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Gut microbiota parkinson

Yiwei Qian, Xiaodong Yang, Shaoqing Xu, Chunyan Wu, Yanyan Song, Nan Qin, Sheng-Di Chen, Qin Xiao
Emerging evidences suggest that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the alterations in fecal microbiome in Chinese PD patients remains unknown. This case-control study was conducted to explore fecal microbiota compositions in Chinese PD patients. Microbiota communities in the feces of 45 patients and their healthy spouses were investigated using high-throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. The relationships between fecal microbiota and PD clinical characteristics were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Sergej M Ostojic
Dysbiosis of the gut flora accompanies Parkinson disease (PD), yet no specific cause-effect link has been identified so far. The gut microbiota produce molecular hydrogen (H2 ), a ubiquitous molecule recently recognized as a biologically active gas with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and signaling properties. Here, we discuss an idea that an impaired production of endogenous H2 by intestinal microbiota might play a role in PD pathogenesis, with supplemental H2 debated as a possible therapy for this progressive neurodegenerative disease...
February 22, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Firmicutes and order Clostridiales decreased, while phylum Proteobacteria, order Turicibacterales and Enterobacteriales increased in fecal samples of PD mice, along with increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lisa M Smith, Louise C Parr-Brownlie
Parkinson's disease is caused by complex interactions between environmental factors and a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include exposure to pesticides and toxins, heavy metals and accumulation of iron and/or manganese in the brain. However, accumulating evidence indicates that gut-brain health and function is impaired in Parkinson's disease, often a decade before motor symptoms are diagnosed. We present the gut-brain theory of Parkinson's disease and summarise the peripheral and central nervous system pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by many Parkinson's patients, the route by which gut-brain dysfunction may occur, and changes in gut microbiota that are associated with disease expression...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
A Yitbarek, T Alkie, K Taha-Abdelaziz, J Astill, J C Rodriguez-Lecompte, J Parkinson, É Nagy, S Sharif
Commensal gut microbes play a critical role in shaping host defences against pathogens, including influenza viruses. The current study was conducted to assess the role and mechanisms of action of commensal gut microbiota on the innate and antibody-mediated responses of layer chickens against influenza virus subtype H9N2. A total of 104 one-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were assigned to either of the four treatments, which included two levels of antibiotics treatment (ABX- and ABX+) and two levels of H9N2 virus infection (H9N2- and H9N2+)...
January 30, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein. Misfolding of α-synuclein confers prion-like properties enabling its spread from cell to cell. Misfolded α-synuclein also serves as a template and induces misfolding of endogenous α-synuclein in recipient cells leading to the formation of oligomers that progress to fibrils and eventually Lewy bodies...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
N Gorlé, C Blaecher, E Bauwens, C Vandendriessche, S Balusu, J Vandewalle, C Van Cauwenberghe, E Van Wonterghem, G Van Imschoot, C Liu, R Ducatelle, C Libert, F Haesebrouck, A Smet, R E Vandenbroucke
Several studies suggest a link between shifts in gut microbiota and neurological disorders. Recently, we reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter suis (H. suis) in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of gastric H. suis infection on the brain in mice. One month of infection with H. suis resulted in increased brain inflammation, reflected in activation of microglia and cognitive decline. Additionally, we detected choroid plexus inflammation and disruption of the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier upon H...
December 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Alexander Yitbarek, J Scott Weese, Tamiru Negash Alkie, John Parkinson, Shayan Sharif
The impact of low pathogenic influenza viruses such as subtype H9N2, which infect the respiratory and the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens, on microbial composition are not known. Twenty-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to two treatment groups, control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected (challenged via the oral-nasal route). Fecal genomic DNA was extracted, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using the Illumina Miseq® platform. Sequences were curated using Mothur as described in the MiSeq SOP...
January 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Tomomi Minato, Tetsuya Maeda, Yoshiro Fujisawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Kinji Ohno, Masaaki Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We previously reported gut dysbiosis in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether gut dysbiosis correlates with the progression of PD. METHODS: We examined changes in gut microbiota and demographic features in 2 years in 36 PD patients. RESULTS: A change of total UPDRS scores in 2 years was predicted by the counts of Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster at year 0 with a correlation coefficient of 0...
2017: PloS One
Vittorio Calabrese, Aurelia Santoro, Daniela Monti, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Saverio Latteri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Mario Zappia, James Giordano, Edward J Calabrese, Claudio Franceschi
In order to better understand the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) it is important to consider possible contributory factors inherent to the aging process, as age-related changes in a number of physiological systems (perhaps incurred within particular environments) appear to influence the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, we posit that a principal mechanism underlying PD is inflammaging, i.e. the chronic inflammatory process characterized by an imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms which has been recognized as operative in several age-related, and notably neurodegenerative diseases...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Moira Marizzoni, Stefania Provasi, Annamaria Cattaneo, Giovanni B Frisoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the extensive research carried out in the past decades, the current pathophysiological notions of neurodegenerative disease as well as effective treatments to reduce their progression are largely unknown. Alterations of the human microbiota, the plethora of different microscopic organisms that our body hosts, have been linked to neurodegenerative disease risk, onset and progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the possible role of microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders and briefly discusses strategies to restore microbiota homeostasis...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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