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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343163/s100a6-focus-on-recent-developments
#1
Wiesława Leśniak, Tomasz Wilanowski, Anna Filipek
The Ca2+-binding protein, S100A6, belongs to the S100 family. Binding of Ca2+ induces a conformational change, which causes an increase in the overall S100A6 hydrophobicity and allows it to interact with many targets. S100A6 is expressed in different normal tissues and in many tumors. Up to now it has been shown that S100A6 is involved in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal dynamics and tumorigenesis, and that it might have some extracellular functions. In this review, we summarize novel discoveries concerning S100A6 targets, its involvement in cellular signaling pathways, and presence in stem/progenitor cells, extracellular matrix and body fluids of diseased patients...
March 25, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339694/regional-acidosis-locally-inhibits-but-remotely-stimulates-ca2-waves-in-ventricular-myocytes
#2
Kerrie L Ford, Emma L Moorhouse, Mario Bortolozzi, Mark Richards, Pawel Swietach, Richard D Vaughan-Jones
AIMS: Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes are potentially arrhythmogenic. A powerful controller of Ca2+ waves is the cytoplasmic H+ concentration ([H+]i), which fluctuates spatially and temporally in conditions such as myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. H+-control of Ca2+ waves is poorly understood. We have therefore investigated how [H+]i co-ordinates their initiation and frequency. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spontaneous Ca2+ waves were imaged (fluo-3) in rat isolated ventricular myocytes, subjected to modest Ca2+-overload...
February 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339615/viable-offspring-after-imaging-of-ca2-oscillations-and-visualization-of-the-cortical-reaction-in-mouse-eggs%C3%A2
#3
Yuhkoh Satouh, Kaori Nozawa, Kazuo Yamagata, Takao Fujimoto, Masahito Ikawa
During mammalian fertilization, egg Ca 2+ oscillations are known to play pivotal roles in triggering downstream events such as resumption of the cell cycle and the establishment of blocks to polyspermy. However, viable offspring have not been obtained after monitoring Ca 2+ oscillations, and their spatiotemporal links to subsequent events are still to be examined. Therefore, the development of imaging methods to avoid phototoxic damage while labeling these events is required. Here, we examined the usefulness of genetically encoded Ca 2+ indicators for optical imaging (GECOs), in combination with spinning-disk confocal imaging...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338729/revealing-the-roles-of-gork-channels-and-nadph-oxidase-in-acclimation-to-hypoxia-in-arabidopsis
#4
Feifei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Xiaohui Liu, Timothy D Colmer, Lana Shabala, Anya Salih, Meixue Zhou, Sergey Shabala
Regulation of root cell K+ is essential for acclimation to low oxygen stress. The potential roles of GORK (depolarization-activated guard cell outward-rectifying potassium) channels and RBOHD (respiratory burst oxidase homologue D) in plant adaptive responses to hypoxia were investigated in the context of tissue specificity (epidermis versus stele; elongation versus mature zone) in roots of Arabidopsis. The expression of GORK and RBOHD was down-regulated by 2- to 3-fold within 1 h and 24 h of hypoxia treatment in Arabidopsis wild-type (WT) roots...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338173/valsartan-reduces-at1-aa-induced-apoptosis-through-suppression-oxidative-stress-mediated-er-stress-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#5
Z-C Wang, J Qi, L-M Liu, J Li, H-Y Xu, B Liang, B Li
OBJECTIVE: Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336828/-disorders-caused-by-mutations-in-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-related-diseases
#6
Toshimi Michigami
Sensing of extracellular calcium(Ca2+)levels involves the Ca-sensing receptor(CaSR), its downstream signaling molecule Gα11, and the adaptor-related protein complex 2(AP2)that plays a role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of CaSR. Inactivating mutations in CaSR cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1(FHH1)and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism(NSHPT), while activating mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1(ADH1)and Bartter syndrome type Ⅴ. Recent studies have identified that inactivating mutations in Gα11 and σ-subunit of AP2(AP2σ)also cause FHH, and these conditions have been classified as FHH2 and FHH3, respectively...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336825/-divergent-functions-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-other-than-regulation-ofmineral-metabolism
#7
Daisuke Inoue
The calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)is a G protein-coupled membrane receptor that binds extracellular Ca2+and other cations as a ligand. CaSR is expressed in parathyroid glands at the highest level and plays a critical role in the regulation of extracellular calcium. CaSR is also expressed by a wide variety of tissues other than calcium metabolic organs. In this overview, divergent roles of CaSR in inflammasome as well as various tissues including intestines, lungs, neurons and endocrine pancreas will be briefly summarized...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336824/-the-functions-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-regulating-mineral-metabolism
#8
Yuka Kinoshita
Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)which belongs to a G protein-coupled receptor family is one of the key elements in regulating calcium homeostasis. CaSR has been identified as a receptor to control parathyroid hormone(PTH)secretion in parathyroid glands according to serum calcium ion(Ca2+)levels. It has also been shown that CaSR controls reabsorption of water and several cations including Ca2+and magnesium ion(Mg2+)in renal tubular cells. This review summarizes the functions and roles of CaSR in mineral metabolism that are exerted in parathyroid glands, kidney, and intestine...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336810/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-trpv1-in-the-modulation-of-airway-smooth-muscle-tone-and-calcium-handling
#9
Gene T Yocum, Jun Chen, Christine H Choi, Elizabeth A Townsend, Yi Zhang, Dingbang Xu, Xiao Wen Fu, Michael J Sanderson, Charles W Emala
Asthma is a common disorder characterized, in part, by airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed on airway nerve fibers that modulates afferent signals resulting in cough, and potentially bronchoconstriction. In the present study, the TRPV1 transcript was detected by RT-PCR in primary cultured human ASM cells, and the TRPV1 protein was detected in ASM of human trachea by immunohistochemistry. Proximity ligation assays suggest that TRPV1 is expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane of human ASM cells in close association with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335593/simultaneous-single-cell-analysis-of-na-k-ca2-and-mg2-in-neuron-like-pc-12-cells-in-a-microfluidic-system
#10
Lu Li, Yuanyuan Fan, Qingling Li, Renjie Sheng, Haibin Si, Juan Fang, Lili Tong, Bo Tang
Various intracellular metal ions have closely related functional roles in the nervous system. An excess or deficiency of essential metal ions can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the detection of various metal ions in neurons is important for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases. In particular, single-cell analysis of multiple metal ions allows us to not only understand the cellular heterogeneity and differentiation, but also determine the actual relationships among multiple metal ions in each individual cell...
March 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335035/a-novel-cisd2-mutation-associated-with-a-classical-wolfram-syndrome-phenotype-alters-ca2-homeostasis-and-er-mitochondria-interactions
#11
Cécile Rouzier, David Moore, Cécile Delorme, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Samira Ait-El-Mkadem, Konstantina Fragaki, Florence Burté, Valérie Serre, Sylvie Bannwarth, Annabelle Chaussenot, Martin Catala, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Véronique Paquis-Flucklinger
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by early-onset optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, which can be associated with more extensive central nervous system and endocrine complications. The majority of patients harbour pathogenic WFS1 mutations, but recessive mutations in a second gene, CISD2, have been described in a small number of families with Wolfram syndrome type 2 (WFS2). The defining diagnostic criteria for WFS2 also consist of optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, but unlike WFS1, this phenotypic subgroup has been associated with peptic ulcer disease and an increased bleeding tendency...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334940/aav9-delivered-bispecific-nanobody-attenuates-amyloid-burden-in-the-gelsolin-amyloidosis-mouse-model
#12
Adriaan Verhelle, Nisha Nair, Inge Everaert, Wouter Van Overbeke, Lynn Supply, Olivier Zwaenepoel, Cindy Peleman, Jo Van Dorpe, Tony Lahoutte, Nick Devoogdt, Wim Derave, Marinee K Chuah, Thierry Vanden Driessche, Jan Gettemans
Gelsolin amyloidosis is a dominantly inherited, incurable type of amyloidosis. A single point mutation in the gelsolin gene (G654A is most common) results in the loss of a Ca2+  binding site in the second gelsolin domain. Consequently, this domain partly unfolds and exposes an otherwise buried furin cleavage site at the surface. During secretion of mutant plasma gelsolin consecutive cleavage by furin and MT1-MMP results in the production of 8 and 5 kDa amyloidogenic peptides. Nanobodies that are able to (partly) inhibit furin or MT1-MMP proteolysis have previously been reported...
February 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#13
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333383/calcium-transport-and-signaling-in-mitochondria
#14
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Valentina Parra, Camila López-Crisosto, Paula Díaz, Andrew F G Quest, Sergio Lavandero
Calcium (Ca2+) is a key player in the regulation of many cell functions. Just like Ca2+, mitochondria are ubiquitous, versatile, and dynamic players in determining both cell survival and death decisions. Given their ubiquitous nature, the regulation of both is deeply intertwined, whereby Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial functions, while mitochondria shape Ca2+ dynamics. Deregulation of either Ca2+ or mitochondrial signaling leads to abnormal function, cell damage or even cell death, thereby contributing to muscle dysfunction or cardiac pathologies...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333380/smooth-muscle-ion-channels-and-regulation-of-vascular-tone-in-resistance-arteries-and-arterioles
#15
Nathan R Tykocki, Erika M Boerman, William F Jackson
Vascular tone of resistance arteries and arterioles determines peripheral vascular resistance, contributing to the regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to, and within the body's tissues and organs. Ion channels in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in these blood vessels importantly contribute to the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the primary determinant of SMC contractile activity and vascular tone. Ion channels provide the main source of activator Ca2+ that determines vascular tone, and strongly contribute to setting and regulating membrane potential, which, in turn, regulates the open-state-probability of voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), the primary source of Ca2+ in resistance artery and arteriolar SMCs...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333338/drug-discovery-for-male-subfertility-using-high-throughput-screening-a-new-approach-to-an-unsolved-problem
#16
Sarah J Martins da Silva, Sean G Brown, Keith Sutton, Louise V King, Halil Ruso, David W Gray, Paul G Wyatt, Mark C Kelly, Christopher L R Barratt, Anthony G Hope
STUDY QUESTION: Can pharma drug discovery approaches be utilized to transform investigation into novel therapeutics for male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: High-throughput screening (HTS) is a viable approach to much-needed drug discovery for male factor infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is both huge demand and a genuine clinical need for new treatment options for infertile men. However, the time, effort and resources required for drug discovery are currently exorbitant, due to the unique challenges of the cellular, physical and functional properties of human spermatozoa and a lack of appropriate assay platform...
March 16, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332980/a-receptor-and-neuron-that-activate-a-circuit-limiting-sucrose-consumption
#17
Ryan M Joseph, Jennifer S Sun, Edric Tam, John R Carlson
The neural control of sugar consumption is critical for normal metabolism. In contrast to sugar-sensing taste neurons that promote consumption, we identify a taste neuron that limits sucrose consumption in Drosophila. Silencing of the neuron increases sucrose feeding; optogenetic activation decreases it. The feeding inhibition depends on the IR60b receptor, as shown by behavioral analysis and Ca2+ imaging of an IR60b mutant. The IR60b phenotype shows a high degree of chemical specificity when tested with a broad panel of tastants...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332396/salinity-dependent-contact-angle-alteration-in-oil-brine-silicate-systems-the-critical-role-of-divalent-cations
#18
Martin E J Haagh, Igor Siretanu, Michael H G Duits, Frieder Mugele
The effectiveness of water flooding oil recovery depends to an important extent on the competitive wetting of oil and water on the solid rock matrix. Here, we use macroscopic contact angle goniometry in highly idealized model systems to evaluate how brine salinity affects the balance of wetting forces and to infer the microscopic origin of the resulting contact angle alteration. We focus in particular on two competing mechanisms debated in the literature, namely double layer expansion and divalent cation bridging...
March 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329442/poly-ether-ester-ionomers-as-water-soluble-polymers-for-material-extrusion-additive-manufacturing-processes
#19
Allison M Pekkanen, Callie Zawaski, Andre Stevenson, Ross Dickerman, Abby Whittington, Christopher Bryant Williams, Timothy E Long
Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328174/a-strategy-to-design-hyperpolarized-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-magnetic-resonance-probes-using-1-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-%C3%AE-amino-acid-as-a-scaffold-structure
#20
Tatsuya Nishihara, Yutaka Kameyama, Hiroshi Nonaka, Yoichi Takakusagi, Fuminori Hyodo, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Shinsuke Sando
Hyperpolarization is an emerging method that dramatically enhances NMR signal intensity. As a result of the increased sensitivity, hyperpolarized (HP) NMR molecular probes can be used to perform time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging in vitro and in vivo. It is however challenging to design such probes de novo. We herein report the [1-¹³C]α-amino acid as a scaffold structure to design HP ¹³C NMR molecular probe. The [1-¹³C]α-amino acid can be converted to various HP ¹³C chemical probes that show sufficient chemical shift change by altering the chemical state of α-nitrogen upon the interaction with the target...
March 22, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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