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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728096/early-life-stress-explains-reduced-positive-memory-biases-in-remitted-depression
#1
J A Gethin, K E Lythe, C I Workman, A Mayes, J Moll, R Zahn
BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence regarding negative memory biases in major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether these persist into remission, which would suggest their role as vulnerability traits rather than correlates of mood state. Early life stress (ELS), common in patients with psychiatric disorders, has independently been associated with memory biases, and confounds MDD versus control group comparisons. Furthermore, in most studies negative biases could have resulted from executive impairments rather than memory difficulties per se...
July 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724718/poor-reliability-and-poor-adherence-to-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-are-common-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-may-be-associated-with-poor-pregnancy-outcomes
#2
Emmanuel Cosson, Baz Baz, Françoise Gary, Isabelle Pharisien, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Dorian Sandre-Banon, Yahya Jaber, Camille Cussac-Pillegand, Isabela Banu, Lionel Carbillon, Paul Valensi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compliance with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the reliability of diabetes logbooks in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as the associated determinants and outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively selected French-speaking women with newly diagnosed GDM who had been referred to our diabetes management program and understood SMBG principles. At the next follow-up visit, we collected SMBG results from glucose meters and logbooks...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#3
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS; Downey & Feldman, 1996), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
July 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720042/exotic-dancing-and-relationship-violence-exploring-indigeneity-gender-and-agency
#4
Jade Le Grice
How should we begin to explore the complex considerations influencing young Indigenous New Zealand Māori women's sexuality? Centring a Māori woman's analysis through a Mana Wāhine methodology, and utilising an Indigenous form of storying, pūrākau, I explore this question by attending to my autobiographical memory of experiences of exotic dancing and moments of violence in heterosexual relationships. The analysis provides critical reflection on the interchanges between individual experience and the social and cultural conditions of a reality, informed by colonisation and historical trauma...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719763/two-equals-one-two-human-actions-during-social-interaction-are-grouped-as-one-unit-in-working-memory
#5
Xiaowei Ding, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen
Every day, people perceive other people performing interactive actions. Retaining these actions of human agents in working memory (WM) plays a pivotal role in a normal social life. However, whether the semantic knowledge embedded in the interactive actions has a pervasive impact on the storage of the actions in WM remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated two opposing hypotheses: (a) that WM stores the interactions individually (the individual-storage hypothesis) and (b) that WM stores the interactions as chunks (the chunk-storage hypothesis)...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717598/development-rate-rather-than-social-environment-influences-cognitive-performance-in-australian-black-field-crickets-teleogryllus-commodus
#6
Caitlin L Anderson, Michael M Kasumovic
Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717214/cumulative-dynamics-of-independent-information-spreading-behaviour-a-physical-perspective
#7
Cangqi Zhou, Qianchuan Zhao, Wenbo Lu
The popularization of information spreading in online social networks facilitates daily communication among people. Although much work has been done to study the effect of interactions among people on spreading, there is less work that considers the pattern of spreading behaviour when people independently make their decisions. By comparing microblogging, an important medium for information spreading, with the disordered spin glass system, we find that there exist interesting corresponding relationships between them...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710927/effects-of-brief-mindful-breathing-and-loving-kindness-meditation-on-shame-and-social-problem-solving-abilities-among-individuals-with-high-borderline-personality-traits
#8
Shian-Ling Keng, Jun Xian Tan
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708033/neuropsychological-profile-and-social-cognition-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-cchs-correlation-with-neuroimaging-in-a-clinical-case
#9
Borja Esteso Orduña, Raquel Seijas Gómez, Elena García Esparza, Emily M Briceño, Javier Melero Llorente, María de la Concepción Fournier Del Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder due to paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutations. CCHS patients suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system characterized by the absence of or extremely reduced response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with neuropsychological deficits. The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the longitudinal neuropsychological profile and its correlations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a child with CCHS with a PHOX2B mutation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707351/relation-between-working-memory-and-self-regulation-capacities-and-the-level-of-social-skills-acquisition-in-people-with-moderate-intellectual-disability
#10
Bojan Dučić, Milica Gligorović, Svetlana Kaljača
BACKGROUND: Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). METHOD: The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21. Memorizing animals and maze tasks were used for WM assessment. SR skills were assessed by the Behavioral Multitask Batteries. Social skills were rated by the Socialization subscale from the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II, which consists of two parts...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706105/how-people-with-dementia-and-carers-understand-and-react-to-social-functioning-changes-in-mild-dementia-a-uk-based-qualitative-study
#11
David Singleton, Naaheed Mukadam, Gill Livingston, Andrew Sommerlad
OBJECTIVES: To analyse people with dementia and their family carers' attribution of social changes in dementia and the consequences of these attributions. DESIGN: Qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide. Individual interviews continued to theoretical saturation. Two researchers independently analysed interview transcripts. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: People with mild dementia and family carers purposively selected from London-based memory services for diverse demographic characteristics to encompass a range of experiences...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704928/dynamic-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-contributions-to-memory-processes-and-representations-blur-the-boundaries-of-traditional-cognitive-domains
#12
REVIEW
Rachael D Rubin, Hillary Schwarb, Heather D Lucas, Michael R Dulas, Neal J Cohen
The hippocampus has long been known to be a critical component of the memory system involved in the formation and use of long-term declarative memory. However, recent findings have revealed that the reach of hippocampal contributions extends to a variety of domains and tasks that require the flexible use of cognitive and social behavior, including domains traditionally linked to prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as decision-making. In addition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has gained traction as a necessary part of the memory system...
July 12, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704368/mouse-models-of-17q21-31-microdeletion-and-microduplication-syndromes-highlight-the-importance-of-kansl1-for-cognition
#13
Thomas Arbogast, Giovanni Iacono, Claire Chevalier, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Xander Houbaert, Matthijs C van Eede, Christine Laliberte, Marie-Christine Birling, Katrin Linda, Hamid Meziane, Mohammed Selloum, Tania Sorg, Nael Nadif Kasri, David A Koolen, Henk G Stunnenberg, R Mark Henkelman, Maksym Kopanitsa, Yann Humeau, Bert B A De Vries, Yann Herault
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is a multi-system disorder characterized by intellectual disability, friendly behavior, and congenital malformations. The syndrome is caused either by microdeletions in the 17q21.31 chromosomal region or by variants in the KANSL1 gene. The reciprocal 17q21.31 microduplication syndrome is associated with psychomotor delay, and reduced social interaction. To investigate the pathophysiology of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, we generated three mouse models: 1) the deletion (Del/+); or 2) the reciprocal duplication (Dup/+) of the 17q21...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701376/the-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-facultatively-eusocial-orchid-bee-euglossa-dilemma
#14
Philipp Brand, Nicholas Saleh, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Karen M Kapheim, Santiago R Ramírez
Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant-insect interactions and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. Euglossa dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States...
July 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700673/the-trickle-down-effect-of-predictability-secondary-task-performance-benefits-from-predictability-in-the-primary-task
#15
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699777/caring-for-an-individual-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-qualitative-perspective-of-health-related-quality-of-life-from-caregivers
#16
Noelle E Carlozzi, Carey W Sherman, Kaley Angers, Mitchell P Belanger, Amy M Austin, Kelly A Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the effect that caring for an individual with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We sought to identify the most important aspects of HRQOL related to caring for an individual with MCI. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted with caregivers of individuals with MCI (n = 32). Qualitative frequency analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Findings indicated that caregivers most frequently discussed social health, including changes in social roles and an increased need for social support (51...
July 12, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696314/loss-of-function-mutation-in-mirta22-emc10-rescues-specific-schizophrenia-related-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-22q11-2-deletion
#17
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Ziyi Sun, Jun Mukai, Bin Xu, Karine Fenelon, Maria Karayiorgou, Joseph A Gogos
Identification of protective loss-of-function (LoF) mutations holds great promise for devising novel therapeutic interventions, although it faces challenges due to the scarcity of protective LoF alleles in the human genome. Exploiting the detailed mechanistic characterization of animal models of validated disease mutations offers an alternative. Here, we provide insights into protective-variant biology based on our characterization of a model of the 22q11.2 deletion, a strong genetic risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ)...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#18
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695295/prioritized-identification-of-attractive-and-romantic-partner-faces-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#19
Koyo Nakamura, Shihoko Arai, Hideaki Kawabata
People are sensitive to facial attractiveness because it is an important biological and social signal. As such, our perceptual and attentional system seems biased toward attractive faces. We tested whether attractive faces capture attention and enhance memory access in an involuntary manner using a dual-task rapid serial visual presentation (dtRSVP) paradigm, wherein multiple faces were successively presented for 120 ms. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 26) were required to identify two female faces embedded in a stream of animal faces as distractors...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694097/behavioural-pharmacology-of-the-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptor-antagonist-s44819-enhancement-and-remediation-of-cognitive-performance-in-preclinical-models
#20
István Gacsályi, Krisztina Móricz, Gábor Gigler, János Wellmann, Katalin Nagy, István Ling, József Barkóczy, József Haller, Jeremy J Lambert, Gábor Szénási, Michael Spedding, Ferenc A Antoni
Previous work has shown that S44819 is a novel GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonist, which is selective for extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating the α5 subunit (α5-GABAARs). The present study reports on the preclinical neuropsychopharmacological profile of S44819. Significantly, no sedative or pro-convulsive side effects of S44819 were found at doses up to 30 mg/kg i.p. Object recognition (OR) memory in intact mice was enhanced by S44819 (0.3 mg/kg p.o.) given before the acquisition trial. Mice treated with phencyclidine for two weeks and tested six days after the cessation of treatment failed to show OR memory...
July 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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