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Gut microbiota alzheimer

Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Massimiliano Cuccioloni, Mauro Angeletti, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication network functionally linking the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this, the rational manipulation of intestinal microbiota represents a novel attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CNS-associated disorders. In this study, we explored the properties of a probiotic formulation (namely SLAB51) in counteracting brain oxidative damages associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) were treated with SLAB51 and the effects on protein oxidation, neuronal antioxidant defence and repair systems were monitored, with the particular focus on the role of SIRT1-related pathways...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Leszek Szablewski
Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in human health and disease. The alterations in the composition of gut microbiota may cause the onset of certain human pathologies. One of these is Alzheimer's disease (AD). High-fat diets, administration of antibiotics, lack of probiotics and/or prebiotics in diet increase the risk of AD. On the other hand, modulation of the composition of gut microbiota may decrease the risk of AD and be able to slow down the progression of AD.
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bi-Feng Yuan, Quan-Fei Zhu, Ning Guo, Shu-Jian Zheng, Ya-Lan Wang, Jie Wang, Jing Xu, Shi-Jie Liu, Ke He, Ting Hu, Ying-Wei Zheng, Fuqiang Xu, Yu-Qi Feng
Gut microbiota plays important roles in the host health. The host and symbiotic gut microbiota coproduce a large numbers of metabolites during the metabolism of food and xenobiotics. Analysis of fecal metabolites can provide a non-invasive manner to study the outcome of the host-gut microbiota interaction. Herein we reported the comprehensive profiling of fecal metabolome of mice by an integrated chemical isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL-LC-MS) analysis. The metabolites are categorized into several submetabolomes based on the functional moieties (i...
February 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Claudia Balducci, Gianluigi Forloni
Several years after the intriguing novelty in the β-amyloid (Aβ) cascade hypothesis, where the Aβ oligomers emerged as the most detrimental species in the neuropathogenic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in place of fibrillar plaques, more recently innate immune system have come on stage as the other prominent factor. Neuroinflammation apparently contributes to AD eziopathogenesis, in large part through overactivation of microglia cells. Genetic and experimental studies strongly support the contribution of the immune system to increasing the risk of AD and participating in its progression...
January 30, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Elena L Paley, Tatiana Merkulova-Rainon, Aleksandr Faynboym, Valery I Shestopalov, Igor Aksenoff
Earlier we reported induction of neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration by tryptophan metabolites that link the metabolic alterations to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tryptophan is a product of Shikimate pathway (SP). Human cells lack SP, which is found in human gut bacteria exclusively using SP to produce aromatic amino acids (AAA). This study is a first attempt toward gene-targeted analysis of human gut microbiota in AD fecal samples. The oligonucleotide primers newly-designed for this work target SP-AAA in environmental bacteria associated with human activity...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Yunjin Lee, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Jin Kwon, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota contribute to brain dysfunction, including pathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microbiota secrete membrane vesicles, also called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain bacterial genomic DNA fragments and other molecules and are distributed throughout the host body, including blood. In the present study, we investigated whether bacteria-derived EVs in blood are useful for metagenome analysis in an AD mouse model. Sequence readings of variable regions of 16S rRNA genes prepared from blood EVs in Tg-APP/PS1 mice allowed us to identify over 3,200 operational taxonomic units corresponding to gut microbiota reported in previous studies...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Diling Chen, Xin Yang, Jian Yang, Guoxiao Lai, Tianqiao Yong, Xiaocui Tang, Ou Shuai, Gailian Zhou, Yizhen Xie, Qingping Wu
Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO) exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Thus, the present study investigated whether OMO is effective in alleviating AD by targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ikuo Tsunoda
Microbial infections lead to neurological damages either by direct infection in the nervous tissues or by uncontrolled immune responses (immunopathology). For example, in Zika virus infection, microcephaly can be caused by the former, i.e., direct viral infection in the brain, while Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) seems to be antibody-mediated immunopathology. Although a variety of factors affect immunopathology, two essential systems maintaining whole-body homeostasis had long been neglected: 1) the lymphatic system and 2) microbiota...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
Ah-Mee Park, Seiichi Omura, Mitsugu Fujita, Fumitaka Sato, Ikuo Tsunoda
Alteration of microbiota has been associated with intestinal, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. Abundance of "good bacteria" such as Bifidobacterium , or their products have been generally believed to be beneficial for any diseases, while "bad bacteria" such as pathogenic Helicobacter pylori are assumed to be always detrimental for hosts. However, this is not the case when we compare and contrast the association of the gut microbiota with two neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, María J Ramírez, J Alfredo Martínez
Obesity prevalence is increasing steadily throughout the world's population in most countries and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is also rising, but less is reported about excessive adiposity relationship with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline and dementia. Some human clinical studies have evidenced that obesity is related to the risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment, in the form of short-term memory and executive function deficits, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Yodai Kobayashi, Hirosuke Sugahara, Kousuke Shimada, Eri Mitsuyama, Tetsuya Kuhara, Akihito Yasuoka, Takashi Kondo, Keiko Abe, Jin-Zhong Xiao
It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ling Zhang, Ying Wang, Xia Xiayu, Changhua Shi, Wei Chen, Nan Song, Xinjing Fu, Rui Zhou, Yan-Feng Xu, Lan Huang, Hua Zhu, Yunlin Han, Chuan Qin
The topic of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent and time course of alterations in the gut microbiota, and their effects on AD pathology remain uncertain. Herein, we compared the fecal microbiomes and fecal short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) between wild-type and AD model mice at different ages under strictly controlled specific pathogen free conditions, and also conducted microscopic investigations of intestinal structures...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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