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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768369/recent-developments-in-understanding-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-brain-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Eoin Sherwin, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health. Indeed, roles for the bacterial commensals in various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression, autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, are emerging. Microbiota dysregulation has been documented in all of these conditions or in animal models thereof. Moreover, depletion or modulation of the gut microbiota can affect the severity of the central pathology or behavioral deficits observed in a variety of brain disorders...
August 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698775/gut-feelings-on-parkinson-s-and-depression
#3
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut-brain axis is one of the new frontiers of neuroscience. Microbiota (the collective bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract), sometimes referred to as the "second genome" or the "second brain," may influence our health in ways that scientists are just now beginning to understand. Scientists now believe that the microbiota and all that it involves may be a way to treat any number of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676349/immunoregulatory-effect-of-mast-cells-influenced-by-microbes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
Francesco Girolamo, Cristiana Coppola, Domenico Ribatti
When related to central nervous system (CNS) health and disease, brain mast cells (MCs) can be a source of either beneficial or deleterious signals acting on neural cells. We review the current state of knowledge about molecular interactions between MCs and glia in neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy. We also discuss the influence on MC actions evoked by the host microbiota, which has a profound effect on the host immune system, inducing important consequences in neurodegenerative disorders...
July 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#5
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643167/microbiome-probiotics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-deciphering-the-gut-brain-axis
#6
REVIEW
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Imen Kahouli, Si Yuan Dia, Surya Pratap Singh, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-prerequisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Joyce K Y Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
July 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601415/brain-autoimmunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-100-trillion-game-changers
#8
REVIEW
Hartmut Wekerle
T cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases in the brain, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since T cells are normally prevented from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), autoimmunity requires prior activation of naturally occurring autoreactive T cells in peripheral tissue. Recently, a critical role for the microbiota in this activation process has emerged. Here, we review the role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as a major site for the phenotypic changes that allow the migration of autoreactive T cells to the brain...
July 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549787/the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-possibilities-for-food-based-therapies
#9
Paula Perez-Pardo, Tessa Kliest, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually characterized by cardinal motor impairments. However, a range of non-motor symptoms precede the motor-phase and are major determinants for the quality of life. To date, no disease modifying treatment is available for PD patients. The gold standard therapy of levodopa is based on restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission, thereby alleviating motor symptoms, whereas non-motor symptoms remain undertreated. One of the most common non-motor symptoms is gastrointestinal dysfunction usually associated with alpha-synuclein accumulations and low-grade mucosal inflammation in the enteric nervous system...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536926/structural-changes-of-gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-features
#11
Wei Li, Xiaoli Wu, Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Shan Liang, Yunfeng Duan, Feng Jin, Bin Qin
The aim of this study was to compare the structure of gut microbiota in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls; and to explore correlations between gut microbiota and PD clinical features. We analyzed fecal bacterial composition of 24 PD patients and 14 healthy volunteers by using 16S rRNA sequencing. There were significant differences between PD and healthy controls, as well as among different PD stages. The putative cellulose degrading bacteria from the genera Blautia (P=0.018), Faecalibacterium (P=0...
May 20, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506555/gut-microbiota-in-parkinson-disease-in-a-northern-german-cohort
#12
Franziska Hopfner, Axel Künstner, Stefanie H Müller, Sven Künzel, Kirsten E Zeuner, Nils G Margraf, Günther Deuschl, John F Baines, Gregor Kuhlenbäumer
Pathologic and epidemiologic studies suggest that Parkinson disease (PD) may in some cases start in the enteric nervous system and spread via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain and that alteration of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including Parkinson disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether Parkinson disease is associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in the gut microbiome...
May 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449715/functional-implications-of-microbial-and-viral-gut-metagenome-changes-in-early-stage-l-dopa-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#13
J R Bedarf, F Hildebrand, L P Coelho, S Sunagawa, M Bahram, F Goeser, P Bork, U Wüllner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) presently is conceptualized as a protein aggregation disease in which pathology involves both the enteric and the central nervous system, possibly spreading from one to another via the vagus nerves. As gastrointestinal dysfunction often precedes or parallels motor symptoms, the enteric system with its vast diversity of microorganisms may be involved in PD pathogenesis. Alterations in the enteric microbial taxonomic level of L-DOPA-naïve PD patients might also serve as a biomarker...
April 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429209/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
V A Petrov, I V Saltykova, I A Zhukova, V M Alifirova, N G Zhukova, Yu B Dorofeeva, A V Tyakht, B A Kovarsky, D G Alekseev, E S Kostryukova, Yu S Mironova, O P Izhboldina, M A Nikitina, T V Perevozchikova, E A Fait, V V Babenko, M T Vakhitova, V M Govorun, A E Sazonov
Gut microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy volunteers was analyzed by the method of high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of bacterial genomes. In patients with Parkinson's diseases, changes in the content of 9 genera and 15 species of microorganisms were revealed: reduced content of Dorea, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides massiliensis, Stoquefichus massiliensis, Bacteroides coprocola, Blautia glucerasea, Dorea longicatena, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides plebeus, Prevotella copri, Coprococcus eutactus, and Ruminococcus callidus, and increased content of Christensenella, Catabacter, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira, Bifidobacterium, Christensenella minuta, Catabacter hongkongensis, Lactobacillus mucosae, Ruminococcus bromii, and Papillibacter cinnamivorans...
April 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220542/the-gut-microbiome-in-human-neurological-disease-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Helen Tremlett, Kylynda C Bauer, Silke Appel-Cresswell, Brett B Finlay, Emmanuelle Waubant
Almost half the cells and 1% of the unique genes found in our bodies are human, the rest are from microbes, predominantly bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. These microorganisms collectively form the human microbiota, with most colonizing the gut. Recent technological advances, open access data libraries, and application of high-throughput sequencing have allowed these microbes to be identified and their contribution to neurological health to be examined. Emerging evidence links perturbations in the gut microbiota to neurological disease, including disease risk, activity, and progression...
March 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#16
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202372/gut-microbiota-implications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Arun Parashar, Malairaman Udayabanu
Gut microbiota (GM) can influence various neurological outcomes, like cognition, learning, and memory. Commensal GM modulates brain development and behavior and has been implicated in several neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, stress and much more. A recent study has shown that Parkinson's disease patients suffer from GM dysbiosis, but whether it is a cause or an effect is yet to be understood. In this review, we try to connect the dots between GM and PD pathology using direct and indirect evidence...
May 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#18
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
May 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#19
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
May 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982042/parkinson-disease-could-gut-microbiota-influence-severity-of-parkinson-disease
#20
Hemi Malkki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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