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Gut microbiota parkinson

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776865/gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-southern-china
#1
Aiqun Lin, Wenxia Zheng, Yan He, Wenli Tang, Xiaobo Wei, Rongni He, Wei Huang, Yuying Su, Yaowei Huang, Hongwei Zhou, Huifang Xie
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has revealed alterations in the communication between the gut and brain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and previous studies have confirmed that alterations in the gut microbiome play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including PD. The aim of this study was to determine whether the faecal microbiome of PD patients in southern China differs from that of control subjects and whether the gut microbiome composition alters among different PD motor phenotypes...
May 16, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758946/gut-microbiome-is-altered-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Zhen-Qian Zhuang, Lin-Lin Shen, Wei-Wei Li, Xue Fu, Fan Zeng, Li Gui, Yang Lü, Min Cai, Chi Zhu, Yin-Ling Tan, Peng Zheng, Hui-Yun Li, Jie Zhu, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xian-Le Bu, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies suggest that gut microbiota is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression. However, whether the composition and diversity of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we collected fecal samples from 43 AD patients and 43 age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the microbiota composition in feces...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742516/influence-of-commensal-microbiota-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Kristina Endres, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
When thinking about neurodegenerative diseases, the first symptoms that come to mind are loss of memory and learning capabilities, which all resemble hallmarks of manifestation of such diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the gut comprises the largest nervous system outside the CNS that is autonomously active and in close interplay with its microbiota. Therefore, the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as an indicator of degenerative pathomechanisms that also affect the CNS. On the other hand, it might offer an entry point for devastating influences from the microbial community or - conversely - for therapeutic approaches via gut commensals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705121/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Meng-Fei Sun, Yan-Qin Shen
Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metabolites that contribute to the development of PD...
April 26, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662881/the-continuum-of-aging-and-age-related-diseases-common-mechanisms-but-different-rates
#5
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Cristina Morsiani, Maria Conte, Aurelia Santoro, Andrea Grignolio, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs) and geriatric syndromes (GSs), is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614331/carnitine-levels-and-mutations-in-the-slc22a5-gene-in-faroes-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Súsanna A Crooks, Sára Bech, Jónrit Halling, Debes H Christiansen, Beate Ritz, Maria Skaalum Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and energy production have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several agents are under investigation for potential neuroprotective effects including acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether low carnitine levels and mutations in the SLC22A5 gene encoding the carnitine transporter are associates with PD risk in the Faroe Islands where the prevalence of both PD and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) is high...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581954/influence-of-altered-gut-microbiota-composition-on-aging-and-aging-related-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Jeonghyun Choi, Tai-Young Hur, Yonggeun Hong
The gut microbiota forms a large community that coexists with all species, including humans and rodents. Genome projects have been conducted by many researchers in nearly every country to better understand and treat diseases that lead to death in humans. However, the gut microbiota is known as a "second genome" because it includes microbes, genomic DNA, proteins, and metabolites. A large number of studies have revealed the importance of the gut microbiota. In elderly people, the diversity of the gut microbiota is reduced and there is an increased incidence of degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and decreased cognitive and memory functions...
January 2018: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568289/an-ontology-systems-approach-on-human-brain-expression-and-metaproteomics
#8
Adolfo Flores Saiffe Farías, Adriana P Mendizabal, J Alejandro Morales
Research in the last decade has shown growing evidence of the gut microbiota influence on brain physiology. While many mechanisms of this influence have been proposed in animal models, most studies in humans are the result of a pathology-dysbiosis association and very few have related the presence of certain taxa with brain substructures or molecular pathways. In this paper, we associated the functional ontologies in the differential expression of brain substructures from the Allen Brain Atlas database, with those of the metaproteome from the Human Microbiome Project...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552561/of-microbes-and-minds-a-narrative-review-on-the-second-brain-aging
#9
REVIEW
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501802/alteration-of-the-fecal-microbiota-in-chinese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Yiwei Qian, Xiaodong Yang, Shaoqing Xu, Chunyan Wu, Yanyan Song, Nan Qin, Sheng-Di Chen, Qin Xiao
Emerging evidences suggest that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the alterations in fecal microbiome in Chinese PD patients remains unknown. This case-control study was conducted to explore fecal microbiota compositions in Chinese PD patients. Microbiota communities in the feces of 45 patients and their healthy spouses were investigated using high-throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The relationships between fecal microbiota and PD clinical characteristics were analyzed...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492874/mind-altering-with-the-gut-modulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis-with-probiotics
#11
REVIEW
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478695/inadequate-production-of-h-2-by-gut-microbiota-and-parkinson-disease
#12
Sergej M Ostojic
Dysbiosis of the gut flora accompanies Parkinson disease (PD), yet no specific cause-effect link has been identified so far. The gut microbiota produce molecular hydrogen (H2 ), a ubiquitous molecule recently recognized as a biologically active gas with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and signaling properties. Here, we discuss an idea that an impaired production of endogenous H2 by intestinal microbiota might play a role in PD pathogenesis, with supplemental H2 debated as a possible therapy for this progressive neurodegenerative disease...
May 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471030/neuroprotective-effects-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mice-gut-microbiota-glial-reaction-and-tlr4-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#13
Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Firmicutes and order Clostridiales decreased, while phylum Proteobacteria, order Turicibacterales and Enterobacteriales increased in fecal samples of PD mice, along with increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446158/a-neuroscience-perspective-of-the-gut-theory-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Lisa M Smith, Louise C Parr-Brownlie
Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function are impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed. We present the gut-brain theory of Parkinson's disease and summarise the peripheral and central nervous system pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by many Parkinson's patients, the route by which gut-brain dysfunction may occur and changes in gut microbiota that are associated with disease expression...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380643/gut-microbiota-modulates-type-i-interferon-and-antibody-mediated-immune-responses-in-chickens-infected-with-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2
#15
A Yitbarek, T Alkie, K Taha-Abdelaziz, J Astill, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, J Parkinson, É Nagy, S Sharif
Commensal gut microbes play a critical role in shaping host defences against pathogens, including influenza viruses. The current study was conducted to assess the role and mechanisms of action of commensal gut microbiota on the innate and antibody-mediated responses of layer chickens against influenza virus subtype H9N2. A total of 104 one-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to either of the four treatments, which included two levels of antibiotics treatment (ABX- and ABX+) and two levels of H9N2 virus infection (H9N2- and H9N2+)...
April 25, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360467/parkinson-s-disease-from-the-gut
#16
Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein. Misfolding of α-synuclein confers prion-like properties enabling its spread from cell to cell. Misfolded α-synuclein also serves as a template and induces misfolding of endogenous α-synuclein in recipient cells leading to the formation of oligomers that progress to fibrils and eventually Lewy bodies...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#17
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258921/the-choroid-plexus-epithelium-as-a-novel-player-in-the-stomach-brain-axis-during-helicobacter-infection
#18
N Gorlé, C Blaecher, E Bauwens, C Vandendriessche, S Balusu, J Vandewalle, C Van Cauwenberghe, E Van Wonterghem, G Van Imschoot, C Liu, R Ducatelle, C Libert, F Haesebrouck, A Smet, R E Vandenbroucke
Several studies suggest a link between shifts in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter suis (H. suis) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of gastric H. suis infection on the brain in mice. One month of infection with H. suis resulted in increased brain inflammation, reflected in activation of microglia and cognitive decline. Additionally, we detected choroid plexus inflammation and disruption of the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier upon H...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#19
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228270/influenza-a-virus-subtype-h9n2-infection-disrupts-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-of-chickens
#20
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
January 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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