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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#1
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689517/neuropsychological-predictors-of-performance-based-measures-of-functional-capacity-and-social-skills-in-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness
#2
Zanjbeel Mahmood, Cynthia Z Burton, Lea Vella, Elizabeth W Twamley
Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688290/gestational-age-is-dimensionally-associated-with-structural-brain-network-abnormalities-across-development
#3
Rula Nassar, Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Aristeidis Sotiras, Marieta Pehlivanova, Tyler M Moore, Angel Garcia de La Garza, David R Roalf, Adon F G Rosen, Scott A Lorch, Kosha Ruparel, Russell T Shinohara, Christos Davatzikos, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Prematurity is associated with diverse developmental abnormalities, yet few studies relate cognitive and neurostructural deficits to a dimensional measure of prematurity. Leveraging a large sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (age 8-22 years) studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we examined how variation in gestational age impacted cognition and brain structure later in development. Participants included 72 preterm youth born before 37 weeks' gestation and 206 youth who were born at term (37 weeks or later)...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687944/association-of-copy-number-variation-across-the-genome-with-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-the-general-population
#4
Anna L Guyatt, Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, James Walters, Michael O'Donovan, Michael Owen, Anita Thapar, George Kirov, Santiago Rodriguez, Dheeraj Rai, Stan Zammit, Tom R Gaunt
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687640/priming-as-a-motivating-factor-in-sociophonetic-variation-and-change
#5
Lynn Clark
Understanding how and why pronunciations vary and change has been a dominant theme in variationist sociolinguistics (Labov, , ). Linguistic variability has also been an area of focus in psychology and cognitive science. Work from these two fields has shown that where variation exists in language, an alternative form, once used, persists in working memory and has a greater chance of reuse (Bock, ; Bock & Loebell, ; Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland, ). While there have been efforts to connect priming research with sociolinguistics at the level of grammar (Poplack, ; Travis, ), there has been less work which explicitly considers the potential role of priming as a motivating factor in accent variation and change...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686628/being-through-doing-the-self-immolation-of-an-asylum-seeker-in-switzerland
#6
Gail Womersley, Laure Kloetzer
In April 2016, Armin, an asylum seeker in a village of Switzerland, set himself alight in the public square of the town, one of a few cases reported across Europe. He performed the act following a denied request for asylum and was saved by bystanders. We present the results of two qualitative interviews conducted with Armin, his translator and his roommate following the incident. The act is theorized through the lens of a dialogical analysis focusing on the concept of social recognition. The notion of trauma is considered as a key mediating mechanism, theorized as creating ruptures in time, memory, language, and social connections to an Other...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685768/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-and-behavioural-difficulties-in-children-with-epilepsy
#7
Michael B Gascoigne, Mary Lou Smith, Belinda Barton, Richard Webster, Deepak Gill, Suncica Lah
Patients with epilepsy have been shown to exhibit a range of memory deficits, including the rapid forgetting of newly-learned material over long, but not short, delays (termed accelerated long-term forgetting; ALF). Behavioural problems, such as mood disorders and social difficulties, are also overrepresented among children with epilepsy, when compared to patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. We investigated whether ALF was associated with behavioural or psychosocial deficits in children with epilepsy...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684091/impaired-visual-working-and-verbal-memory-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-a-chinese-population
#8
Ce Chen, Wen-Hui Jiang, Wei Wang, Xian-Cang Ma, Ye Li, Jin Wu, Kenji Hashimoto, Cheng-Ge Gao
Cognitive impairment has been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether the deficits in specific cognitive domains are present in first-episode, drug-naïve patients or medicated patients. In the present study, using the CogState battery (CSB) Chinese language version, we evaluated the visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode drug-naive patients and medicated patients with MDD in a Chinese population. We measured the cognitive function in first-episode drug-naïve patients (n = 36), medicated MDD patients (n = 71), and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 59) in a Chinese population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683061/autistic-traits-and-neuropsychological-performance-in-6-to-10-year-old-children-a-population-based-study
#9
Fjola Hyseni, Laura M E Blanken, Ryan Muetzel, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White
Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development...
April 23, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683019/retirement-leisure-activity-engagement-and-cognition-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#10
Yura Lee, Iris Chi, Lawrence A Palinkas
OBJECTIVE: Retirement is a salient later-life transition that may influence cognition. Leisure activities can help individuals better adjust to life after significant life transitions. This study examined the role of leisure activity engagement in the relationship between retirement and cognition. METHOD: A path analysis ( N = 2,827) was conducted using three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2004, 2006, 2008) and its supplementary Consumption and Activities Mail Survey, to test the association between retirement (categorized as remained working, transitioned to retirement, remained retired) and cognition (memory, working memory, attention, and processing speed) via leisure (mental, physical, social, household) activity engagement...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679991/empirical-evidence-for-discrete-neurocognitive-subgroups-in-patients-with-non-psychotic-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-implications
#11
Shenghong Pu, Takamasa Noda, Shiori Setoyama, Kazuyuki Nakagome
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present across various cognitive domains in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, a consistent and specific profile of neuropsychological abnormalities has not yet been established. METHODS: We assessed cognition in 170 patients with non-psychotic MDD using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and the scores were compared with those of 42 patients with schizophrenia as a reference for severity of cognitive impairment...
April 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678691/seven-rules-to-avoid-the-tragedy-of-the-commons
#12
Yohsuke Murase, Seung Ki Baek
Cooperation among self-interested players in a social dilemma is fragile and easily interrupted by mistakes. In this work, we study the repeated n-person public-goods game and search for a strategy that forms a cooperative Nash equilibrium in the presence of implementation error with a guarantee that the resulting payoff will be no less than any of the co-players'. By enumerating strategic possibilities for n=3, we show that such a strategy indeed exists when its memory length m equals three. It means that a deterministic strategy can be publicly employed to stabilize cooperation against error with avoiding the risk of being exploited...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678236/collective-memory-from-a-psychological-perspective
#13
REVIEW
William Hirst, Jeremy K Yamashiro, Alin Coman
Social scientists have studied collective memory for almost a century, but psychological analyses have only recently emerged. Although no singular approach to the psychological study of collective memory exists, research has largely: (i) explored the social representations of history, including generational differences; (ii) probed for the underlying cognitive processes leading to the formation of collective memories, adopting either a top-down or bottom-up approach; and (iii) explored how people live in history and transmit personal memories of historical importance across generations...
May 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675841/early-life-conditions-that-impact-song-learning-in-male-zebra-finches-also-impact-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-song-in-females
#14
Kendra B Sewall, Rindy C Anderson, Jill A Soha, Susan Peters, Stephen Nowicki
Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674987/the-complex-interplay-between-depression-anxiety-and-executive-functioning-insights-from-the-ecas-in-a-large-als-population
#15
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#16
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673539/methodological-considerations-and-future-insights-for-24-hour-dietary-recall-assessment-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Emma Foster, Jennifer Bradley
Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672553/memory-deficits-for-facial-identity-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#18
Egemen Savaskan, Daniel Summermatter, Clemens Schroeder, Hartmut Schächinger
Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672119/remembering-who-was-where-a-happy-expression-advantage-for-face-identity-location-binding-in-working-memory
#19
Sara Spotorno, Megan Evans, Margaret C Jackson
It is well established that visual working memory (WM) for face identity is enhanced when faces display threatening versus nonthreatening expressions. During social interaction, it is also important to bind person identity with location information in WM to remember who was where, but we lack a clear understanding of how emotional expression influences this. Here, we conducted two touchscreen experiments to investigate how angry versus happy expressions displayed at encoding influenced the precision with which participants relocated a single neutral test face to its original position...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672089/working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety-disorder-revisiting-prior-conclusions
#20
Stephanie Waechter, David A Moscovitch, Vanja Vidovic, Tatiana Bielak, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
In one of the few studies examining working memory processes in social anxiety disorder (SAD), Amir and Bomyea (2011) recruited participants with and without SAD to complete a working memory span task with neutral and social threat words. Those with SAD showed better working memory performance for social threat words compared to neutral words, suggesting an enhancement in processing efficiency for socially threatening information in SAD. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings. In this study, 25 participants with a principal diagnosis of SAD, 24 anxious control (AC) participants with anxiety disorders other than SAD, and 27 healthy control (HC) participants with no anxiety disorder completed a working memory task with social threat, general threat, and neutral stimuli...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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