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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447536/health-related-quality-of-life-of-nepalese-children-with-leukemia-using-pediatric-quality-of-life-inventory-4-0-generic-core-scale
#1
Anu V K, Mandira Onta, Sarala Joshi
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential measure to consider when evaluating the full impact of illness in children diagnosed with leukemia. The purpose of the current study was to assess the overall HRQOL and specific functioning subscales of Nepalese children with leukemia using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scale (PedsQL 4.0), compare self-report with parent proxy report of HRQOL and to identify the determinants affecting HRQOL. After cultural linguistic validation of PedsQL, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 children with leukemia and their parents in B...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#2
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444457/social-cognition-and-idiopathic-isolated-cervical-dystonia
#3
Kristína Czekóová, Petra Zemánková, Daniel J Shaw, Martin Bareš
For a long time, cervical dystonia (CD) has been characterised only by disturbances in motor functioning. Despite accumulating evidence for symptomatology in various non-motor domains, to date no study has investigated social cognition in CD. The aim of this study was to compare performance of CD patients and healthy controls in neurocognitive and socio-cognitive domain. Twenty-five non-depressed patients with CD and 26 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing. This involved assessment of cognitive status (general intellect, verbal memory, and executive function), and socio-cognitive functions using a Theory of mind task and self-report on empathy and emotion regulation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444345/causal-evidence-for-task-specific-involvement-of-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-human-social-cognition
#4
Andrew K Martin, I Ilvana Dzafic, Swathi Ramdave, Marcus Meinzer
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a key hub of the "social brain", but little is known about specific processes supported by this region. Using focal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and a social cognitive battery with differing demands on self-other processing, we demonstrate specific involvement of the dmPFC in tasks placing high demands on self-other processing. Specifically, excitatory (anodal) HD-tDCS enhanced the integration of external information into the self for explicit higher-order socio-cognitive tasks across cognitive domains; i...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442992/genetic-deletion-of-akt3-induces-an-endophenotype-reminiscent-of-psychiatric-manifestations-in-mice
#5
Yan Bergeron, Geneviève Bureau, Marie-Élaine Laurier-Laurin, Eric Asselin, Guy Massicotte, Michel Cyr
The protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), found in three distinctive isoforms (PKBα/Akt1, PKBβ/Akt2, PKBγ/Akt3), is implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as cell development, growth and survival. Although Akt3 is the most expressed isoform in the brain, its role in cerebral functions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical consequences of Akt3 deletion in mice. Motor abilities, spatial navigation, recognition memory and LTP are intact in the Akt3 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439231/informing-the-structure-of-executive-function-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-data
#6
Róisín McKenna, T Rushe, Kate A Woodcock
The structure of executive function (EF) has been the focus of much debate for decades. What is more, the complexity and diversity provided by the developmental period only adds to this contention. The development of executive function plays an integral part in the expression of children's behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional capabilities. Understanding how these processes are constructed during development allows for effective measurement of EF in this population. This meta-analysis aims to contribute to a better understanding of the structure of executive function in children...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439211/examining-the-relations-between-self-regulation-and-achievement-in-third-grade-students
#7
Stephanie L Day, Carol M Connor
Children with stronger self-regulation skills generally demonstrate greater overall success in school both academically and socially. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of self-regulation in middle elementary school. Such a measure could help identify whether a child is truly having difficulties. Thus, the Remembering Rules and Regulation Picture Task (RRRP) was developed. The aim of this study was to develop scoring systems for the RRRP and then to examine the associations between RRRP and independent measures of self-regulation and academic achievement in mathematics and reading...
March 2017: Assessment for Effective Intervention: Official Journal of the Council for Educational Diagnostic Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438076/increased-work-and-social-engagement-is-associated-with-increased-stroke-specific-quality-of-life-in-stroke-survivors-at-3%C3%A2-months-and-12-months-post-stroke-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-australian-stroke-cohort
#8
Tamara Tse, Siti Zubaidah Binte Yusoff, Leonid Churilov, Henry Ma, Stephen Davis, Geoffrey Alan Donnan, Leeanne M Carey
BACKGROUND: There is a relative lack of longitudinal studies investigating stroke-specific outcomes and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to identify which factors (level of disability, cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and work and social engagement) were independently associated with each stroke-specific domain of QOL, adjusting for age and gender, at 3 months and 12 months post-stroke in an Australian cohort. METHOD: Survivors of ischemic stroke were recruited from 18 sites of the STroke imAging pRevention and Treatment (START) longitudinal cohort study...
April 24, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437438/use-of-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-mccb-to-evaluate-cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Qijing Bo, Zhen Mao, Xianbin Li, Zhimin Wang, Chuanyue Wang, Xin Ma
BACKGROUND: The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) has also been proposed for use in clinical trials to assess cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function assessed by the MCCB in BD. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, SCI, Cochrane Library databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436848/challenging-the-time-complexity-of-exact-subgraph-isomorphism-for-huge-and-dense-graphs-with-vf3
#10
Vincenzo Carletti, Pasquale Foggia, Alessia Saggese, Mario Vento
Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#11
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435047/histological-and-cognitive-alterations-in-adult-diabetic-rats-following-an-episode-of-juvenile-diabetic-ketoacidosis-evidence-of-permanent-cerebral-injury
#12
Nicole Glaser, Jennifer Sasaki-Russell, Michael Cohen, Christopher Little, Martha O'Donnell, Jeffrey Sall
Evidence suggests that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause subtle cognitive alterations in children but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Acute DKA is associated with reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat model. Whether these inflammatory changes permanently alter brain histology is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DKA results in permanent alterations in brain histology and whether these changes are associated with cognitive deficits in a rat model. We induced diabetes in juvenile rats with streptozotocin at 4 weeks of age...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433500/psychometric-characteristics-of-the-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-in-a-large-pooled-cohort-of-stable-schizophrenia-patients
#13
Anastasia Georgiades, Vicki G Davis, Alexandra S Atkins, Anzalee Khan, Trina W Walker, Antony Loebel, George Haig, Dana C Hilt, Eduardo Dunayevich, Daniel Umbricht, Michael Sand, Richard S E Keefe
The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed to assess cognitive treatment effects in schizophrenia clinical trials, and is considered the FDA gold standard outcome measure for that purpose. The aim of the present study was to establish pre-treatment psychometric characteristics of the MCCB in a large pooled sample. The dataset included 2616 stable schizophrenia patients enrolled in 15 different clinical trials between 2007 and 2016 within the United States (94%) and Canada (6%). The MCCB was administered twice prior to the initiation of treatment in 1908 patients...
April 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432376/mdma-does-not-alter-responses-to-the-trier-social-stress-test-in-humans
#14
Anya K Bershad, Melissa A Miller, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#15
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427329/cross-disorder-comparative-analysis-of-comorbid-conditions-reveals-novel-autism-candidate-genes
#16
Leticia Diaz-Beltran, Francisco J Esteban, Maya Varma, Alp Ortuzk, Maude David, Dennis P Wall
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have highlighted the elevated degree of comorbidity associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These comorbid conditions may add further impairments to individuals with autism and are substantially more prevalent compared to neurotypical populations. These high rates of comorbidity are not surprising taking into account the overlap of symptoms that ASD shares with other pathologies. From a research perspective, this suggests common molecular mechanisms involved in these conditions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426734/study-of-deaths-by-suicide-of-homosexual-prisoners-in-nazi-sachsenhausen-concentration-camp
#17
Esther Cuerda-Galindo, Francisco López-Muñoz, Matthis Krischel, Astrid Ley
Living conditions in Nazi concentration camps were harsh and inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg, Germany) was a concentration camp that operated from 1936 to 1945. More than 200,000 people were detained there under Nazi rule. This study analyzes deaths classified as suicides by inmates in this camp, classified as homosexuals, both according to the surviving Nazi files. This collective was especially repressed by the Nazi authorities. Data was collected from the archives of Sachsenhausen Memorial and the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425117/dream-homes-and-dead-ends-in-the-city-a-photo-essay-experiment
#18
Danya Fast
Research focused on the relationship between place and health demonstrates that it is complex and shifting, as overlapping social, historical, institutional and political and economic processes continually transform the landscapes in which lived experiences are embedded. Understanding this relationship requires knowledge of the situated meanings and local worlds that ethnographic methods are well suited to investigate. However, even conventional ethnographic methods can be inadequate to capture the embodied, lived experience of place - experiences in which the sensory and inner processes of memory and imagination are often privileged...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424637/listening-niches-across-a-century-of-popular-music
#19
Carol Lynne Krumhansl
This article investigates the contexts, or "listening niches", in which people hear popular music. The study spanned a century of popular music, divided into 10 decades, with participants born between 1940 and 1999. It asks about whether they know and like the music in each decade, and their emotional reactions. It also asks whether the music is associated with personal memories and, if so, with whom they were listening, or whether they were listening alone. Finally, it asks what styles of music they were listening to, and the music media they were listening with, in different periods of their lives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422636/impact-of-pans-and-pandas-exacerbations-on-occupational-performance-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Janice Trigilio Tona, Sutanuka Bhattacharjya, Denise Calaprice
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) includes pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and involves sudden-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms, including obsessions, compulsions, sensory difficulties, and dysgraphia after infection or other triggers. Our objective was to identify problems with areas of occupation, body functions, and performance skills during exacerbations. METHOD: In this online retrospective study, based on the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (2nd ed...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
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