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Gut microbiota alzheimer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758946/gut-microbiome-is-altered-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Zhen-Qian Zhuang, Lin-Lin Shen, Wei-Wei Li, Xue Fu, Fan Zeng, Li Gui, Yang Lü, Min Cai, Chi Zhu, Yin-Ling Tan, Peng Zheng, Hui-Yun Li, Jie Zhu, Hua-Dong Zhou, Xian-Le Bu, Yan-Jiang Wang
Previous studies suggest that gut microbiota is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and depression. However, whether the composition and diversity of gut microbiota is altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we collected fecal samples from 43 AD patients and 43 age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the microbiota composition in feces...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742516/influence-of-commensal-microbiota-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Kristina Endres, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
When thinking about neurodegenerative diseases, the first symptoms that come to mind are loss of memory and learning capabilities, which all resemble hallmarks of manifestation of such diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the gut comprises the largest nervous system outside the CNS that is autonomously active and in close interplay with its microbiota. Therefore, the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as an indicator of degenerative pathomechanisms that also affect the CNS. On the other hand, it might offer an entry point for devastating influences from the microbial community or - conversely - for therapeutic approaches via gut commensals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703936/ketogenic-diet-enhances-neurovascular-function-with-altered-gut-microbiome-in-young-healthy-mice
#3
David Ma, Amy C Wang, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, Jared D Hoffman, George Chlipala, M Paul Murphy, Brent S Sokola, Björn Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Neurovascular integrity, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, plays a major role in determining cognitive capability. Recent studies suggest that neurovascular integrity could be regulated by the gut microbiome. The purpose of the study was to identify if ketogenic diet (KD) intervention would alter gut microbiome and enhance neurovascular functions, and thus reduce risk for neurodegeneration in young healthy mice (12-14 weeks old). Here we show that with 16 weeks of KD, mice had significant increases in CBF and P-glycoprotein transports on BBB to facilitate clearance of amyloid-beta, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662881/the-continuum-of-aging-and-age-related-diseases-common-mechanisms-but-different-rates
#4
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Cristina Morsiani, Maria Conte, Aurelia Santoro, Andrea Grignolio, Daniela Monti, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs) and geriatric syndromes (GSs), is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581954/influence-of-altered-gut-microbiota-composition-on-aging-and-aging-related-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Jeonghyun Choi, Tai-Young Hur, Yonggeun Hong
The gut microbiota forms a large community that coexists with all species, including humans and rodents. Genome projects have been conducted by many researchers in nearly every country to better understand and treat diseases that lead to death in humans. However, the gut microbiota is known as a "second genome" because it includes microbes, genomic DNA, proteins, and metabolites. A large number of studies have revealed the importance of the gut microbiota. In elderly people, the diversity of the gut microbiota is reduced and there is an increased incidence of degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and decreased cognitive and memory functions...
January 2018: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575030/shifts-in-gut-microbiota-composition-in-an-app-pss1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-lifespan
#6
Christine Bäuerl, M Carmen Collado, Ana Diaz Cuevas, José Viña, Gaspar Pérez Martínez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and one of the major causes of disability and dependency in older people. Accumulating evidences link gut microbiota with different diseases and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases is becoming most intriguing. This study was aimed to compare the gut microbiota of transgenic APP/PS1 (TG) mice, a well-established deterministic mouse model of AD, with their C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) littermates. Faecal samples were collected from 3, 6 and 24 months old mice and analysed by pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
March 25, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552561/of-microbes-and-minds-a-narrative-review-on-the-second-brain-aging
#7
REVIEW
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492874/mind-altering-with-the-gut-modulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis-with-probiotics
#8
REVIEW
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492848/slab51-probiotic-formulation-activates-sirt1-pathway-promoting-antioxidant-and-neuroprotective-effects-in-an-ad-mouse-model
#9
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Massimiliano Cuccioloni, Mauro Angeletti, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication network functionally linking the gut and the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this, the rational manipulation of intestinal microbiota represents a novel attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CNS-associated disorders. In this study, we explored the properties of a probiotic formulation (namely SLAB51) in counteracting brain oxidative damages associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD) were treated with SLAB51 and the effects on protein oxidation, neuronal antioxidant defence and repair systems were monitored, with the particular focus on the role of SIRT1-related pathways...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480188/human-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Leszek Szablewski
Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in human health and disease. The alterations in the composition of gut microbiota may cause the onset of certain human pathologies. One of these is Alzheimer's disease (AD). High-fat diets, administration of antibiotics, lack of probiotics and/or prebiotics in diet increase the risk of AD. On the other hand, modulation of the composition of gut microbiota may decrease the risk of AD and be able to slow down the progression of AD.
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406693/comprehensive-profiling-of-fecal-metabolome-of-mice-by-integrated-chemical-isotope-labeling-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#11
Bi-Feng Yuan, Quan-Fei Zhu, Ning Guo, Shu-Jian Zheng, Ya-Lan Wang, Jie Wang, Jing Xu, Shi-Jie Liu, Ke He, Ting Hu, Ying-Wei Zheng, Fu-Qiang Xu, Yu-Qi Feng
Gut microbiota plays important roles in the host health. The host and symbiotic gut microbiota coproduce a large number of metabolites during the metabolism of food and xenobiotics. The analysis of fecal metabolites can provide a noninvasive manner to study the outcome of the host-gut microbiota interaction. Herein, we reported the comprehensive profiling of fecal metabolome of mice by an integrated chemical isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CIL-LC-MS) analysis. The metabolites are categorized into several submetabolomes based on the functional moieties (i...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391235/novel-targets-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-special-focus-on-microglia
#12
REVIEW
Claudia Balducci, Gianluigi Forloni
Several years after the intriguing novelty in the β-amyloid (Aβ) cascade hypothesis, where the Aβ oligomers emerged as the most detrimental species in the neuropathogenic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in place of fibrillar plaques, more recently innate immune system have come on stage as the other prominent factor. Neuroinflammation apparently contributes to AD eziopathogenesis, in large part through overactivation of microglia cells. Genetic and experimental studies strongly support the contribution of the immune system to increasing the risk of AD and participating in its progression...
April 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376868/geographical-distribution-and-diversity-of-gut-microbial-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-sequence-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Elena L Paley, Tatiana Merkulova-Rainon, Aleksandr Faynboym, Valery I Shestopalov, Igor Aksenoff
Earlier we reported induction of neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration by tryptophan metabolites that link the metabolic alterations to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tryptophan is a product of Shikimate pathway (SP). Human cells lack SP, which is found in human gut bacteria exclusively using SP to produce aromatic amino acids (AAA). This study is a first attempt toward gene-targeted analysis of human gut microbiota in AD fecal samples. The oligonucleotide primers newly-designed for this work target SP-AAA in environmental bacteria associated with human activity...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302204/metagenome-analysis-of-bodily-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-blood
#15
Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Yunjin Lee, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Jin Kwon, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota contribute to brain dysfunction, including pathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microbiota secrete membrane vesicles, also called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain bacterial genomic DNA fragments and other molecules and are distributed throughout the host body, including blood. In the present study, we investigated whether bacteria-derived EVs in blood are useful for metagenome analysis in an AD mouse model. Sequence readings of variable regions of 16S rRNA genes prepared from blood EVs in Tg-APP/PS1 mice allowed us to identify over 3,200 operational taxonomic units corresponding to gut microbiota reported in previous studies...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276488/prebiotic-effect-of-fructooligosaccharides-from-morinda-officinalis-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rodent-models-by-targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#16
Diling Chen, Xin Yang, Jian Yang, Guoxiao Lai, Tianqiao Yong, Xiaocui Tang, Ou Shuai, Gailian Zhou, Yizhen Xie, Qingping Wu
Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO) exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Thus, the present study investigated whether OMO is effective in alleviating AD by targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
March 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#18
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#19
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201154/lymphatic-system-and-gut-microbiota-affect-immunopathology-of-neuroinflammatory-diseases-including-multiple-sclerosis-neuromyelitis-optica-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Ikuo Tsunoda
Microbial infections lead to neurological damages either by direct infection in the nervous tissues or by uncontrolled immune responses (immunopathology). For example, in Zika virus infection, microcephaly can be caused by the former, i.e., direct viral infection in the brain, while Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) seems to be antibody-mediated immunopathology. Although a variety of factors affect immunopathology, two essential systems maintaining whole-body homeostasis had long been neglected: 1) the lymphatic system and 2) microbiota...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
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