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Gut microbiota parkinson

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258921/the-choroid-plexus-epithelium-as-a-novel-player-in-the-stomach-brain-axis-during-helicobacter-infection
#2
N Gorlé, C Blaecher, E Bauwens, C Vandendriessche, S Balusu, J Vandewalle, C Van Cauwenberghe, E Van Wonterghem, G Van Imschoot, C Liu, R Ducatelle, C Libert, F Haesebrouck, A Smet, R E Vandenbroucke
Several studies suggest a link between shifts in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter suis (H. suis) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of gastric H. suis infection on the brain in mice. One month of infection with H. suis resulted in increased brain inflammation, reflected in activation of microglia and cognitive decline. Additionally, we detected choroid plexus inflammation and disruption of the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier upon H...
December 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#3
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228270/influenza-a-virus-subtype-h9n2-infection-disrupts-the-composition-of-intestinal-microbiota-of-chickens
#4
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (Uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#5
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201595/microbes-tickling-your-tummy-the-importance-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130504/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-targeting-the-crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-brain-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091972/progression-of-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-gut-dysbiosis-two-year-follow-up-study
#8
Tomomi Minato, Tetsuya Maeda, Yoshiro Fujisawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Kinji Ohno, Masaaki Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We previously reported gut dysbiosis in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether gut dysbiosis correlates with the progression of PD. METHODS: We examined changes in gut microbiota and demographic features in 2 years in 36 PD patients. RESULTS: A change of total UPDRS scores in 2 years was predicted by the counts of Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster at year 0 with a correlation coefficient of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080843/aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-inflammaging-neuroinflammation-and-biological-remodelling-as-key-factors-in-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Vittorio Calabrese, Aurelia Santoro, Daniela Monti, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Saverio Latteri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Mario Zappia, James Giordano, Edward J Calabrese, Claudio Franceschi
In order to better understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) it is important to consider possible contributory factors inherent to the aging process, as age-related changes in a number of physiological systems (perhaps incurred within particular environments) appear to influence the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, we posit that a principal mechanism underlying PD is inflammaging, i.e. the chronic inflammatory process characterized by an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms which has been recognized as operative in several age-related, and notably neurodegenerative diseases...
October 25, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#10
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032502/gut-microbiota-changes-in-the-extreme-decades-of-human-life-a-focus-on-centenarians
#12
REVIEW
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906270/microbiota-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Moira Marizzoni, Stefania Provasi, Annamaria Cattaneo, Giovanni B Frisoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the extensive research carried out in the past decades, the current pathophysiological notions of neurodegenerative disease as well as effective treatments to reduce their progression are largely unknown. Alterations of the human microbiota, the plethora of different microscopic organisms that our body hosts, have been linked to neurodegenerative disease risk, onset and progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders and briefly discusses strategies to restore microbiota homeostasis...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#14
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
November 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881854/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877764/perilipin-2-modulates-dietary-fat-induced-microbial-global-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-mouse-intestine
#16
Xuejian Xiong, Elise S Bales, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, James L McManaman, Daniel N Frank, John Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota are critical determinants of obesity and metabolic disease risk. In previous work, we showed that deletion of the cytoplasmic lipid droplet (CLD) protein perilipin-2 (Plin2) modulates gut microbial community structure and abrogates long-term deleterious effects of a high-fat (HF) diet in mice. However, the impact of Plin2 on microbiome function is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we used metatranscriptomics to identify differences in microbiome transcript expression in WT and Plin2-null mice following acute exposure to high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HF) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LF) diets...
September 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852308/influence-of-gut-microbiota-on-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#17
REVIEW
María Carmen Cenit, Yolanda Sanz, Pilar Codoñer-Franch
The last decade has witnessed a growing appreciation of the fundamental role played by an early assembly of a diverse and balanced gut microbiota and its subsequent maintenance for future health of the host. Gut microbiota is currently viewed as a key regulator of a fluent bidirectional dialogue between the gut and the brain (gut-brain axis). A number of preclinical studies have suggested that the microbiota and its genome (microbiome) may play a key role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders...
August 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843021/the-nasal-and-gut-microbiome-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Urvashi Pandey, Tamara Wicke, Friederike Sixel-Döring, Annette Janzen, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Claudia Trenkwalder, Wolfgang H Oertel, Brit Mollenhauer, Paul Wilmes
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiota and the onset and/or phenotype of Parkinson's disease (PD). Differences in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa have been reported in PD patients. It is, however, unknown whether these differences can be observed in individuals at high risk, for example, with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, a prodromal condition of α-synuclein aggregation disorders including PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare microbiota in carefully preserved nasal wash and stool samples of subjects with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, manifest PD, and healthy individuals...
August 26, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808780/non-cns-pathogenic-origin-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Humdoon Choudhry, Lawrence C Perlmuter
The gut with its variety of microbiota may serve as an etiological origin of diseases. Gut microbes may also play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases beyond their simple nutritional maintenance and support. For example, gut protein aggregation, possibly aided by microbes as well as nasal influences, might be linked to disease that may move to the brain through the vagus nerve. To this end, Braak has offered a "dual-hit" hypothesis that proposes a novel etiology for Parkinson's disease (PD). The hypothesis places the initial origin of the disease in the nose and the gastrointestinal tract (GI) after infection by an unknown pathogen that could aggregate in the gut and then eventually spread to the brain via the autonomic plexuses...
September 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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