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Gut microbiota Cx3cr1

Irina Leonardi, Xin Li, Alexa Semon, Dalin Li, Itai Doron, Gregory Putzel, Agnieszka Bar, Daniel Prieto, Maria Rescigno, Dermot P B McGovern, Jesus Pla, Iliyan D Iliev
Intestinal fungi are an important component of the microbiota, and recent studies have unveiled their potential in modulating host immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease. Nonetheless, the mechanisms governing immunity to gut fungal communities (mycobiota) remain unknown. We identified CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) as being essential for the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal fungi. CX3CR1+ MNPs express antifungal receptors and activate antifungal responses in a Syk-dependent manner...
January 12, 2018: Science
Hui Chen, Lei Qian, Qiangsheng Lv, Jianxiu Yu, Wei Wu, Haixin Qian
Objectives: Persistent low-grade chronic inflammation is common in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. To date, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate gut microbiota and the expression of monocyte surface molecules in obese T2D subjects who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Methods: Twenty-four T2D patients were enrolled. Gut microbiota was assessed by measuring bacterial DNA. The phenotypes and biological functions of monocytes, and the expression of monocyte surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Diba Emal, Elena Rampanelli, Ingrid Stroo, Loes M Butter, Gwendoline J Teske, Nike Claessen, Geurt Stokman, Sandrine Florquin, Jaklien C Leemans, Mark C Dessing
An accumulating body of evidence shows that gut microbiota fulfill an important role in health and disease by modulating local and systemic immunity. The importance of the microbiome in the development of kidney disease, however, is largely unknown. To study this concept, we depleted gut microbiota with broad-spectrum antibiotics and performed renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. Depletion of the microbiota significantly attenuated renal damage, dysfunction, and remote organ injury and maintained tubular integrity after renal I/R injury...
May 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Barbara Kronsteiner, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Casandra Philipson, Monica Viladomiu, Adria Carbo, Vida Abedi, Raquel Hontecillas
Helicobacter pylori is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota in over half of the human population of which 5-15% develop gastritis or gastric malignancies. Immune responses to H. pylori are characterized by mixed T helper cell, cytotoxic T cell and NK cell responses. The presence of Tregs is essential for the control of gastritis and together with regulatory CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes and immune-evasion strategies they enable life-long persistence of H. pylori. This H. pylori-induced regulatory environment might contribute to its cross-protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease and obesity...
2016: Gut Microbes
Kathryn A Knoop, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Rodney D Newberry
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic use is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple inflammatory disorders, which in turn are linked to alterations in the intestinal microbiota. How these alterations in the intestinal microbiota translate into an increased risk for inflammatory responses is largely unknown. Here we investigated whether and how antibiotics promote inflammation via the translocation of live native gut commensal bacteria. DESIGN: Oral antibiotics were given to wildtype and induced mutant mouse strains, and the effects on bacterial translocation, inflammatory responses and the susceptibility to colitis were evaluated...
July 2016: Gut
Elisa Mazzini, Lucia Massimiliano, Giuseppe Penna, Maria Rescigno
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the gut are apt at oral tolerance establishment at steady state and immunity after infection; complex tasks in an environment exposed to the inflammatory burden of the microbiota. Here we show an unanticipated division of labor among APCs for the establishment of oral tolerance. Chemokine receptor CX3CR1(+) macrophages were found to take up soluble fed antigens and quickly transfer them to CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). Antigen transfer occurred via a mechanism that was Connexin 43-dependent and required membrane transfer, indicating a physiological role of gap junctions in antigen presentation...
February 20, 2014: Immunity
Suryasarathi Dasgupta, Dennis L Kasper
In mice treated with antibiotics to deplete commensal microbiota, there is a significant overhaul of host cellular disposition and function with CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytic cells carrying pathogenic and non-pathogenic administered bacteria to the (messenteric lymph node) MLN, resulting in T cell stimulation and IgA production.
May 2013: Cell Research
Maria Rescigno
DCs in the gut have specialized functions and are involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via tolerizing the microbiota and inducing immunity to pathogenic bacteria. Here, we summarize the characteristics of two major subtypes of phagocytes in the gut (CX3CR1(+) and CD103(+)) and pDCs and analyze their possible involvement in bacterial handling.
October 2011: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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