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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087544/children-s-experiences-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-cfs-me-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-studies
#1
Roxanne M Parslow, Sarah Harris, Jessica Broughton, Adla Alattas, Esther Crawley, Kirstie Haywood, Alison Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. BACKGROUND: CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080301/assessing-social-cognition-age-related-changes-in-moral-reasoning-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#2
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077170/prosodic-processing-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#3
Gabriela Ilie, Michael D Cusimano, Wenshan Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often report difficulties with understanding and producing paralinguistic cues, as well as understanding and producing basic communication tasks. However, a large range of communicative deficits in this population cannot be adequately explained by linguistic impairment. The review examines prosodic processing performance post-TBI, its relationship with injury severity, brain injury localization, recovery and co-occurring psychiatric or mental health issues post-TBI METHODS: A systematic review using several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LLBA (Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstract) and Web of Science (January 1980 to May 2015), as well as a manual search of the cited references of the selected articles and the search cited features of PubMed was performed...
January 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077148/linking-communities-to-formal-health-care-providers-through-village-health-teams-in-rural-uganda-lessons-from-linking-social-capital
#4
Laban Kashaija Musinguzi, Emmanueil Benon Turinawe, Jude T Rwemisisi, Daniel H de Vries, David K Mafigiri, Denis Muhangi, Marije de Groot, Achilles Katamba, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: Community-based programmes, particularly community health workers (CHWs), have been portrayed as a cost-effective alternative to the shortage of health workers in low-income countries. Usually, literature emphasises how easily CHWs link and connect communities to formal health care services. There is little evidence in Uganda to support or dispute such claims. Drawing from linking social capital framework, this paper examines the claim that village health teams (VHTs), as an example of CHWs, link and connect communities with formal health care services...
January 11, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075223/the-statistical-crisis-in-science-how-is-it-relevant-to-clinical-neuropsychology
#5
Andrew Gelman, Hilde M Geurts
There is currently increased attention to the statistical (and replication) crisis in science. Biomedicine and social psychology have been at the heart of this crisis, but similar problems are evident in a wide range of fields. We discuss three examples of replication challenges from the field of social psychology and some proposed solutions, and then consider the applicability of these ideas to clinical neuropsychology. In addition to procedural developments such as preregistration and open data and criticism, we recommend that data be collected and analyzed with more recognition that each new study is a part of a learning process...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#6
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073070/negotiating-intersex-a-case-for-revising-the-theory-of-social-diagnosis
#7
Tania M Jenkins, Susan E Short
The theory of social diagnosis recognizes two principles: 1) extra-medical social structures frame diagnosis; and 2) myriad social actors, in addition to clinicians, contribute to diagnostic labels and processes. The relationship between social diagnosis and (de)medicalization remains undertheorized, however, because social diagnosis does not account for how social actors can also resist the pathologization of symptoms and conditions-sometimes at the same time as they clamor for medical recognition-thereby shaping societal definitions of disease in different, but no less important, ways...
December 31, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072906/-no-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-lithuania-national-health-care-fails-to-identify-ptsd
#8
Evaldas Kazlauskas, Paulina Zelviene, Jonas Eimontas
Lithuanian National Health Insurance (NHI) registry data from 2014 and 2015 were used to estimate the annual rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders in Lithuania. A large gap was found between 12-month PTSD prevalence based on epidemiological data and annual PTSD rates based on health care service utilization in Lithuania. Estimations from the health care service's utilization data revealed that only about 0.01% to 0.02% of the population in Lithuania is diagnosed with PTSD annually, indicating that the national health care system identifies only about 1% of potential PTSD cases in Lithuania...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072643/early-life-trauma-in-hospitalized-patients-with-mood-disorders-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#9
Ajay K Parsaik, Noha Abdelgawad, Jigar K Chotalia, Scott D Lane, Teresa A Pigott
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood trauma and its impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with mood disorders is unknown. We studied the frequency of childhood trauma among inpatient adults with mood disorders and its association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients admitted to our hospital with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders completed the short form of the Early Trauma Inventory-Self-Report (ETISR-SF), the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity scale...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068285/vitamin-k2-improves-anxiety-and-depression-but-not-cognition-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-role-of-blood-glucose
#10
Silvia M Gancheva, Maria D Zhelyazkova-Savova
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. AIM: In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067726/autism-spectrum-disorder-outcomes-in-adulthood
#11
Patricia Howlin, Iliana Magiati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until recently, there has been little systematic study of adult life among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but recognition of the high psychological and social costs of ASD has led to an increase in adult-focused research over the past decade. The aim of this review is to summarize recent empirical findings on outcomes for adults with ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Most research on adult outcomes in ASD indicates very limited social integration, poor job prospects and high rates of mental health problems...
January 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060582/encoded-exposure-and-social-norms-in-entertainment-education
#12
Amy Henderson Riley, Suruchi Sood, Paramita Dasgupta Mazumdar, Narendra Nath Choudary, Alka Malhotra, Naysan Sahba
Entertainment-education is an effective health communication strategy that combines or embeds educational messages into entertainment programs to bring about social and behavior change. For years, scholars have considered how entertainment-education works. Some contemporary theories posit that entertainment-education does not engender behavior change directly but does so through mediating variables. This study adds to the literature on this topic by exploring the direct relationship between exposure and social norms instead of their relationship through behavior as a mediator...
January 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057833/cognitive-skills-and-the-evolution-of-social-systems
#13
REVIEW
Russell D Fernald
How do animal social skills influence evolution? Complex animal social behaviors require many cognitive skills including individual recognition and observational learning. For social systems to evolve, these abilities need to be transmitted genetically or culturally and supported by the evolution of underlying neural systems. Because animal skill sets are so varied, it seems best to describe animal cognitive behaviors as being a social calculus that can change with experience, which has evolved to match and facilitate the complexity of the social system where it arose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055274/does-the-medical-diagnosis-of-occupational-asthma-coincide-with-the-legal-diagnosis
#14
Zeynep Çelebi Sözener, Ömür Aydın, Yavuz Selim Demirel, Şadan Soyyiğit, Pamir Çerçi, Reşat Kendirlinan, Sevim Bavbek, Gülfem Elif Çelik, Zeynep Mısırlıgil, Betül Ayşe Sin, Arif Keleşoğlu, Dilşad Mungan
Objective The incidence of occupational asthma(OA) is increasing worldwide. In this study, we first aimed to document the rate of diagnosis of OAamong patients who were referred to our clinic from Social Security Institution and factors that affected diagnosis, and secondly, we aimed to assess the consistency of the medical diagnosis and the legal diagnosis. Methods The study involved 132 consecutive patients who were referred to our clinic for evaluation of OA between 2010 and 2015. Detailed workplace history,the tools used in the diagnosis such as peak expiratory flow(PEF) monitoring and bronchial provocation tests and final medical diagnosis were recorded from case files...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054827/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-spectrum-disorder-als-ftsd-revised-diagnostic-criteria
#15
Michael J Strong, Sharon Abrahams, Laura H Goldstein, Susan Woolley, Paula Mclaughlin, Julie Snowden, Eneida Mioshi, Angie Roberts-South, Michael Benatar, Tibor HortobáGyi, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Paul G Ince, Martin R Turner
This article presents the revised consensus criteria for the diagnosis of frontotemporal dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) based on an international research workshop on frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and ALS held in London, Canada in June 2015. Since the publication of the Strong criteria, there have been considerable advances in the understanding of the neuropsychological profile of patients with ALS. Not only is the breadth and depth of neuropsychological findings broader than previously recognised - - including deficits in social cognition and language - but mixed deficits may also occur...
January 5, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#16
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053304/-differences-in-the-recognition-of-occupational-diseases-by-sex-occupation-and-business-activity-in-spain-1990-2009
#17
Montserrat García Gómez, Rosario Castañeda López, Zaida Herrador Ortiz, Fernando Simón Soria
BACKGROUND: According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The purpose was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. METHODS: An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted...
January 9, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052482/an-extra-care-community-s-perceived-priorities-for-whole-system-relationships-a-q-methodological-study
#18
Paul Grimshaw, Linda McGowan, Elaine McNichol
Health and social care settings worldwide need to sustainably improve the quality of relationships across communities or 'whole systems'. This research informs the development of a relational framework based on stakeholder perspectives. It is grounded in an action research project with practitioners, and draws on a previous literature review, to present the underpinning elements of quality relationships as statements, organised under the headings of integrity, respect, fairness, compassion and trust. Using Q methodology, 27 participants, comprising a range of stakeholders (staff, residents, family and service providers), rank-ordered 48 statements based on perceptions of the importance of differing aspects of relationships...
January 3, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052103/bmi-and-whr-are-reflected-in-female-facial-shape-and-texture-a-geometric-morphometric-image-analysis
#19
Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050150/risk-stratification-treatment-selection-and-transplant-eligibility-in-multiple-myeloma-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perspectives-and-self-reported-practices-of-oncologists
#20
T W LeBlanc, A Howson, W Turell, P Sheldon, S C Locke, S A Tuchman, C Gasparetto, S Kaura, Z M Khan, A P Abernethy
BACKGROUND: Since the early 2000s, treatment options for multiple myeloma have rapidly expanded, adding significant complexity to the management of this disease. To our knowledge, no systematic qualitative research on clinical decision-making in multiple myeloma has been published. We sought to characterize how physicians view and implement guidelines and incorporate novel approaches into patient care. METHODS: We designed a semi-structured qualitative interview guide informed by literature review and an expert advisory panel...
December 2016: Current Oncology
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