=NaF + SDE; G2=CPP-ACP/NaF + SDE; G3=Distilled and deionized (DD) water + SDE; G4=NaF + PLM/SDE; G5=CPP-ACP/NaF + PLM/SDE and G6=DD water + PLM/SDE...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159937/diffusion-weighted-mri-and-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-model-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-solid-abdominal-tumors
#2
Emma M Meeus, Niloufar Zarinabad, Karen A Manias, Jan Novak, Heather E L Rose, Hamid Dehghani, Katharine Foster, Bruce Morland, Andrew C Peet
BACKGROUND: Pediatric retroperitoneal tumors in the renal bed are often large and heterogeneous, and their diagnosis based on conventional imaging alone is not possible. More advanced imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and the use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), have the potential to provide additional biomarkers that could facilitate their noninvasive diagnosis. PURPOSE: To assess the use of an IVIM model for diagnosis of childhood malignant abdominal tumors and discrimination of benign from malignant lesions...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159839/increased-renal-echogenicity-in-children-with-appendicitis
#3
Hila Tal, Daniel Ben-Mordechay, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Michalle Soudack
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) is an important modality for the detection of acute appendicitis in children but has limited sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, additional US findings may contribute to the diagnosis. In our experience, children with acute appendicitis often have increased renal cortical echogenicity on US imaging. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of increased renal cortical echogenicity with appendicitis. METHODS: This study included 240 consecutive pediatric patients with no renal or liver disease who underwent US examinations for suspected appendicitis between February 2014 and January 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159426/an-initial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-imri-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Matthew F Sacino, Sean S Huang, Robert F Keating, William D Gaillard, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: Previous studies have illustrated the clinical utility of the addition of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) to conventional microsurgical resection. While iMRI requires initial capital cost investment, long-term reduction in costly follow-up management and reoperation costs may prove economically efficacious. The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of iMRI utilization versus conventional microsurgical techniques in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) resection in pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy...
November 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#5
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157850/conventional-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-in-brain-concussion
#6
REVIEW
Juan Nicolas Useche, Sonia Bermudez
Conventional neuroimaging is still the mainstay in the assessment of the acute, follow-up, and chronic settings of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Computed tomography (CT) is preferred for the initial assessment of acute mTBI, repeat evaluation in acute mTBI with neurologic deterioration, and cautious use in children with mTBI. Clinical rules have been developed to identify pediatric and adult patients with mTBI who can safely forego CT. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is mostly used in patients with acute mTBI when initial or follow-up CT is normal and there are persistent neurologic findings and in subacute or chronic mTBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156146/effectiveness-of-a-staged-us-and-unenhanced-mr-imaging-algorithm-in-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-appendicitis
#7
Elizabeth H Dibble, David W Swenson, Claudia Cartagena, Grayson L Baird, Thaddeus W Herliczek
Purpose To establish, in a large cohort, the diagnostic performance of a staged algorithm involving ultrasonography (US) followed by conditional unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the imaging work-up of pediatric appendicitis. Materials and Methods A staged imaging algorithm in which US and unenhanced MR imaging were performed in pediatric patients suspected of having appendicitis was implemented at the authors' institution on January 1, 2011, with US as the initial modality followed by unenhanced MR imaging when US findings were equivocal...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155636/hepatic-imaging-in-neonates-and-young-infants-state-of-the-art
#8
Stephanie B Shamir, Jessica Kurian, Debora Kogan-Liberman, Benjamin H Taragin
Neonatal liver disease is an important source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The manifestation of liver disease in young infants may be different than in older patients, and there are a number of diagnoses that are unique to this age group. Familiarity with these entities is important as imaging plays a key role in the diagnostic workup, and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent complications. This article reviews the spectrum of liver pathologies that can manifest in the first 6 months of life and is intended to educate the general radiologist who may be faced with interpretation of neonatal liver imaging...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154897/identification-of-ghost-artifact-using-texture-analysis-in-pediatric-spinal-cord-diffusion-tensor-images
#9
Mahdi Alizadeh, Chris J Conklin, Devon M Middleton, Pallav Shah, Sona Saksena, Laura Krisa, Jürgen Finsterbusch, Scott H Faro, M J Mulcahey, Feroze B Mohamed
PURPOSE: Ghost artifacts are a major contributor to degradation of spinal cord diffusion tensor images. A multi-stage post-processing pipeline was designed, implemented and validated to automatically remove ghost artifacts arising from reduced field of view diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the pediatric spinal cord. METHOD: A total of 12 pediatric subjects including 7 healthy subjects (mean age=11.34years) with no evidence of spinal cord injury or pathology and 5 patients (mean age=10...
November 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153658/neurological-function-in-children-born-to-preeclamptic-and-hypertensive-mothers-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho, Lauren E Mak, James N Reynolds, Patrick W Stroman, Graeme N Smith, Nils D Forkert, Angelina Paolozza, Matthew T Rätsep, B Anne Croy
BACKGROUND: Offspring whose mothers developed preeclampsia (PE-F1s) show developmental effects that are now being identified, such as cognitive, behavioural, and mood differences compared to offspring from non-complicated pregnancies. We hypothesize that the progressive angiokine dysregulation associated with development of preeclampsia (PE) reflects gene dysregulation in pre-implantation conceptuses, and manifests in all developing fetal tissues rather than exclusively to the placenta...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153467/ovarian-torsion-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
Roshni Dasgupta, Elizabeth Renaud, Adam B Goldin, Robert Baird, Danielle B Cameron, Meghan A Arnold, Karen A Diefenbach, Ankush Gosain, Julia Grabowski, Yigit S Guner, Tim Jancelewicz, Akemi Kawaguchi, Dave R Lal, Tolulope A Oyetunji, Robert L Ricca, Julia Shelton, Stig Somme, Regan F Williams, Cynthia D Downard
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian torsion in pediatric patients is a rare event and is primarily managed by pediatric general surgeons. Torsion can be treated with detorsion of the ovary or oopherectomy. Oopherectomy is the most common procedure performed by pediatric general surgeons for ovarian torsion. The purpose of this systematic review by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence Based Practice Committee was to examine evidence from the medical literature and provide recommendations regarding the optimal treatment of ovarian torsion...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153235/imaging-of-the-pediatric-temporomandibular-joint
#12
REVIEW
Matthew R Hammer, Yassine Kanaan
Imaging of the temporomandibular joint in pediatric patients is a critical component in the evaluation and treatment of children with temporomandibular joint symptoms. MRI can provide detailed joint anatomy and identify inflammation, sometimes before symptom onset. Ultrasound scan is a convenient emerging modality to evaluate the joint and guide therapeutic injections. Radiography and computed tomography offer osseous detail to recognize early morphologic changes of the mandibular condyle and provide operative planning...
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149384/brain-metabolism-and-severe-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Heidi Griffiths, Manu S Goyal, Jose A Pineda
Age-dependent changes in brain metabolism may influence the response to and tolerance of secondary insults, potentially affecting outcomes. More complete characterization of brain metabolism across the clinical trajectory of severe pediatric TBI is needed to improve our ability to measure and better mitigate the impact of secondary insults. Better management of secondary insults will impact clinical care and the probability of success of future neuroprotective clinical trials. Improved bedside monitoring and imaging technologies will be required to achieve these goals...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149383/diffusion-mri-in-pediatric-brain-injury
#14
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue around the world and can be especially devastating in children as TBI can derail cognitive and social development. White matter (WM) is particularly vulnerable to disruption post-TBI, as myelination is ongoing during this period. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a versatile modality for identifying and quantifying WM disruption and can detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI or TAI (traumatic axonal injury)). This review covers dMRI studies of pediatric TBI, including mild to severe injuries, and covering all periods post-injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148922/feasibility-and-safety-of-using-thoracic-and-lumbar-cortical-bone-trajectory-pedicle-screws-in-spinal-constructs-in-children-technical-note
#15
Jonathan N Sellin, Jeffrey S Raskin, Kristen A Staggers, Alison Brayton, Valentina Briceño, Amee J Moreno, Andrew Jea
Thoracic and lumbar cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws have been described in adult spine surgery. They have likewise been described in pediatric CT-based morphometric studies; however, clinical experience in the pediatric age group is limited. The authors here describe the use of cortical bone trajectory pedicle screws in posterior instrumented spinal fusions from the upper thoracic to the lumbar spine in 12 children. This dedicated study represents the initial use of cortical screws in pediatric spine surgery...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148317/brainstem-glioma-prediction-of-histopathologic-grade-based-on-conventional-mr-imaging
#16
Yashar Moharamzad, Morteza Sanei Taheri, Farhad Niaghi, Elham Shobeiri
Objective The objective of this article is to investigate the association between specific MR imaging findings and histopathologic grading (low-grade vs. high-grade) of brainstem gliomas (BSGs). Methods Sixty-two males and 34 females (mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 24.61 (17.20) years, range = 3 to 70 years) with histologically diagnosed BSG underwent conventional 1.5 T MR imaging, which included T1-weighted (T1W), T2W, and post-contrast T1W sequences. There were 39 children (mean age of 9.38 years) and 57 adults (mean age of 35 years)...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148119/the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-airway-has-our-knowledge-changed-in-120-years-a-review-of-historic-and-recent-investigations-of-the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-larynx
#17
REVIEW
Josef Holzki, Karen A Brown, Robert G Carroll, Charles J Coté
BACKGROUND: There is disagreement regarding the anatomy of the pediatric airway, particularly regarding the shape of the cricoid cartilage and the location of the narrowest portion of the larynx. AIMS: The aim of this review is to clarify the origin and the science behind these differing views. METHODS: We undertook a review of published literature, University Libraries, and authoritative textbooks with key search words and phrases. RESULTS: In vivo observations suggest that the narrowest portion of the airway is more proximal than the cricoid cartilage...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145690/-visual-analysis-of-retinal-oct-data
#18
Martin Röhlig, Anselm Jünemann, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Ruby Kala Prakasam, Oliver Stachs, Heidrun Schumann
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables noninvasive high-resolution 3D imaging of the human retina, and thus plays a fundamental role in ophthalmology. Via OCT examination, even subtle retinal changes can be captured, which occur in very early stages of different diseases (e.g., glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, or age-related macular degeneration). Yet, analyzing the resulting data is challenging. Conventionally, OCT data are strongly aggregated via automated methods. While this reduces the amount of information to be analyzed, it also makes it difficult, if not impossible, to identify small and localized retinal changes...
November 16, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145335/clavicle-fracture-associated-with-atlantoaxial-rotatory-displacement-type-ii-in-an-8-year-old-girl-a-case-report
#19
Jacek Karski, Łukasz Matuszewski, Paweł Jakubowski, Klaudia Karska, Grzegorz Kandzierski
RATIONALE: Fracture of the clavicle is a very common injury in children. However, association between clavicle fracture and atlantoaxial rotatory displacement is rarely observed. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of an 8-year-old girl, who suffered a right clavicle fracture as a result of a sledge accident. Six weeks after figure of 8 casting for a right clavicle fracture, an 8-year-old girl was brought to the Pediatric Orthopedic Department due to torticollis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144839/distinguishing-benign-from-malignant-circumscribed-orbital-tumors-in-children
#20
Yufei Tu, Frederick A Jakobiec, Katherine Leung, Suzanne K Freitag
An orbital neoplasm in children is an uncommon clinical finding. Clinical suspicion should be based on many factors, including its location, the nature of onset, associated systemic signs and symptoms, family and social histories, examination findings, and radiographic characteristics. We present two cases of young children of similar age with a rapid-onset orbital mass. In both cases, a circumscribed round lesion was found in the superomedial orbit. An orbital schwannoma, a benign and usually slow growing tumor, was found in the first patient...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
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