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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153162/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-change-in-temperate-grazing-dairy-systems
#1
J R Roche, D P Berry, A M Bryant, C R Burke, S T Butler, P G Dillon, D J Donaghy, B Horan, K A Macdonald, K L Macmillan
From 1917 to 2017, dairy grazing systems have evolved from uncontrolled grazing of unimproved pastures by dual-purpose dairy-beef breeds to an intensive system with a high output per unit of land from a fit-for-purpose cow. The end of World War I signaled significant government investments in agricultural research institutes around the world, which coincided with technological breakthroughs in milk harvesting and a recognition that important traits in both plants and animals could be improved upon relatively rapidly through genetic selection...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151574/machine-learning-meets-complex-networks-via-coalescent-embedding-in-the-hyperbolic-space
#2
Alessandro Muscoloni, Josephine Maria Thomas, Sara Ciucci, Ginestra Bianconi, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci
Physicists recently observed that realistic complex networks emerge as discrete samples from a continuous hyperbolic geometry enclosed in a circle: the radius represents the node centrality and the angular displacement between two nodes resembles their topological proximity. The hyperbolic circle aims to become a universal space of representation and analysis of many real networks. Yet, inferring the angular coordinates to map a real network back to its latent geometry remains a challenging inverse problem...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151234/excavating-the-psyche-a-social-history-of-soviet-psychiatry-in-bulgaria
#3
Julian Chehirian
This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150813/a-social-cichlid-fish-failed-to-pass-the-mark-test
#4
Takashi Hotta, Shiho Komiyama, Masanori Kohda
Since the pioneering work in chimpanzees, mirror self-recognition (MSR), the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, has been reported in great apes, Asian elephants, dolphins, and some social birds using the mark test, in which animals that possess MSR touch an imperceptible mark on their own bodies only when a mirror is present. However, giant pandas, which are solitary, failed to pass the mark test, suggesting that MSR evolved solely in highly social animals. In contrast to the increasing evidence of MSR in mammals and birds, little is known about MSR in fish...
November 17, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148105/experiences-of-nurse-case-managers-within-a-central-discharge-planning-role-of-collaboration-between-physicians-patients-and-other-healthcare-professionals-a-sociocultural-qualitative-study
#5
Jorun E Thoma, Marion A Waite
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of Nurse Case Managers' (NCM) experiences within the German acute care context of collaboration with patients and physicians in a discharge planning role. Further to learn about patients' assignment to the management of the NCMs. Explicitly, to explore critical incidences of interactions between NCM, patients and health care practitioner in discharge planning to understand the factor that contributes to effective collaboration...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147858/community-interventions-to-increase-stroke-preparedness-and-acute-stroke-treatment-rates
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen M Kelly, Kathryn T Holt, Gina M Neshewat, Lesli E Skolarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke treatments reduce the risk of post-stroke disability. These treatments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and intra-arterial treatment, are highly time-dependent; thus, one of the main barriers to treatment is pre-hospital delay. Stroke preparedness is defined as the ability to recognize stroke symptoms and the intent to activate emergency medical services (EMS). This review describes types of acute stroke treatment and preparedness interventions, including recent mass media interventions to increase acute stroke treatment rates, and adult and youth community interventions to increase stroke preparedness...
November 16, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143638/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-for-acute-childhood-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-to-provide-estimates-for-the-lives-saved-tool
#7
Nazia Darvesh, Jai K Das, Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Kumanan Rasanathan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing recognition of the responsibilities of non-health sectors in improving the health of children. Interventions to improve access to clean water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene behaviours (WASH) represent key opportunities to improve child health and well-being by preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving nutritional status. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the effects of WASH interventions on childhood diarrhea in children 0-5 years old...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143628/do-the-status-and-empowerment-of-mothers-predict-their-daughters-reproductive-outcomes
#8
Jessica D Gipson, Dawn M Upchurch
BACKGROUND: Despite increased recognition of the important influences of women's status and empowerment on social and health outcomes for women and their families, there are few investigations that examine the extent to which any gains in women's empowerment may be transmitted intergenerationally, that is, between mothers and their daughters. METHODS: This study seeks to address this gap by using data from a unique, longitudinal, and intergenerational dataset from Cebu, Philippines (1994-2009), to examine potential influences of the status of mothers on subsequent reproductive health outcomes among their daughters...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141591/the-impact-of-pregnancy-loss-on-men-s-health-and-wellbeing-a-systematic-review
#9
Clemence Due, Stephanie Chiarolli, Damien W Riggs
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that men's psychological and physical health outcomes after pregnancy loss differ from those of women. Our goal was to identify all literature with a focus on men's experiences of pregnancy loss in order to outline current evidence concerning men's wellbeing. METHODS: A systematic review of literature on men and pregnancy loss was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) and Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) guidelines...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141512/the-impact-of-own-and-others-alcohol-consumption-on-social-contagion-following-a-collaborative-memory-task
#10
Craig Thorley, Paul Christiansen
When one person alters his or her recollection of an event to be consistent with another person's erroneous account of the same event, social contagion has occurred. In two studies, we examined whether alcohol consumption influences the degree to which people engage in social contagion. In Study 1, participants consumed alcohol, an alcohol placebo, or a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate who consumed a soft drink. In Study 2, participants consumed a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate they believed had consumed a soft drink or alcohol (but no alcohol was ever consumed)...
November 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138108/analysis-of-social-process-in-two-inbred-strains-of-male-mice-a-predominance-of-contact-based-investigation-in-balb-c-mice
#11
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Developing mouse models for social communication deficits requires a better understanding of the nature of social investigatory processes between mice. Mice use different investigatory strategies based on a possibility of contacts with social sources. A detailed investigation of contact distance revealed strain differences in behavioral strategy between two male inbred C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) mouse strains. When direct physical contact with stimulus mice was restricted, BALB mice displayed lower social approaches than B6 mice, accompanied by heightened innate anxiety in an unfamiliar environment...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#12
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135838/characteristics-of-compensation-claimants-reporting-an-occupational-injury-associated-with-disability-benefits-in-the-subsequent-year-a-follow-up-study
#13
Marianne Rudbeck, Jens Peter Johansen, Øyvind Omland
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of claimants reporting an occupational injury associated with disability benefits for income independently granted by the municipality the subsequent year. METHOD: Multivariate logistic regression was used on self-reported data and register data. Primary outcome was long-term disability benefits. RESULTS: We found that perceived low work ability, high emotional stress, perceived low health, and expected recognition increased the risk of disability benefits...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135378/same-sex-parenting-identification-of-social-representations-in-a-sample-of-portuguese-professionals
#14
Paula Xavier, Isabel Alberto, Francisco Mendes
Although international scientific research and the position of professional associations reiterate that the parents' sexual orientation is not a criterion of parenting quality, the social recognition of same-sex parenting remains difficult in Portugal. Given the importance of forensic issues in this field, this study aims to identify the representations of psychologists, social workers, lawyers/attorneys, and judges regarding same-sex parenting. The study involves five homogeneous focus groups with a total of 19 professionals...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#15
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134055/influence-of-goal-contents-on-exercise-addiction-analysing-the-mediating-effect-of-passion-for-exercise
#16
Álvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, María-Jesús Lirola, Rafael Burgueño
Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133990/the-acoustic-repertoire-of-the-atlantic-forest-rocket-frog-and-its-consequences-for-taxonomy-and-conservation-allobates-aromobatidae
#17
Lucas Rodriguez Forti, Thaís Renata Ávila da Silva, Luís Felipe Toledo
The use of acoustic signals is a common characteristic of most anuran species to mediate intraspecific communication. Besides many social purposes, one of the main functions of these signals is species recognition. For this reason, this phenotypic trait is normally applied to taxonomy or to construct evolutionary relationship hypotheses. Here the acoustic repertoire of five populations of the genus Allobates from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are presented for the first time, on a vulnerable to extinction Neotropical taxon...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132674/food-allergy-management
#18
REVIEW
Carla M Davis, John M Kelso
The management of food allergies requires the cooperation of the food allergic person, physician, family, and social contacts. For children, school management of food allergies is a key component of the overall approach. Recognition of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions and preparation to administer the appropriate treatment of mild and severe symptoms in the event of accidental exposure is necessary. Avoidance of food allergens is facilitated by label reading and dietary guidance is extremely important to minimize nutritional deficiencies...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130377/negotiating-horizontality-in-medical-south-south-cooperation-the-cuban-mission-in-rio-de-janeiro-s-urban-peripheries
#19
Maria Lidola, Fabiano Tonaco Borges
For more than 50 years, Cuba has been one of the most important players in the field of international medical cooperation in the Global South. Between 2013 and 2016, Cuba maintained one of its largest cooperations with Brazil: nearly 11,400 Cuban physicians were sent to work within the framework of the Brazilian health programme 'More-Doctors-for-Brazil', which was implemented to improve Brazil's precarious public health sector. This paper inquires into the manifold challenges of horizontal connectivity in this medical South-South cooperation...
November 13, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125394/knowledge-gained-and-retained-from-a-video-centered-community-based-intervention-for-ebola-prevention-congo
#20
Amira A Roess, Rosemarie Di Peppi, Eric A Kinzoni, Michaelle Molouania, Emily Kennedy, Saturnin R Ibata, Nkenda Badinga, Fredy S Mabola, Cynthia Moses
There are few effective communication interventions to respond to Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, and their development is a continuing challenge. The largest outbreak of EVD was first recognized in 2014 and once again highlighted the need for health education communication campaigns. EVD emergence and transmission are associated with behaviors that increase exposure to infected individuals and infected wildlife. In 2008-2009, an educational video-centered intervention consisting of a film followed by a structured discussion was developed to improve EVD knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KABs) for prevention of EVD and care of infected people...
November 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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