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Gut microbiota parkinson

Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
George Anderson, M Seo, M Berk, A F Carvalho, M Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) and alterations in gut microbiota are now widely accepted as relevant to the etiology, course and treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Although a wide array of data on the biological underpinnings of PD has not yet been linked to such gut-associated changes, increased gut permeability and dysregulated microbiota alter many pathways germane to PD. METHODS: In this article we review and integrate these wider biological changes in PD, including increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, immune-inflammatory processes, tryptophan catabolites and alterations in serotoninergic and melatoninergic pathways...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Marcus M Unger, Jörg Spiegel, Klaus-Ulrich Dillmann, David Grundmann, Hannah Philippeit, Jan Bürmann, Klaus Faßbender, Andreas Schwiertz, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently have gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. constipation) and exhibit the PD-typical pathohistology in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Both, clinical symptoms and pathohistological changes in the ENS occur at early stages and can precede the motor manifestations of PD. Two recent studies reported an association between changes in gut microbiota composition and PD. We hypothesized that alterations in gut microbiota might be accompanied by altered concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), one main metabolic product of gut bacteria...
August 26, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yuuki Obata, Vassilis Pachnis
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is essential for the absorption of nutrients, induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses, and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota. Key aspects of gastrointestinal physiology are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is composed of enteric neurons and glial cells. The ENS is exposed to and interacts with the outer (microbiota, metabolites, and nutrients) and inner (immune cells and stromal cells) microenvironment of the gut. Although the cellular blueprint of the ENS is mostly in place by birth, the functional maturation of intestinal neural networks is completed within the microenvironment of the postnatal gut, under the influence of gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system...
August 10, 2016: Gastroenterology
Alper Evrensel, Mehmet Emin Ceylan
Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sandra Guidi, Patrizia Bianchi, Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Stefania Trazzi, Elisabetta Ciani, Renata Bartesaghi
In this review we look at this biological overlaps of neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions, as exemplified by major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT), with consequences for serotonin availability for the melatonergic pathways. Such work significantly questions the validity and utility of non-biologically based current classification systems for psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions...
August 1, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Adreesh Mukherjee, Atanu Biswas, Shyamal Kumar Das
Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown...
July 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ben Boursi, Ronac Mamtani, Kevin Haynes, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND: A pro-inflammatory gut microbiota was described in both Parkinson's disease and colorectal cancer (CRC) and recently α-synuclein was demonstrated in the enteric nervous system. We sought to evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease and CRC. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using a large primary-care database. Cases were defined as all individuals with CRC. Up to 4 controls were matched with each case based on age, sex, practice-site and duration of follow-up...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Valeria D Felice, Eamonn M Quigley, Aideen M Sullivan, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Siobhain M O'Mahony
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1-2% of the population over 65 years of age. The primary neuropathology is the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, resulting in characteristic motor deficits, upon which the clinical diagnosis is based. However, a number of significant non-motor symptoms (NMS) are also evident that appear to have a greater impact on the quality of life of these patients. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that neurobiological processes can be modified by the bi-directional communication that occurs along the brain-gut axis...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Hyun Ho Choi, Young-Seok Cho
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism...
May 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
Agata Mulak, Bruno Bonaz
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain...
October 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xin Fang
Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative diseases with pathophysiology that may be related to the gastrointestinal tract. It is well established that tissue barriers maintain homeostasis and health. Furthermore, gut microbiota may have an impact on brain activity through the gut-microbiota-brain axis under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge regarding the role of gut microbiota and tissue barriers in PD and ALS...
September 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota has become a focus of research for those interested in the brain and behaviour. Here, we profile the gut microbiota in a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple routes of communication between the gut and brain have been established and these include the vagus nerve, immune system, short chain fatty acids and tryptophan. Developmentally, those born by caesarean section have a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Sylvia M Dobbs, R John Dobbs, Clive Weller, André Charlett, Aisha Augustin, David Taylor, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Ingvar Bjarnason
We seek an aetiopathogenic model for the spectrum of Parkinson's disease (PD), functional bowel disease, depression and cognitive impairment. The adopted concept is that systemic immuno-inflammatory processes mediate neuro-inflammation. The model would be based on phenotype, exposome (including gastrointestinal microbiome), milieu (immuno-inflammatory and metabolome), human genetics and their interactions. It would enable a patient's position, to be understood in terms of drivers, perpetuators and mediators, and a future position, with and without intervention, predicted...
February 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Filip Scheperjans, Eero Pekkonen, Seppo Kaakkola, Petri Auvinen
While the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still obscure, there is evidence for lifestyle factors influencing disease risk. Best established are the inverse associations with smoking and coffee consumption. In other contexts there is evidence that health effects of lifestyle factors may depend on gut microbiome composition. Considering the gastrointestinal involvement in PD, it was recently speculated, that the associations between smoking, coffee, and PD risk could be mediated by gut microbiota...
2015: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Emeran A Mayer, Kirsten Tillisch, Arpana Gupta
Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems...
March 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Robert P Friedland
The concept of molecular mimicry was established to explain commonalities of structure which developed in response to evolutionary pressures. Most examples of molecular mimicry in medicine have involved homologies of primary protein structure which cause disease. Molecular mimicry can be expanded beyond amino acid sequence to include microRNA and proteomic effects which are either pathogenic or salutogenic (beneficial) in regard to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and related disorders. Viruses of animal or plant origin may mimic nucleotide sequences of microRNAs and influence protein expression...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Meng-Que Xu, Hai-Long Cao, Wei-Qiang Wang, Shan Wang, Xiao-Cang Cao, Fang Yan, Bang-Mao Wang
Intestinal dysbiosis is now known to be a complication in a myriad of diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a microbiota-target therapy, is arguably very effective for curing Clostridium difficile infection and has good outcomes in other intestinal diseases. New insights have raised an interest in FMT for the management of extra-intestinal disorders associated with gut microbiota. This review shows that it is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT application in previously unexpected areas, including metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and tumors...
January 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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