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Marco Barbanti, Simona Gulino, Giuliano Costa, Corrado Tamburino
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now a widely adopted therapy for the treatment of elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. Improved pre-procedural screening, increased operators' experience and technology advancement have made this technique highly reliable and standardized. Areas covered: The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the strategies that can be adopted to optimize the TAVI procedure (pre-interventional work-up and procedural simplification and early discharge)...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Christian Scholz, Michael Engel, Thorsten Pöschel
Biological organisms and artificial active particles self-organize into swarms and patterns. Open questions concern the design of emergent phenomena by choosing appropriate forms of activity and particle interactions. A particularly simple and versatile system are 3D-printed robots on a vibrating table that can perform self-propelled and self-spinning motion. Here we study a mixture of minimalistic clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating robots, called rotors. Our experiments show that rotors move collectively and exhibit super-diffusive interfacial motion and phase separate via spinodal decomposition...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Pandeeswar Makam, Ehud Gazit
Molecular self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in nature and central to bottom-up nanotechnology. In particular, the organization of peptide building blocks into ordered supramolecular structures has gained much interest due to the unique properties of the products, including biocompatibility, chemical and structural diversity, robustness and ease of large-scale synthesis. In addition, peptides, as short as dipeptides, contain all the molecular information needed to spontaneously form well-ordered structures at both the nano- and the micro-scale...
March 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
François Huchet, Jean Christian Roussel, Vincent Letocart, Thibaut Manigold
AIMS: TAVR implantation in unicuspid aortic valve has rarely been reported previously, due to the rareness of this morphology. This case tries to bring answers to some challenges we may have to face in TAVR current practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe the case of a cardiogenic shock complicating a pure native regurgitating and non-calcified unicuspid aortic valve, in a 40 years old woman without medical follow up. Conventional treatment options such as valve surgery or heart transplantation were denied due to extreme operative risk and multiple allo-immunizations...
February 27, 2018: EuroIntervention
Meenu R Mridula, Ashalatha S Nair, K Satheesh Kumar
In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jacob Shapira, Yaniv Keren, Nadav Rinott, Yaron Berkovich
We are now standing four decades after the 'running revolution' which occurred during the 70's of the previous century. Despite the developments that have occurred in medicine and the large budgets invested in the development of the sport's equipment, the runner's morbidity has not changed. In this article, we would like to review the changes in running that occurred throughout the years, as well as the common risk factors for running injuries. Furthermore, we would like to examine the scientific point of view regarding running shoes and running technique as risk factors for running injuries...
February 2018: Harefuah
Natascha Nebel, Brigitte Strauch, Simone Maschauer, Roman Lasch, Hannelore Rampp, Stefanie K Fehler, Leonard R Bock, Harald Hübner, Peter Gmeiner, Markus R Heinrich, Olaf Prante
18 F-Labeled building blocks from the type of [18 F]fluorophenylazocarboxylic- tert -butyl esters offer a rapid, mild, and reliable method for the18 F-fluoroarylation of biomolecules. Two series of azocarboxamides were synthesized as potential radioligands for dopamine D3 and the μ-opioid receptor, revealing compounds 3d and 3e with single-digit and sub-nanomolar affinity for the D3 receptor and compound 4c with only micromolar affinity for the μ-opioid receptor, but enhanced selectivity for the μ-subtype in comparison to the lead compound AH-7921...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Thomas Hermanns, Christian Pichlo, Ilka Woiwode, Karsten Klopffleisch, Katharina F Witting, Huib Ovaa, Ulrich Baumann, Kay Hofmann
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) regulate ubiquitin signaling by trimming ubiquitin chains or removing ubiquitin from modified substrates. Similar activities exist for ubiquitin-related modifiers, although the enzymes involved are usually not related. Here, we report human ZUFSP (also known as ZUP1 and C6orf113) and fission yeast Mug105 as founding members of a DUB family different from the six known DUB classes. The crystal structure of human ZUFSP in covalent complex with propargylated ubiquitin shows that the DUB family shares a fold with UFM1- and Atg8-specific proteases, but uses a different active site more similar to canonical DUB enzymes...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicholas J Shaheen, M Brian Fennerty, Jacques J Bergman
A substantial literature documents inappropriate usage of gastrointestinal endoscopy in a variety of clinical settings. Overusage of endoscopy appears to be common, and 30% or more of procedures performed in some clinical settings have questionable indications. The potential reasons for overuse of endoscopy are multiple, and include cancer phobia, fear of medical malpractice litigation, profit motive, the investigation of "incidentalomas" found on other imaging, and under-appreciation of the delayed harms of endoscopy, among other reasons...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jessica H Brown, Prativa Das, Michael D DiVito, David Ivancic, Lay Poh Tan, Jason A Wertheim
A major challenge of maintaining primary hepatocytes in vitro is progressive loss of hepatocyte-specific functions, such as protein synthesis and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) catalytic activity. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffold made from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using a newlyoptimizedwet electrospinning techniquethat resulted in a highly porous structure that accommodated inclusion of primary human hepatocytes. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I collagen or fibronectin) at varying concentrations were chemically linked to electrospun PLGA using amine coupling to develop an in vitro culture system containing the minimal essential ECM components of the liver micro-environment that preserve hepatocyte function in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca, Tom Froese, Leonhard Schilbach, Kai Vogeley, Bert Timmermans
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be understood as a social interaction disorder. This makes the emerging "second-person approach" to social cognition a more promising framework for studying ASD than classical approaches focusing on mindreading capacities in detached, observer-based arrangements. According to the second-person approach, embodied, perceptual, and embedded or interactive capabilities are also required for understanding others, and these are hypothesized to be compromised in ASD. We therefore recorded the dynamics of real-time sensorimotor interaction in pairs of control participants and participants with High-Functioning Autism (HFA), using the minimalistic human-computer interface paradigm known as "perceptual crossing" (PC)...
February 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Jun Ohata, Yimeng Zeng, Laura Segatori, Zachary Thomas Ball
Manipulation of biomacromolecules is ideally achieved through unique and bioorthogonal chemical reactions of genetically encoded, naturally occurring functional groups. The toolkit of methods for site-specific conjugation is limited by selectivity concerns and a dearth of naturally occurring functional groups with orthogonal reactivity. We report that pyroglutamate amide N-H bonds exhibit bioorthogonal copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam coupling at pyroglutamate-histidine dipeptide sequences. The pyroglutamate residue is readily incorporated into proteins of interest by natural enzymatic pathways, allowing specific bioconjugation at a minimalist dipeptide tag...
February 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Akash P Kansagra, Adam N Wallace, David R Curfman, James D McEachern, Christopher J Moran, DeWitte T Cross, Jin-Moo Lee, Andria L Ford, S Goyal Manu, Peter D Panagos, Colin P Derdeyn
OBJECTIVE: Shorter time from symptom onset to treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients who undergo mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of acute ischemic stroke due to emergent large vessel occlusion. In this work, we detail pre-thrombectomy process improvements in a multi-hospital network and report the effect on door-to-puncture time in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A streamlined workflow was adopted to minimize door-to-puncture time...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Yumi Kwon, Shinyeong Ju, Prashant Kaushal, Jin-Won Lee, Cheolju Lee
One of the most common chemistries used to label primary amines utilizes N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), which is also structurally incorporated in various quantitative proteomic reagents such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tags (TMT). In this paper, we report detrimental effect of hydroxylamine, a widely used quenching reagent for excess NHS, on phosphopeptides. We found an impairment in the degree of phosphopeptide identification when hydroxylamine-quenched TMT-labeled samples were vacuum-dried and desalted compared to the non-dried (just diluted) and desalted ones prior to phosphoenrichment...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Grahame Simpson, Virginia Mitsch, Margaret Doyle, Marcella Forman, Denise Young, Vicki Solomon, Margaret MacPherson, Lauren Gillett, Barbara Strettles
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a model of community-based case management (CM). SETTING: New South Wales (NSW) Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program (BIRP). PARTICIPANTS: All clinicians (N = 72) providing CM within 14 BIRP community rehabilitation teams. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter study. MAIN MEASURES: A purpose-designed survey. METHODS: Participants from the 12 adult and 2 pediatric services (8 located in metropolitan areas, 6 in rural areas) completed a 3-part survey investigating their organizational context, clinical approach, and CM interventions...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Jian-Zhang Pan, Pan Fang, Xiao-Xia Fang, Ting-Ting Hu, Jin Fang, Qun Fang
In this work, we developed a miniaturized palmtop high-speed capillary electrophoresis (CE) system integrating whole modules, including picoliter-scale sample injection, short capillary-based fast CE, high-voltage power supply, orthogonal laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, battery, system control, on-line data acquisition, processing, storage, and display modules. A strategy of minimalist miniaturization combining minimal system design and low-cost system construction was adopted to achieve the instrument miniaturization with extremely low cost, which is differing from the current microfabrication strategy used in most reported miniaturized CE systems...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mariann Szigeti, Zoltán Dobi, Tibor Soós
An inexpensive and chromatography-free Mitsunobu methodology has been developed using low-molecular-weight and orthogonally phase tagged reagents, a t-butyl-tagged highly apolar phosphine and a water-soluble DIAD analogue. The by-product of the Mitsunobu reactions can be removed by sequential liquid-liquid extractions using traditional solvents such as hexanes, MeOH, water and EtOAc. Owing to the orthogonal phase labeling, the spent reagents can be regenerated. This new variant of Mitsunobu reaction promises to provide an alternative and complementary solution for the well-known separation problem of Mitsunobu reaction without having to resort to expensive, large molecular weight reagents and chromatography...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mathias Sogorski, Theo Geisel, Viola Priesemann
Musical rhythms performed by humans typically show temporal fluctuations. While they have been characterized in simple rhythmic tasks, it is an open question what is the nature of temporal fluctuations, when several musicians perform music jointly in all its natural complexity. To study such fluctuations in over 100 original jazz and rock/pop recordings played with and without metronome we developed a semi-automated workflow allowing the extraction of cymbal beat onsets with millisecond precision. Analyzing the inter-beat interval (IBI) time series revealed evidence for two long-range correlated processes characterized by power laws in the IBI power spectral densities...
2018: PloS One
Norihiko Kamioka, John Wells, Patricia Keegan, Stamatios Lerakis, Jose Binongo, Frank Corrigan, Jose Condado, Ateet Patel, Jessica Forcillo, Leslie Ogburn, Andy Dong, Hope Caughron, Amy Simone, Bradley Leshnower, Chandan Devireddy, Kreton Mavromatis, Robert Guyton, James Stewart, Vinod Thourani, Peter C Block, Vasilis Babaliaros
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate predictors and safety of next-day discharge (NDD) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Information about predictors and safety of NDD after TAVR is limited. METHODS: The study reviewed 663 consecutive patients who underwent elective balloon-expandable TAVR (from July 2014 to July 2016) at our institution. We first determined predictors of NDD in patients who underwent minimalist transfemoral TAVR...
January 22, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Wei Zhou, Nicole Gay, Julia Oh
BACKGROUND: Profiling of shotgun metagenomic samples is hindered by a lack of unified microbial reference genome databases that (i) assemble genomic information from all open access microbial genomes, (ii) have relatively small sizes, and (iii) are compatible to various metagenomic read mapping tools. Moreover, computational tools to rapidly compile and update such databases to accommodate the rapid increase in new reference genomes do not exist. As a result, database-guided analyses often fail to profile a substantial fraction of metagenomic shotgun sequencing reads from complex microbiomes...
January 18, 2018: Microbiome
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