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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944879/immunoreactivities-of-calbindin%C3%A2-d28k-calretinin-and-parvalbumin-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-of-rodents-during-normal-aging
#1
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Seongkweon Hong, Joon Ha Park, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Bai Hui Chen, Bich-Na Shin, Eun Joo Bae, Yong Hwan Jeon, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Soo Young Choi
Calbindin‑D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), which regulate cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in neurons, are chemically expressed in γ‑aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that regulate the degree of glutamatergic excitation and output of projection neurons. The present study investigated age‑associated differences in CB, CR and PV immunoreactivities in the somatosensory cortex in three species (mice, rats and gerbils) of young (1 month), adult (6 months) and aged (24 months) rodents, using immunohistochemistry and western blotting...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944867/succinate-promotes-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-via-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#2
Yexian Yuan, Yaqiong Xu, Jingren Xu, Bingqing Liang, Xingcai Cai, Canjun Zhu, Lina Wang, Songbo Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Xiuqi Wang, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
It is well known that endurance training is effective to attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy. Succinate is a typical TCA metabolite, of which exercise could dramatically increase the content. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of succinate on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, and try to delineate the underlying mechanism. The in vitro study revealed that succinate dose‑dependently increased protein synthesis in C2C12 myotube along with the enhancement of phosphorylation levels of AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1(Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4E binding protein 1 and forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938844/mcur1-mediated-mitochondrial-calcium-signaling-facilitates-cell-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-ros-dependent-p53-degradation
#3
Jinliang Xing, Tingting Ren, Jiaojiao Wang, Hui Zhang, Peng Yuan, Jianjun Zhu, Yousheng Wu, Qichao Huang, Xu Guo, Jing Zhang, Lele Ji, Jibin Li, Hongxin Zhang, Hushan Yang
AIMS: Levels of the Mitochondrial Calcium uniporter regulator 1 (MCUR1) increases during development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis is remodeled and its functional roles remains limited in cancers, especially in HCC. RESULTS: MCUR1 was frequently upregulated in HCC cells to enhance the Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in a MCU-dependent manner, which significantly facilitated cell survival by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent intrinsic apoptosis, and thus contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients...
September 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#4
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938426/a-sustained-activation-of-pancreatic-nmdars-is-a-novel-factor-of-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-and-dysfunction
#5
Xiao-Ting Huang, Shao-Jie Yue, Chen Li, Yan-Hong Huang, Qing-Mei Cheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Cai-Xia Hao, Ling-Zhi Wang, Jian-Ping Xu, Ming Ji, Chen Chen, Dan-Dan Feng, Zi-Qiang Luo
Type 2 diabetes, which features β-cell failure, is caused by the decrease of β-cell mass and insulin secretory function. Current treatments fail to halt the decrease of functional β-cell mass. Strategies to prevent β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction are highly desirable. Recently, our group and others have reported that blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the islets has been proposed to prevent the progress of type 2 diabetes through improving β-cell function. It suggests that a sustained activation of the NMDARs may exhibit deleterious effect on β-cells...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938395/aldose-reductase-mediates-nlrp3-inflammasome-initiated-innate-immune-response-in-hyperglycemia-induced-thp1-monocytes-and-male-mice
#6
Pabitra B Pal, Himangshu Sonowal, Kirtikar Shukla, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite recent studies that show oxidative stress-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate NLRP3-inflammasome-mediated innate immune response in various diabetic complications, the mechanism(s) of how ROS activate innate immune response is not well understood. We have shown earlier that aldose reductase (AR), besides reducing glucose, reduces lipid aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates and participates in various oxidative stress-induced inflammatory pathways. To understand the role of AR in ROS-induced innate immune response, we have investigated the mechanism(s) by which AR activates hyperglycemia-induced NLRP3-inflammsome- initiated innate immune response in Thp1 monocytes and in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937994/modeling-of-annexin-a2-membrane-interactions-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#7
Davit Hakobyan, Volker Gerke, Andreas Heuer
The annexins are a family of Ca2+-regulated phospholipid binding proteins that are involved in membrane domain organization and membrane trafficking. Although they are widely studied and crystal structures are available for several soluble annexins their mode of membrane association has never been studied at the molecular level. Here we obtained molecular information on the annexin-membrane interaction that could serve as paradigm for the peripheral membrane association of cytosolic proteins by Molecular Dynamics simulations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937978/a-new-discrete-dynamic-model-of-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-predicts-key-feedback-loops
#8
Réka Albert, Biswa R Acharya, Byeong Wook Jeon, Jorge G T Zañudo, Mengmeng Zhu, Karim Osman, Sarah M Assmann
Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937218/role-of-calcium-in-the-coagulation-of-nom-with-ferric-chloride
#9
Christina C Davis, Marc A Edwards
Natural organic matter (NOM) is capable of interfering with Fe hydrolysis and influencing the size, morphology, and identity of Fe precipitates. Conversely, Ca(2+) raises surface potential and increases the size and aggregation of Fe precipitates, leading to more effective coagulation and widening the pH range of water treatment. Experiments and modeling were conducted to investigate the significance of the Fe/NOM ratio and the presence of Ca(2+) in coagulation. At the high Fe/NOM ratio, sufficient or excess Fe was available for NOM removal, and coagulation proceeded according to expectations based upon the literature...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#10
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931752/l-dopa-sensitizes-vasomotor-tone-by-modulating-the-vascular-alpha1-adrenergic-receptor
#11
Daiki Masukawa, Motokazu Koga, Anna Sezaki, Yuka Nakao, Yuji Kamikubo, Tatsuo Hashimoto, Yuki Okuyama-Oki, Aderemi Caleb Aladeokin, Fumio Nakamura, Utako Yokoyama, Hiromichi Wakui, Hiroshi Ichinose, Takashi Sakurai, Satoshi Umemura, Koichi Tamura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Yoshio Goshima
Blood pressure is regulated by extrinsic factors including noradrenaline, the sympathetic neurotransmitter that controls cardiovascular functions through adrenergic receptors. However, the fine-tuning system of noradrenaline signaling is relatively unknown. We here show that l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a precursor of catecholamines, sensitizes the vascular adrenergic receptor alpha1 (ADRA1) through activation of L-DOPA receptor GPR143. In WT mice, intravenous infusion of the ADRA1 agonist phenylephrine induced a transient elevation of blood pressure...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930754/simvastatin-a-novel-stimulator-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#12
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Sigrid Nüßle, Hang Cao, Shaqiu Zhang, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin has been shown to trigger apoptosis of several cell types. The substance has thus been proposed as an additional treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the extracellular face of the erythrocyte cell membrane...
September 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930717/inhibition-of-erythrocyte-cell-membrane-scrambling-by-asp3026
#13
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Rosi Bissinger, Hang Cao, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor ASP3026 is in clinical development for the treatment of ALK expressing non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). ASP3026 is in part effective by inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei, key organelles in the execution of apoptosis, but are nevertheless able to enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the cell surface and by cell shrinkage...
September 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924161/molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-the-non-monotonic-effect-of-bisphenol-a-on-ca2-entry-in-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Sabrina Villar-Pazos, Juan Martinez-Pinna, Manuel Castellano-Muñoz, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena, Laura Marroqui, Ivan Quesada, Jan-Ake Gustafsson, Angel Nadal
In regulatory toxicology, the dose-response relationship is a key element towards fulfilling safety assessments and satisfying regulatory authorities. Conventionally, the larger the dose, the greater the response, following the dogma "the dose makes the poison". Many endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol-A (BPA), induce non-monotonic dose response (NMDR) relationships, which are unconventional and have tremendous implications in risk assessment. Although several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain NMDR relationships, they are largely undemonstrated...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924052/role-of-the-endothelial-caveolae-microdomain-in-shear-stress-mediated-coronary-vasorelaxation
#15
Tong Lu, Xiao-Li Wang, Qiang Chai, Xiaojing Sun, Gary C Sieck, Zvonimir S Katusic, Hon-Chi Lee
In this study, we determined the role of caveolae and the ionic mechanisms that mediate shear stress-mediated vasodilation (SSD). We found that both TRPV4 and SK channels are targeted to caveolae in freshly isolated bovine coronary endothelial cells (BCECs) and that TRPV4 and KCa2.3 (SK3) channels are co-immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 antibodies. Acute exposure of BCECs seeded in a capillary tube to 10 dynes/cm2 of SS resulted in activation of TRPV4 and SK currents. However, after incubation with HC067047 (TRPV4 inhibitor) SK currents could no longer be activated by SS, suggesting SK channel activation by SS was mediated through TRPV4...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923718/automated-measurement-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-ptsd-evidence-for-smaller-dentate-gyrus-volume
#16
Jasmeet P Hayes, Scott Hayes, Danielle R Miller, Ginette Lafleche, Mark W Logue, Mieke Verfaellie
Smaller hippocampal volume has been consistently observed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less is known about individual volumes of the subfields composing the hippocampus such as the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis (CA) fields 1-4 in PTSD. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that volume of the dentate gyrus, a region putatively involved in distinctive encoding of similar events, is smaller in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. Ninety-seven recent war veterans underwent structural imaging on a 3T scanner and were assessed for PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#17
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922775/multimeric-cax-complexes-and-ca2-signaling-beyond-humdrum-housekeeping
#18
Yi Ma, Gerald A Berkowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922657/methods-employed-in-cytofluorometric-assessment-of-eryptosis-the-suicidal-erythrocyte-death
#19
Mohamed Jemaà, Myriam Fezai, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis contributes to or even accounts for anemia in a wide variety of clinical conditions, such as iron deficiency, dehydration, hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D excess, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hemolytic-uremic syndrome, diabetes, hepatic failure, malignancy, arteriitis, sepsis, fever, malaria, sickle-cell disease, beta-thalassemia, Hb-C and G6PD-deficiency, Wilsons disease, as well as advanced age. Moreover, eryptosis is triggered by a myriad of xenobiotics and endogenous substances including cytotoxic drugs and uremic toxins...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922345/tilianin-post-conditioning-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-mitochondrial-protection-and-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#20
Yangyang Wang, Yong Yuan, Xinchun Wang, Yanfang Wang, Jiang Cheng, Li Tian, Xinhong Guo, Dongmei Qin, Wenjiang Cao
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tilianin in modulating mitochondrial functions and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during cardio-protection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced by 30 minutes coronary occlusion followed by two hours reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. To investigate the cardio-protective effects of tilianin, apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and function were assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamics of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and ATP production in the myocardium; Ca2+ content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to evaluated the level of damage factors in the mitochondria...
September 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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