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Plasticity, synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779233/long-term-high-intensity-sound-stimulation-inhibits-h-current-i-h-in-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#1
A O S Cunha, C C Ceballos, J L de Deus, R M Leão
Afferent neurotransmission to hippocampal pyramidal cells can lead to long-term changes to their intrinsic membrane properties and affect many ion currents. One of the most plastic neuronal currents is the hyperpolarization activated cationic current (Ih ), which changes in CA1 pyramidal cells in response to many types of physiological and pathological processes, including auditory stimulation. Recently we demonstrated that long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal Schaffer-CA1 synapses is depressed by high-intensity sound stimulation...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777761/functional-organization-of-postsynaptic-glutamate-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776048/critical-neural-networks-with-short-and-long-term-plasticity
#3
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#4
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765314/underlying-mechanisms-of-cooperativity-input-specificity-and-associativity-of-long-term-potentiation-through-a-positive-feedback-of-local-protein-synthesis
#5
Lijie Hao, Zhuoqin Yang, Jinzhi Lei
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a specific form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that is a leading mechanism of learning and memory in mammals. The properties of cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity are essential for LTP; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, based on experimentally observed phenomena, we introduce a computational model of synaptic plasticity in a pyramidal cell to explore the mechanisms responsible for the cooperativity, input specificity, and associativity of LTP...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765299/src-kinase-dependent-rapid-non-genomic-modulation-of-hippocampal-spinogenesis-induced-by-androgen-and-estrogen
#6
Mika Soma, Jonghyuk Kim, Asami Kato, Suguru Kawato
Dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from an axon terminal at the synapse. Memories are stored in synapses which consist of spines and presynapses. Rapid modulations of dendritic spines induced by hippocampal sex steroids, including dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2), are essential for synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid non-genomic modulation through synaptic receptors of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) as well as its downstream kinase signaling, however, have not been well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764972/separate-functional-properties-of-nmdars-regulate-distinct-aspects-of-spatial-cognition
#7
Erin M Sanders, Akua O Nyarko-Odoom, Kevin Zhao, Michael Nguyen, Hong Hong Liao, Matthew Keith, Jane Pyon, Alyssa Kozma, Mohima Sanyal, Daniel G McHail, Theodore C Dumas
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses are central to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. NMDARs act as ionotropic and metabotropic receptors by elevating postsynaptic calcium concentrations and by direct intracellular protein signaling. In the forebrain, these properties are controlled largely by the auxiliary GluN2 subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B. While calcium conductance through NMDAR channels and intracellular protein signaling make separate contributions to synaptic plasticity, it is not known if these properties individually influence learning and memory...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755323/environmental-enrichment-prevents-transcriptional-disturbances-induced-by-alpha-synuclein-overexpression
#8
Zinah Wassouf, Thomas Hentrich, Sebastian Samer, Carola Rotermund, Philipp J Kahle, Ingrid Ehrlich, Olaf Riess, Nicolas Casadei, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, including synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, have been associated with various environmental factors. A highly compelling association from a therapeutic point of view has been found between a physically active lifestyle and a significantly reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. Mimicking such conditions in animal models by promoting physical activity, social interactions, and novel surroundings yields in a so-called enriched environment known to enhance adult neurogenesis, increase synaptic plasticity, and decelerate neuronal loss...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755321/voltage-gated-calcium-channel-activation-by-backpropagating-action-potentials-downregulates-nmdar-function
#9
Anne-Kathrin Theis, Balázs Rózsa, Gergely Katona, Dietmar Schmitz, Friedrich W Johenning
The majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines of cortical glutamatergic neurons. In spines, compartmentalized Ca2+ signals transduce electrical activity into specific long-term biochemical and structural changes. Action potentials (APs) propagate back into the dendritic tree and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). For spines, this global mode of spine Ca2+ signaling is a direct biochemical feedback of suprathreshold neuronal activity. We previously demonstrated that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) result in long-term enhancement of spine VGCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755318/arc-3-utr-splicing-leads-to-dual-and-antagonistic-effects-in-fine-tuning-arc-expression-upon-bdnf-signaling
#10
Chiara Paolantoni, Simona Ricciardi, Veronica De Paolis, Chinenye Okenwa, Caterina Catalanotto, Maria T Ciotti, Antonino Cattaneo, Carlo Cogoni, Corinna Giorgi
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) is an immediate-early gene critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Arc mRNA is rapidly induced by synaptic activation and a portion is locally translated in dendrites where it modulates synaptic strength. Being an activity-dependent effector of homeostatic balance, regulation of Arc is uniquely tuned to result in short-lived bursts of expression. Cis -Acting elements that control its transitory expression post-transcriptionally reside primarily in Arc mRNA 3' UTR...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750970/bdnf-infusion-into-the-mpn-mag-is-sufficient-to-restore-copulatory-behavior-in-the-castrated-syrian-hamster
#11
Joe C Brague, Christine N Lenchur, Julia M Hayden, Rachel H Davidson, Kelly Corrigan, Garrett T Santini, Jennifer M Swann
Testosterone plays a key role in the expression of male sex behavior by influencing cellular activity and synapses within the magnocellular medial preoptic nucleus (MPN mag), a sub-nucleus of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) in the Syrian hamster. Although the mechanisms underlying hormonally-induced synaptic plasticity in this region remain elusive, the data suggests that an increase in synaptic density may mediate testosterone's effects on copulation. As brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an integral role in regulating synaptic plasticity and gonadal steroids regulate the levels of BDNF, we hypothesize that BDNF may mediate the effects of gonadal hormones on copulatory behavior...
May 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738844/removal-of-area-ca3-from-hippocampal-slices-induces-postsynaptic-plasticity-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-that-normalizes-ca1-pyramidal-cell-discharge
#12
Theodore C Dumas, Michael R Uttaro, Carolina Barriga, Tiffany Brinkley, Maryam Halavi, Susan N Wright, Michele Ferrante, Rebekah C Evans, Sarah L Hawes, Erin M Sanders
Neural networks that undergo acute insults display remarkable reorganization. This injury related plasticity is thought to permit recovery of function in the face of damage that cannot be reversed. Previously, an increase in the transmission strength at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was observed after long-term activity reduction in organotypic hippocampal slices. Here we report that, following acute preparation of adult rat hippocampal slices and surgical removal of area CA3, input to area CA1 was reduced and Schaffer collateral synapses underwent functional strengthening...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735711/ultrafast-glutamate-sensors-resolve-high-frequency-release-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses
#13
Nordine Helassa, Céline D Dürst, Catherine Coates, Silke Kerruth, Urwa Arif, Christian Schulze, J Simon Wiegert, Michael Geeves, Thomas G Oertner, Katalin Török
Glutamatergic synapses display a rich repertoire of plasticity mechanisms on many different time scales, involving dynamic changes in the efficacy of transmitter release as well as changes in the number and function of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. The genetically encoded glutamate sensor iGluSnFR enables visualization of glutamate release from presynaptic terminals at frequencies up to ∼10 Hz. However, to resolve glutamate dynamics during high-frequency bursts, faster indicators are required. Here, we report the development of fast (iGlu f ) and ultrafast (iGlu u ) variants with comparable brightness but increased K d for glutamate (137 μM and 600 μM, respectively)...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727167/dendritic-learning-as-a-paradigm-shift-in-brain-learning
#14
Shira Sardi, Roni Vardi, Amir Goldental, Yael Tugendhaft, Herut Uzan, Ido Kanter
Experimental and theoretical results reveal a new underlying mechanism for fast brain learning process, dendritic learning, as opposed to the misdirected research in neuroscience over decades, which is based solely on slow synaptic plasticity. The presented paradigm indicates that learning occurs in closer proximity to the neuron, the computational unit, dendritic strengths are self-oscillating, and weak synapses, which comprise the majority of our brain and previously were assumed to be insignificant, play a key role in plasticity...
May 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726076/synergistic-gating-of-electro-iono-photoactive-2d-chalcogenide-neuristors-coexistence-of-hebbian-and-homeostatic-synaptic-metaplasticity
#15
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724490/cortical-paired-associative-stimulation-influences-response-inhibition-cortico-cortical-and-cortico-subcortical-networks
#16
Sina Kohl, Ricci Hannah, Lorenzo Rocchi, Camilla L Nord, John Rothwell, Valerie Voon
BACKGROUND: The ability to stop a suboptimal response is integral to decision making and is commonly impaired across psychiatric disorders. Cortical paired associative stimulation (cPAS) is a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation in which paired pulses can induce plasticity at cortical synapses. Here we used cPAS protocols to target cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks by using different intervals between the paired pulses in an attempt to modify response inhibition. METHODS: A total of 25 healthy volunteers underwent four cPAS sessions in random order 1 week apart: right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) stimulation preceding right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) stimulation by 10 or 4 ms and pre-SMA stimulation preceding IFC stimulation by 10 or 4 ms...
April 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723500/calcium-channels-synaptic-plasticity-and-neuropsychiatric-disease
#17
REVIEW
Evanthia Nanou, William A Catterall
Voltage-gated calcium channels couple depolarization of the cell-surface membrane to entry of calcium, which triggers secretion, contraction, neurotransmission, gene expression, and other physiological responses. They are encoded by ten genes, which generate three voltage-gated calcium channel subfamilies: CaV 1; CaV 2; and CaV 3. At synapses, CaV 2 channels form large signaling complexes in the presynaptic nerve terminal, which are responsible for the calcium entry that triggers neurotransmitter release and short-term presynaptic plasticity...
May 2, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722088/declarative-virtual-water-maze-learning-and-emotional-fear-conditioning-in-primary-insomnia
#18
Marion Kuhn, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Bernd Feige, Nina Landmann, Kai Spiegelhalder, Chiara Baglioni, Johanna Hemmerling, Diana Durand, Lukas Frase, Stefan Klöppel, Dieter Riemann, Christoph Nissen
Healthy sleep restores the brain's ability to adapt to novel input through memory formation based on activity-dependent refinements of the strength of neural transmission across synapses (synaptic plasticity). In line with this framework, patients with primary insomnia often report subjective memory impairment. However, investigations of memory performance did not produce conclusive results. The aim of this study was to further investigate memory performance in patients with primary insomnia in comparison to healthy controls, using two well-characterized learning tasks, a declarative virtual water maze task and emotional fear conditioning...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719243/active-zone-scaffold-protein-ratios-tune-functional-diversity-across-brain-synapses
#19
Andreas Fulterer, Till F M Andlauer, Anatoli Ender, Marta Maglione, Katherine Eyring, Jennifer Woitkuhn, Martin Lehmann, Tanja Matkovic-Rachid, Joerg R P Geiger, Alexander M Walter, Katherine I Nagel, Stephan J Sigrist
High-throughput electron microscopy has started to reveal synaptic connectivity maps of single circuits and whole brain regions, for example, in the Drosophila olfactory system. However, efficacy, timing, and frequency tuning of synaptic vesicle release are also highly diversified across brain synapses. These features critically depend on the nanometer-scale coupling distance between voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) and the synaptic vesicle release machinery. Combining light super resolution microscopy with in vivo electrophysiology, we show here that two orthogonal scaffold proteins (ELKS family Bruchpilot, BRP, and Syd-1) cluster-specific (M)Unc13 release factor isoforms either close (BRP/Unc13A) or further away (Syd-1/Unc13B) from VGCCs across synapses of the Drosophila olfactory system, resulting in different synapse-characteristic forms of short-term plasticity...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715265/mice-lacking-the-transcriptional-regulator-bhlhe40-have-enhanced-neuronal-excitability-and-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#20
Kelly A Hamilton, Yue Wang, Sophia M Raefsky, Sean Berkowitz, Ryan Spangler, Caitlin N Suire, Simonetta Camandola, Robert H Lipsky, Mark P Mattson
Bhlhe40 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the hippocampus; however, its role in neuronal function is not well understood. Here, we used Bhlhe40 null mice on a congenic C57Bl6/J background (Bhlhe40 KO) to investigate the impact of Bhlhe40 on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Bhlhe40 KO CA1 neurons had increased miniature excitatory post-synaptic current amplitude and decreased inhibitory post-synaptic current amplitude, indicating CA1 neuronal hyperexcitability...
2018: PloS One
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