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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913425/cd36-mediates-h2o2-induced-calcium-influx-in-lung-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Jose Reyes, Clark Undem, Joel Zaldumbide, Otgonchimeg Rentsendorj, Sruti Modekurty, Jeffrey M Dodd-O, Alan L Scott, David B Pearse, Larissa A Shimoda
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular Ca2+ play a key role in endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury (ALI). We previously showed that H2O2-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in LMVECs involve the membrane Ca2+ channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and that inhibiting this channel attenuated H2O2-induced barrier disruption in vitro. We also showed that phosphorylation of TRPV4 by the Src family kinase, Fyn, contributes to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx in LMVEC...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911858/the-antidepressant-fluoxetine-induces-necrosis-by-energy-depletion-and-mitochondrial-calcium-overload
#2
Emilie Charles, Mehdi Hammadi, Philippe Kischel, Vanessa Delcroix, Nicolas Demaurex, Cyril Castelbout, Anne-Marie Vacher, Anne Devin, Thomas Ducret, Paula Nunes, Pierre Vacher
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), have been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells, paving the way for their potential use as cancer therapy. These compounds are able to increase cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), but the involved mechanisms and their physiological consequences are still not well understood. Here, we show that fluoxetine induces an increase in [Ca2+]cyt by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the translocon, an ER Ca2+ leakage structure...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911767/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-inhibition-restores-ca2-release-defects-and-prolongs-survival-in-myotubularin-deficient-mice
#3
Candice Kutchukian, Mirella Lo Scrudato, Yves Tourneur, Karine Poulard, Alban Vignaud, Christine Berthier, Bruno Allard, Michael W Lawlor, Ana Buj-Bello, Vincent Jacquemond
Mutations in the gene encoding the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) are responsible for a pediatric disease of skeletal muscle named myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Muscle fibers from MTM1-deficient mice present defects in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling likely responsible for the disease-associated fatal muscle weakness. However, the mechanism leading to EC coupling failure remains unclear. During normal skeletal muscle EC coupling, transverse (t) tubule depolarization triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor channels gated by conformational coupling with the t-tubule voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptors...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910835/two-cubic-phases-in-kimzeyite-garnet-from-the-type-locality-magnet-cove-arkansas
#4
Sytle M Antao, Laura A Cruickshank
The crystal structure of an optically anisotropic kimzeyite garnet from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, where it was first discovered, was refined with the Rietveld method, cubic space group, Ia\overline 3 d, and monochromatic [λ = 0.41422 (2) Å] synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ(2) and overall R(F(2)) values are 1.840 and 0.0647, respectively. The sample, with the general garnet formula ([8])X3([6])Y2([4])Z3([4])O12, contains an intergrowth of two cubic phases that occur initially as oscillatory growth zoning, and patchy intergrowths arise later from fluid-enhanced dissolution and re-precipitation...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909053/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-ca2-depletion-differentially-modulate-the-sterol-regulatory-protein-pcsk9-to-control-lipid-metabolism
#5
Paul Lebeau, Ali Al-Hashimi, Sudesh Sood, Sarka Lhotak, Pei Yu, Gabriel Gyulay, Guillaume Pare, S R Wayne Chen, Bernardo Trigatti, Annik Prat, Nabil Seidah, Richard C Austin
Accumulating evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a mediator of impaired lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that ER stress can activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2), an ER localized transcription factor that directly upregulates sterol-regulatory genes, including PCSK9. Given that PCSK9 contributes to atherosclerosis by targeting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) degradation, our present study investigates a novel mechanism by which ER stress plays a role in lipid metabolism by examining its ability to modulate PCSK9 expression...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909001/synaptic-phospholipid-signaling-modulates-axon-outgrowth-via-glutamate-dependent-ca2-mediated-molecular-pathways
#6
Johannes Vogt, Sergei Kirischuk, Petr Unichenko, Leslie Schlüter, Assunta Pelosi, Heiko Endle, Jenq-Wei Yang, Nikolai Schmarowski, Jin Cheng, Carine Thalman, Ulf Strauss, Alexey Prokudin, B Suman Bharati, Junken Aoki, Jerold Chun, Beat Lutz, Heiko J Luhmann, Robert Nitsch
Altered synaptic bioactive lipid signaling has been recently shown to augment neuronal excitation in the hippocampus of adult animals by activation of presynaptic LPA2-receptors leading to increased presynaptic glutamate release. Here, we show that this results in higher postsynaptic Ca(2+) levels and in premature onset of spontaneous neuronal activity in the developing entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, increased synchronized neuronal activity led to reduced axon growth velocity of entorhinal neurons which project via the perforant path to the hippocampus...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908976/a-novel-method-for-culturing-stellate-astrocytes-reveals-spatially-distinct-ca2-signaling-and-vesicle-recycling-in-astrocytic-processes
#7
Anne C Wolfes, Saheeb Ahmed, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Ashish Rajput, Daniel S Magruder, Stefan Bonn, Camin Dean
Interactions between astrocytes and neurons rely on the release and uptake of glial and neuronal molecules. But whether astrocytic vesicles exist and exocytose in a regulated or constitutive fashion is under debate. The majority of studies have relied on indirect methods or on astrocyte cultures that do not resemble stellate astrocytes found in vivo. Here, to investigate vesicle-associated proteins and exocytosis in stellate astrocytes specifically, we developed a simple, fast, and economical method for growing stellate astrocyte monocultures...
December 1, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908242/participation-of-two-carbonic-anhydrases-of-the-alpha-family-in-photosynthetic-reactions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
E M Zhurikova, L K Ignatova, N N Rudenko, V A Mudrik, D V Vetoshkina, B N Ivanov
The expression of genes of two carbonic anhydrases (CA) belonging to the α-family, α-CA2 and α-CA4 (according to the nomenclature in N. Fabre et al. (2007) Plant Cell Environ., 30, 617-629), was studied in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, var. Columbia) leaves. The expression of the At2g28210 gene coding α-CA2 decreased under increase in plant illumination, while the expression of the At4g20990 gene coding α-CA4 increased. Under conditions close to optimal for photosynthesis, in plants with gene At2g28210 knockout, the effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 and the light-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in leaves were lower than in wild type plants, while the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching of leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence and the rate of CO2 assimilation in leaves were higher...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907125/identification-of-a-highly-conserved-hypothetical-protein-ton_0340-as-a-probable-manganese-dependent-phosphatase
#9
Young-Sik Sohn, Seong-Gyu Lee, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Bonsu Ku, Ho-Chul Shin, Sun-Shin Cha, Yeon-Gil Kim, Hyun Sook Lee, Sung-Gyun Kang, Byung-Ha Oh
A hypothetical protein TON_0340 of a Thermococcus species is a protein conserved in a variety of organisms including human. Herein, we present four different crystal structures of TON_0340, leading to the identification of an active-site cavity harboring a metal-binding site composed of six invariant aspartate and glutamate residues that coordinate one to three metal ions. Biochemical and mutational analyses involving many phosphorous compounds show that TON_0340 is a Mn2+-dependent phosphatase. Mg2+ binds to TON_0340 less tightly and activates the phosphatase activity less efficiently than Mn2+...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907091/real-time-fluorescence-measurements-of-ros-and-ca2-in-ischemic-reperfused-rat-hearts-detectable-increases-occur-only-after-mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-are-attenuated-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#10
Tatyana Andrienko, Philippe Pasdois, Andreas Rossbach, Andrew P Halestrap
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening is critical for ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury and is associated with increased [Ca2+] and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we employ surface fluorescence to establish the temporal sequence of these events in beating perfused hearts subject to global I/R. A bespoke fluorimeter was used to synchronously monitor surface fluorescence and reflectance of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts at multiple wavelengths, with simultaneous measurements of hemodynamic function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907086/stcdpk3-phosphorylates-in-vitro-two-transcription-factors-involved-in-ga-and-aba-signaling-in-potato-strsg1-and-stabf1
#11
Carolina Grandellis, Elisa Fantino, María Noelia Muñiz García, Magalí Graciela Bialer, Franco Santin, Daniela Andrea Capiati, Rita María Ulloa
Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+) transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG) that modulates gibberellin (GA) content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical) to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907043/thermodynamic-simulation-of-carbonate-cements-water-carbon-dioxide-equilibrium-in-sandstone-for-prediction-of-precipitation-dissolution-of-carbonate-cements
#12
Yiping Duan, Mingshi Feng, Xinyan Zhong, Ruishu Shang, Lihong Huang
Carbonate cements, such as calcite, dolomite, ferrocalcite and ankerite, play important roles in the formation of pores in sandstones: precipitation of carbonate cements modifies pores and inhibits compaction, while dissolution creates secondary pores. This work proposed a precipitation-dissolution model for carbonate cements-CO2-H2O system by means of ion equilibrium concentration ([M2+], M = Ca, Mg, Fe or Mn) with different factors, such as temperature, depth, pH, [Formula: see text], variable rock composition and overpressure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907040/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-from-mice-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Monica Llano-Diez, Jon Sinclair, Takashi Yamada, Mei Zong, Jeremy Fauconnier, Shi-Jin Zhang, Abram Katz, Kent Jardemark, Håkan Westerblad, Daniel C Andersson, Johanna T Lanner
The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#14
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905661/artificial-cartilage-bio-matrix-formed-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-mg2-polyphosphate
#15
X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903970/ion-channels-in-control-of-pancreatic-stellate-cell-migration
#16
Hannah Storck, Benedikt Hild, Sandra Schimmelpfennig, Sarah Sargin, Nikolaj Nielsen, Angela Zaccagnino, Thomas Budde, Ivana Novak, Holger Kalthoff, Albrecht Schwab
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Once activated, PSCs support proliferation and metastasis of carcinoma cells. PSCs even co-metastasise with carcinoma cells. This requires the ability of PSCs to migrate. In recent years, it has been established that almost all "hallmarks of cancer" such as proliferation or migration/invasion also rely on the expression and function of ion channels. So far, there is only very limited information about the function of ion channels in PSCs...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#17
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899535/a-tomato-universal-stress-protein-involved-in-oxidative-stress-is-a-cipk6-phosphorylation-target
#18
Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran, José María Personat, Fernando N de la Torre, Olga Del Pozo
Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) decode calcium signals upon interaction with the calcium sensors calcineurin B like proteins (CBLs) into phosphorylation events that result into adaptation to environmental stresses. Few phosphorylation targets of CIPKs are known and therefore the molecular mechanisms underlying their downstream output responses are not fully understood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cipk6 regulates immune and susceptible Programmed cell death (PCD) in immunity transforming Ca2+ signals into Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) signaling...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898421/stimulation-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-quinine
#19
Morena Mischitelli, Mohamed Jemaà, Mustafa Almasry, Caterina Faggio, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The analkaloid drug quinine is utilized mainly for the chemoprophylaxis of malaria. The multiple side effects of quinine include hemolytic anemia and hemolytic uremic syndrome, disorders involving suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling contributing to stimulation of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide and D4476 sensitive casein kinase...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898416/sgk3-sensitivity-of-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channel
#20
Musaab Ahmed, Myriam Fezai, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channels or BK channels) are rapidly activated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The channels participate in the regulation of diverse functions including neuronal excitation and cell volume. The BK channels may be modified by kinases. Channel regulating kinases include the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored whether SGK3 modifies the activity of BK channels. METHODS: cRNA encoding the Ca2+ insensitive BK channel mutant BKM513I+Δ899-903 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SGK3, constitutively active S419DSGK3, or catalytically inactive K191NSGK3...
November 30, 2016: Neuro-Signals
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