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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458190/cannabinoids-prevent-depressive-like-symptoms-and-alterations-in-bdnf-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd
#1
Or Burstein, Noa Shoshan, Ravid Doron, Irit Akirav
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock...
February 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456422/understanding-the-meaning-of-food-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-living-in-northern-appalachia
#2
Elizabeth A Beverly, Marilyn D Ritholz, Linda A Wray, Ching-Ju Chiu, Emmy Suhl
Purpose: Food and eating convey memories and feelings and serve important functions in creating and maintaining relationships. Given the increasing rate of diabetes in the United States, research understanding the meaning of food may shed light on how patients negotiate everyday food choices while managing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of food among adults with type 2 diabetes living in Northern Appalachia. Methods: In-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with type 2 diabetes patients...
February 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455442/in-search-of-executive-impairment-in-pathological-gambling-a-neuropsychological-study-on-non-treatment-seeking-gamblers
#3
Alexandros Kapsomenakis, Panagiotis G Simos, Georgios Konstantakopoulos, Dimitrios S Kasselimis
Pathological gambling is characterized by a persisting maladaptive and recurrent behavior with severe social and psychological consequences. There is evidence of strong comorbidity with psychiatric manifestations as well as cognitive mainly involving executive functions. This study aimed to investigate impairment in executive functions and working memory, and personality traits in a sample of Greek gamblers. Twenty-four men involved in various gambling activities were recruited from ecological settings as probable pathological gamblers...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#4
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448874/autobiographical-memory-functions-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-across-adulthood
#5
Adriana Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Lynn A Watson, Dorthe Berntsen
Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age. In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20-70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447377/behavioral-and-neural-indices-of-affective-coloring-for-neutral-social-stimuli
#6
Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445345/the-impact-of-sex-differences-on-odor-identification-and-facial-affect-recognition-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#7
Nilufar Mossaheb, Rainer M Kaufmann, Monika Schlögelhofer, Thushara Aninilkumparambil, Claudia Himmelbauer, Anna Gold, Sonja Zehetmayer, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C Traue, Harald Aschauer
Background: Social interactive functions such as facial emotion recognition and smell identification have been shown to differ between women and men. However, little is known about how these differences are mirrored in patients with schizophrenia and how these abilities interact with each other and with other clinical variables in patients vs. healthy controls. Methods: Standardized instruments were used to assess facial emotion recognition [Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL)] and smell identification [University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT)] in 51 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 79 healthy controls; furthermore, working memory functions and clinical variables were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444740/associations-between-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-and-multidimensional-cognitive-health-among-community-dwelling-old-adults-stratified-by-educational-level
#8
Manqiong Yuan, Jia Chen, Yaofeng Han, Xingliang Wei, Zirong Ye, Liangwen Zhang, Y Alicia Hong, Ya Fang
BACKGROUND: Cognition is multidimensional, and each domain plays a unique and crucial part in successful daily life engagement. However, less attention has been paid to multi-domain cognitive health for the elderly, and the role of lifestyle factors in each domain remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,230 older adults aged 60+ years in Xiamen, China, in 2016. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to measure general cognition and six specific sub-domains...
February 15, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441579/brain-anatomy-of-the-4-day-old-european-rabbit
#9
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441032/dissociating-long-and-short-term-memory-in-three-month-old-infants-using-the-mismatch-response-to-voice-stimuli
#10
Katharina Zinke, Leonie Thöne, Elaina M Bolinger, Jan Born
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been successfully used in adults as well as in newborns to discriminate recall of longer-term and shorter-term memories. Specifically the Mismatch Response (MMR) to deviant stimuli of an oddball paradigm is larger if the deviant stimuli are highly familiar (i.e., retrieved from long-term memory) than if they are unfamiliar, representing an immediate change to the standard stimuli kept in short-term memory. Here, we aimed to extend previous findings indicating a differential MMR to familiar and unfamiliar deviants in newborns (Beauchemin et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440963/heritage-of-stanis%C3%A5-aw-ostrowski-the-only-one-medical-doctor-who-became-state-polish-president-patriae-semper-fidelis
#11
Martyna Woltanowska, Piotr Woltanowski, Andrzej Wincewicz, Magdalena Woltanowska
Aim: Our purpose was to write a biography of Stanisław Ostrowski that would address in the first place the medical aspect of his professional life, with a comprehensive approach of others fields of his activity. Methods: We essentially grounded the paper on primary resources that were papers authored by Ostrowski including his scientific publications, memories, speeches as well as contemporaneous official documents that referred to Ostrowski. Second resources were also used to double check some data from primary resources and to place the biography of Stanisław Ostrowski in a proper background with special care to social, professional and political context...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440309/the-phosphodiesterase-2a-inhibitor-tak-915-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-and-social-withdrawal-in-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-induced-rat-models-of-schizophrenia
#12
Masato Nakashima, Haruka Imada, Eri Shiraishi, Yuki Ito, Noriko Suzuki, Maki Miyamoto, Takahiko Taniguchi, Hiroki Iwashita
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. Modulation of the glutamatergic signaling pathway, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can provide a new therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) is highly expressed in the forebrain, and is a dual substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP, which play pivotal roles as intracellular second messengers downstream of NMDA receptors. Here we characterize the in vivo pharmacological profile of a selective and brain penetrant PDE2A inhibitor, (N-{(1S)-1-[3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-methoxyethyl}-7-methoxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazine-4(1H)-carboxamide) (TAK-915) as a novel treatment for schizophrenia...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#13
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430738/neonatal-adoptive-transfer-of-lymphocytes-rescues-social-behavior-during-adolescence-in-immune-deficient-mice
#14
Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, Jennifer A Soroka, Xin Li, Leonardo H Tonelli
Accumulating evidence has shown that lymphocytes modulate behavior and cognition by direct interactions with the central nervous system. Studies have shown that reconstitution by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from wild type into immune deficient mice restores a number of neurobehavioral deficits observed in these models. Moreover, it has been shown that these effects are mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. Studies of adoptive transfer thus far have employed adult mice, but whether lymphocytes may also modulate behavior during development remains unknown...
February 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430507/peri-operative-chemotherapy-for-bladder-cancer-a-survey-of-providers-to-determine-barriers-and-enablers
#15
Melanie Walker, R Christopher Doiron, Simon D French, Kelly Brennan, Deb Feldman-Stewart, D Robert Siemens, William J Mackillop, Christopher M Booth
Background: Utilization of chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is low. In earlier qualitative work we used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to determine barriers and enablers of chemotherapy use. In this project we aimed to determine the prevalence of these barriers and enablers in Canadian physicians. Methods: Practicing Canadian urologists, medical oncologists (MOs) and radiation oncologists (ROs) participated in a specialty-specific web-based quantitative survey to assess potential barriers and enablers to chemotherapy use...
January 20, 2018: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429039/health-survey-of-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-1-compared-to-population-study-controls
#16
Krister W Fjermestad, Livø Nyhus, Øivind J Kanavin, Arvid Heiberg, Lise B Hoxmark
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic, autosomal dominant multi-organ disease characterized by susceptibility to tumor formation, changes in skin pigmentation, skeletal abnormalities, and neuropsychological deficits. Clinical studies have shown impaired health-related quality of life (HQoL) in adults with NF1. However, little is known about HQoL in non-clinical NF1 samples. We conducted a cross-sectional self-report survey of 142 persons with NF1 (M age = 50.3 years, SD = 12.0, range 32 to 80; 62...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427532/a-pilot-study-of-high-dose-intravenous-immunoglobulin-5-for-autism-impact-on-autism-spectrum-and-markers-of-neuroinflammation
#17
Isaac R Melamed, Melinda Heffron, Alessandro Testori, Kellie Lipe
Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427182/neural-mechanisms-underlying-subsequent-memory-for-personal-beliefs-an-fmri-study
#18
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426299/the-delirium-and-population-health-informatics-cohort-study-protocol-ascertaining-the-determinants-and-outcomes-from-delirium-in-a-whole-population
#19
Daniel Davis, Sarah Richardson, Joanne Hornby, Helen Bowden, Katrin Hoffmann, Maryse Weston-Clarke, Fenella Green, Nishi Chaturvedi, Alun Hughes, Diana Kuh, Elizabeth Sampson, Ruth Mizoguchi, Khai Lee Cheah, Melanie Romain, Abhi Sinha, Rodric Jenkin, Carol Brayne, Alasdair MacLullich
BACKGROUND: Delirium affects 25% of older inpatients and is associated with long-term cognitive impairment and future dementia. However, no population studies have systematically ascertained cognitive function before, cognitive deficits during, and cognitive impairment after delirium. Therefore, there is a need to address the following question: does delirium, and its features (including severity, duration, and presumed aetiologies), predict long-term cognitive impairment, independent of cognitive impairment at baseline? METHODS: The Delirium and Population Health Informatics Cohort (DELPHIC) study is an observational population-based cohort study based in the London Borough of Camden...
February 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425950/changes-in-perceived-centrality-of-anxious-events-following-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-and-panic-disorder
#20
Mia Skytte O'Toole, Lynn Watson, Nicole K Rosenberg, Dorthe Berntsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the association between reductions in symptoms of psychopathology and perceived centrality of negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD) or panic disorder (PD). METHODS: Thirty-nine individuals with SAD or PD recalled and rated four negative autobiographical memories before and after ten sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over a three-month period...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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