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Anastasia K Atabekova, Anna V Pankratenko, Svetlana S Makarova, Ekaterina A Lazareva, Robert A Owens, Andrey G Solovyev, Sergey Y Morozov
Human B-cell receptor-associated protein BAP31 (HsBAP31) is the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein involved in protein sorting and transport as well as pro-apoptotic signaling. Plant orthologs of HsBAP31 termed 'plant BAP-like proteins' (PBL proteins) have thus far remained unstudied. Recently, the PBL protein from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPBL) was identified as an interactor of Nt-4/1, a plant protein known to interact with plant virus movement proteins and affect the long-distance transport of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) via the phloem...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
E Faghihloo, Y Araei, M Mohammadi, H Mirzaei, H R Mohammadi, T Mokhtari-Azad
Gastric cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death, and the symptoms are commonly characterized in advanced stages. Histone acetylation is among the most important epigenetic alterations occurring during cancer development. In addition, reduced E-cadherin expression is a major contributor in the process of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Oxamflatin is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been suggested as a promising anti-tumor agent; yet its effect on the viability and invasion of gastric tumor cells is unclear...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
K K Dey, R Bharti, G Dey, I Pal, Y Rajesh, S Chavan, S Das, C K Das, B C Jena, P Halder, J G Ray, I Kulavi, M Mandal
Oral cancer consists of squamous cell carcinoma within the oral cavity or on the lip. The clinical prognosis of this cancer is mostly poor owing to delayed diagnosis and a lack of appropriate early detection biomarkers to identify the disease. In the current study, we investigated the role of the S100A7 calcium-binding protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma as an activator of the p38/MAPK and RAB2A signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to determine whether S100A7 and RAB2A have a role in tumor progression and to assess their potential as early detection biomarkers for oral cancer...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Fahima Syeda, Andrew P Holmes, Ting Y Yu, Samantha Tull, Stefan Michael Kuhlmann, Davor Pavlovic, Daniel Betney, Genna Riley, Jan P Kucera, Florian Jousset, Joris R de Groot, Stephan Rohr, Nigel A Brown, Larissa Fabritz, Paulus Kirchhof
BACKGROUND: Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used to treat patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms conveying their variable effectiveness are not known. Recent data suggested that paired like homeodomain-2 transcription factor (PITX2) might play an important role in regulating gene expression and electrical function of the adult left atrium (LA). OBJECTIVES: After determining LA PITX2 expression in AF patients requiring rhythm control therapy, the authors assessed the effects of Pitx2c on LA electrophysiology and the effect of antiarrhythmic drugs...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
J Y Wang, Y Xia, C C Yang, Z Wang
Objective: To analysis the important genes and functions of cochlear hair cells with oxidative stress injury, by the construction of gene regulatory network which based on different miRNA in cochlear hair cells in vitro with oxidative stress injury, and to explore the molecular mechanisms of deafness based on oxidative stress injury. Method: The oxidative stress damage cochlear hair cell model was induced by 200 μmol/L t-BHP exposure in vitro. Small RNA deep sequencing analyzed the difference expression of miRNA and contructed gene regulatory network by 6 most significant difference miRNA...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Stephen Y Chan, Jonathan W Snow
The putative transfer and gene regulatory activities of diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in ingesting animals are still debated. The existence of natural uptake of diet-derived sRNA by invertebrate species could have significant implication for our understanding of ecological relationships and could synergize with efforts to use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology in agriculture. Here, we synthesize information gathered from studies in invertebrates using natural or artificial dietary delivery of sRNA and from studies of sRNA in vertebrate animals and plants to review our current understanding of uptake and impact of natural diet-derived sRNA on invertebrates...
October 20, 2016: RNA Biology
Benjamin Y Owusu, Lidija Klampfer
The luciferase (LUC) reporter assay is commonly used to study gene expression at the transcriptional level. It is convenient, fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and provides quantitative data about small changes in transcription. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in signaling by interferons (IFNs). Here, we describe LUC reporter studies that address the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in STAT1-dependent gene activation. These experiments include overexpression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC4 as well as silencing of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 through RNA interference in mammalian cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marc N Wein, Yanke Liang, Olga Goransson, Thomas B Sundberg, Jinhua Wang, Elizabeth A Williams, Maureen J O'Meara, Nicolas Govea, Belinda Beqo, Shigeki Nishimori, Kenichi Nagano, Daniel J Brooks, Janaina S Martins, Braden Corbin, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Joy Y Wu, Kei Sakamoto, Marc Foretz, Ramnik J Xavier, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Thomas J Gardella, Paola Divieti-Pajevic, Nathanael S Gray, Henry M Kronenberg
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates receptors on osteocytes to orchestrate bone formation and resorption. Here we show that PTH inhibition of SOST (sclerostin), a WNT antagonist, requires HDAC4 and HDAC5, whereas PTH stimulation of RANKL, a stimulator of bone resorption, requires CRTC2. Salt inducible kinases (SIKs) control subcellular localization of HDAC4/5 and CRTC2. PTH regulates both HDAC4/5 and CRTC2 localization via phosphorylation and inhibition of SIK2. Like PTH, new small molecule SIK inhibitors cause decreased phosphorylation and increased nuclear translocation of HDAC4/5 and CRTC2...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Pei Y Liu, Bernard Atmadibrata, Sujanna Mondal, Andrew E Tee, Tao Liu
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in early childhood. Patients with neuroblastoma due to the amplification of a 130-kb genomic DNA region containing the MYCN, MYCN antisense NCYM and lncUSMycN genes show poor prognosis. BET bromodomain inhibitors show anticancer efficacy against neuroblastoma partly by reducing MYCN gene transcription and N-Myc mRNA and protein expression. We have previously shown that the long nocoding RNA lncUSMycN upregulates N-Myc mRNA expression by binding to the RNA-binding protein NonO...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Sung-Hee Hwang, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Kyung Jong Won, Hwan Myung Lee, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Ginseng extracts are known to have angiogenic effects. However, to date, only limited information is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the angiogenic effects and the main components of ginseng that exert these effects. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are used as an in vitro model for screening therapeutic agents that promote angiogenesis and wound healing. We recently isolated gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, from ginseng...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Susana Galli, Arlene Naranjo, Collin Van Ryn, Jason U Tilan, Emily Trinh, Chao Yang, Jessica Tsuei, Sung-Hyeok Hong, Hongkun Wang, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Yi-Chien Lee, Olga C Rodriguez, Chris Albanese, Joanna Kitlinska
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignant neoplasm of sympathoadrenal origin. Challenges in its management include stratification of this heterogeneous disease and a lack of both adequate treatments for high-risk patients and noninvasive biomarkers of disease progression. Our previous studies have identified neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic neurotransmitter expressed in NB, as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors by virtue of its Y5 receptor (Y5R)-mediated chemoresistance and Y2 receptor (Y2R)-mediated proliferative and angiogenic activities...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Patricia L Tavormina, Matthias Y Kellermann, Chakkiath Paul Antony, Elitza Tocheva, Nathan Dalleska, Ashley J Jensen, David L Valentine, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Grant Jensen, Nicole Dubilier, Victoria J Orphan
In the deep ocean, the conversion of methane into derived carbon and energy drives the establishment of diverse faunal communities. Yet specific biological mechanisms underlying the introduction of methane-derived carbon into the food web remain poorly described, due to a lack of cultured representative deep-sea methanotrophic prokaryotes. Here, we characterize the response of the deep-sea aerobic methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti to methane starvation and recovery. By combining lipid analysis, RNA analysis, and electron cryotomography, we show that M...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Y Zhan, L Giorgetti, G Tiana
Random heteropolymers are a minimal description of biopolymers and can provide a theoretical framework to the investigate the formation of loops in biophysical experiments. The looping probability as a function of polymer length was observed to display in some biopolymers, like chromosomes in cell nuclei or long RNA chains, anomalous scaling exponents. Combining a two-state model with self-adjusting simulated-tempering calculations, we calculate numerically the looping properties of several realizations of the random interactions within the chain...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Yuko M Komesu, Holly E Richter, Darrell L Dinwiddie, Nazema Y Siddiqui, Vivian W Sung, Emily S Lukacz, Beri Ridgeway, Lily A Arya, Halina M Zyczynski, Rebecca G Rogers, Marie Gantz
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methods of a study designed to compare vaginal and urinary microbiomes in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and similarly aged, asymptomatic controls. METHODS: This paper delineates the methodology of a supplementary microbiome study nested in an ongoing randomized controlled trial comparing a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention plus midurethral sling versus midurethral sling alone for MUI...
October 13, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
L Gui, X H He, P Liu, J L Yang, Y Qin, S Y Zhou, S Yang, C G Zhang, Y K Shi
Objective: To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of HIV-negtive plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Methods: Nine patients with HIV-negtive PBL were diagnosed and treated between January 2006 and January 2016. The clinical and follow-up data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median age was 56 years (range 30-77 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 2∶1. Nobody had underlying diseases associated with immunosuppression. Primary extra nodal diseases were observed in 7 cases and only 1 patient had oral involvement...
September 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
T Nakagomi, L P Do, C A Agbemabiese, M Kaneko, P Gauchan, Y H Doan, K C Jere, A D Steele, M Iturriza-Gomara, O Nakagomi, N A Cunliffe
Rotavirus A strains detected in diarrhoeal children commonly possess any one of the genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and G9, with a recent increase in G12 detection globally. G12P[6] strains possessing short RNA (DS-1-like) and long RNA (Wa-like) migration patterns accounted for 27 % of the strains circulating in Blantyre, Malawi, between 2007 and 2008. To understand how the G12P[6] strains with two distinct genetic backgrounds emerged in Malawi, we conducted whole-genome analysis of two long-RNA and two short-RNA strains...
October 7, 2016: Archives of Virology
Lan V Pham, Jerry L Bryant, Richard Mendez, Juan Chen, Archito T Tamayo, Zijun Y Xu-Monette, Ken H Young, Ganiraju C Manyam, David Yang, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Richard J Ford
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) requires two key nutrients glucose and glutamine for O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) cycling, a post-translational protein modification that adds GlcNAc to nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Increased GlcNAc has been linked to regulatory factors involved in cancer cell growth and survival. However, the biological significance of GlcNAc in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well defined. This study is the first to show that both the substrate and the endpoint O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme of the HBP were highly expressed in DLBCL cell lines and in patient tumors compared with normal B-lymphocytes...
October 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Furqan M Fazal, Howard Y Chang
In this issue, Xue et al. (2016) describe the secondary structure of the heart-specific long non-coding RNA Braveheart, leading to the discovery of a short, asymmetric G-rich loop that controls cardiac lineage commitment by interacting with the transcription factor CNBP.
October 6, 2016: Molecular Cell
Juwen C DuBois, A George Smulian
The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host...
2016: PloS One
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