keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Plasticity, synapse

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144996/new-roles-and-controls-of-mast-cells
#1
REVIEW
Eric Espinosa, Salvatore Valitutti
Mast cells are innate immune cells implicated in immune surveillance and defense. They are filled with secretory granules where a vast array of molecules endowed with multiple biological activities are stored. The process of granule secretion, named degranulation, is a tightly controlled biological phenomenon that allows mast cells to rapidly and efficiently release bioactive mediators in response to extracellular stimuli. MC degranulation allows fighting pathogens, limiting envenomation and contributes to tissue homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143330/short-term-high-fat-diet-primes-excitatory-synapses-for-long-term-depression-in-orexin-neurons
#2
Victoria Linehan, Lisa Fang, Michiru Hirasawa
Overconsumption of high-fat diets is one of the strongest contributing factors to the rise of obesity rates. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by palatable high-fat diet and mediate the activation of the mesolimbic reward pathway, resulting in further food intake. While short-term exposure to high-fat diet is known to induce synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic pathway, it is unknown if such changes occur in orexin neurons. To investigate this, 3-week old male rats were fed a palatable high-fat western diet (WD) or control chow for 1 week and then in vitro patch clamp recording was performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142062/the-serine-protease-inhibitor-neuroserpin-is-required-for-normal-synaptic-plasticity-and-regulates-learning-and-social-behavior
#3
Rebecca Reumann, Ricardo Vierk, Lepu Zhou, Frederice Gries, Vanessa Kraus, Julia Mienert, Eva Romswinkel, Fabio Morellini, Isidre Ferrer, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Gabriele Rune, Markus Glatzel, Giovanna Galliciotti
The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin expression is particularly prominent at late stages of neuronal development in most regions of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas it is restricted to regions related to learning and memory in the adult brain. The physiological expression pattern of neuroserpin, its high degree of colocalization with tPA within the CNS, together with its dysregulation in neuropsychiatric disorders, suggest a role in formation and refinement of synapses...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142061/effects-of-regulatory-bc1-rna-deletion-on-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#4
Ain Chung, Nessy Dahan, Juan Marcos Alarcon, André A Fenton
Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the hippocampus-synaptic plasticity-dependent active place avoidance task, learning and memory were impaired in the BC1-KO line with the more severely altered DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139210/timing-of-neuronal-plasticity-in-development-and-aging
#5
REVIEW
Evguenia Ivakhnitskaia, Ryan Weihsiang Lin, Kana Hamada, Chieh Chang
Molecular oscillators are well known for their roles in temporal control of some biological processes like cell proliferation, but molecular mechanisms that provide temporal control of differentiation and postdifferentiation events in cells are less understood. In the nervous system, establishment of neuronal connectivity during development and decline in neuronal plasticity during aging are regulated with temporal precision, but the timing mechanisms are largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans has been a preferred model for aging research and recently emerges as a new model for the study of developmental and postdevelopmental plasticity in neurons...
November 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138490/bidirectional-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-dopaminergic-d4-receptors-in-the-ca1-area-of-hippocampus
#6
Sheeja Navakkode, Katherine C M Chew, Sabrina Jia Ning Tay, Qingshu Lin, Thomas Behnisch, Tuck Wah Soong
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in the strength of the synapses. However, the neural networks would become saturated if there is only synaptic strenghthening. Synaptic weakening could be facilitated by active processes like long-term depression (LTD). Molecular mechanisms that facilitate the weakening of synapses and thereby stabilize the synapses are also important in learning and memory. Here we show that blockade of dopaminergic D4 receptors (D4R) promoted the formation of late-LTP and transformed early-LTP into late-LTP...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138001/pdz-ligand-binding-induced-conformational-coupling-of-the-pdz-sh3-gk-tandems-in-psd-95-family-maguks
#7
Menglong Zeng, Fei Ye, Jia Xu, Mingjie Zhang
DLG MAGUKs are abundantly expressed in glutamatergic synapses, crucial for synaptic transmission and plasticity by anchoring various postsynaptic components including glutamate receptors, downstream scaffold proteins and signaling enzymes. Different DLG members have shared structures and functions, but also contain unique features. How DLG family proteins function individually and cooperatively are largely unknown. Here, we report that PSD-95 PDZ3 directly couples with SH3-GK tandem in a PDZ ligand binding-dependent manner, and the coupling can promote PSD-95 dimerization and multimerization...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136108/perturbation-of-gabaergic-synapses-at-the-axon-initial-segment-of-basolateral-amygdala-induces-trans-regional-metaplasticity-at-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Rinki Saha, Kuldeep Shrivastava, Liang Jing, Rachel Schayek, Mouna Maroun, Martin Kriebel, Hansjürgen Volkmer, Gal Richter-Levin
GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play an important role in fear memory generation. We have previously reported that reduction in GABAergic synapses innervating specifically at the axon initial segment (AIS) of principal neurons of BLA, by neurofascin (NF) knockdown, impairs fear extinction. BLA is bidirectionally connected with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is a key region involved in extinction of acquired fear memory. Here, we showed that reducing AIS GABAergic synapses within the BLA leads to impairment of synaptic plasticity in the BLA-mPFC pathway, as well as in the ventral subiculum (vSub)-mPFC pathway, which is independent of BLA involvement...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136107/contextual-fear-extinction-induces-hippocampal-metaplasticity-mediated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#9
Branden J Stansley, Nicole M Fisher, Rocco G Gogliotti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134655/protein-components-of-postsynaptic-density-lattice-a-backbone-structure-for-type-i-excitatory-synapses
#10
Tatsuo Suzuki, Kiyokazu Kametani, Weiheng Guo, Weidong Li
It is essential to study the molecular architecture of postsynaptic density (PSD) to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic nature of PSD, one of the bases of synaptic plasticity. A well-known model for the architecture of PSD of type I excitatory synapses basically comprises of several scaffolding proteins (scaffold protein model). On the contrary, "PSD lattice" observed through electron microscopy has been considered a basic backbone of type I PSDs. However, major constituents of the PSD lattice and the relationship between the PSD lattice and the scaffold protein model, are unknown...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#11
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#12
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133434/pkd1-promotes-functional-synapse-formation-coordinated-with-n-cadherin-in-hippocampus
#13
Cheng Cen, Li-Da Luo, Wen-Qi Li, Gang Li, Na-Xi Tian, Ge Zheng, Dong-Min Yin, Yimin Zou, Yun Wang
Functional synapse formation is critical for the wiring of neural circuits in the developing brain. The cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin plays important roles in target recognition and synaptogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the localization of N-cadherin and the subsequent effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) directly binds to N-cadherin at amino acid residues 836-871 and phosphorylates it at Ser 869, 871, 872, thereby increasing the surface localization of N-cadherin and promoting functional synapse formation in primary cultured hippocampal neurons obtained from embryonic day 18 rat embryos of either sex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132949/redefining-neuroendocrinology-epigenetics-of-brain-body-communication-over-the-life-course
#14
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress that perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, and it does so somewhat differently in males and females. The expression of steroid hormone receptors throughout the brain has broadened the definition of 'neuroendocrinology' to include the reciprocal communication between the entire brain and body via hormonal and neural pathways. Mediated in part via systemic hormonal influences, the adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover...
November 10, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124300/xanthoceraside-modulates-nr2b-containing-nmda-receptors-at-synapses-and-rescues-learning-memory-deficits-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#15
Lin Zhu, Lei Yang, Xuemei Zhao, Danyang Liu, Xiaoli Guo, Peng Liu, Tianyan Chi, Xuefei Ji, Libo Zou
RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss and synaptic damage. Previous studies suggested that xanthoceraside decreases glutamate-induced PC12 cell death, ameliorates memory deficits, and increases the number of dendritic spines in AD mice. These results indicated that xanthoceraside might have activities that protect synaptic plasticity. Herein, we detected the effect of xanthoceraside on synaptic function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice were orally treated with xanthoceraside (0...
November 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123470/regulation-of-ampa-receptor-trafficking-by-protein-ubiquitination
#16
REVIEW
Jocelyn Widagdo, Sumasri Guntupalli, Se E Jang, Victor Anggono
The molecular mechanisms underlying plastic changes in the strength and connectivity of excitatory synapses have been studied extensively for the past few decades and remain the most attractive cellular models of learning and memory. One of the major mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity is the dynamic adjustment of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor content on the neuronal plasma membrane. The expression of surface AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is controlled by the delicate balance between the biosynthesis, dendritic transport, exocytosis, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of the receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123130/binding-of-mycotoxins-to-proteins-involved-in-neuronal-plasticity-a-combined-in-silico-wet-investigation
#17
Bernardina Scafuri, Antonio Varriale, Angelo Facchiano, Sabato D'Auria, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Anna Marabotti
We have applied a combined computational procedure based on inverse and direct docking in order to identify putative protein targets of a panel of mycotoxins and xenobiotic compounds that can contaminate food and that are known to have several detrimental effects on human health. This procedure allowed us to identify a panel of human proteins as possible targets for aflatoxins, gliotoxin, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol. Steady-state fluorescence and microscale thermophoresis experiments allowed us to confirm the binding of some of these mycotoxins to acetylcholinesterase and X-linked neuroligin 4, two proteins involved in synapse activity and, particularly for the second protein, neuronal plasticity and development...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118196/the-involvement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-plasticity-induced-by-paired-corticospinal-motoneuronal-stimulation-in-humans
#18
Siobhan C Donges, Jessica M D'Amico, Jane E Butler, Janet L Taylor
Plasticity can be induced at human corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses by delivering repeated, paired stimuli to corticospinal axons and motoneurones in a technique called paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS). To date, the mechanisms of the induced plasticity are unknown. To determine whether PCMS-induced plasticity is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), the effect of the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, dextromethorphan, on PCMS-induced facilitation was assessed in a two-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117560/timed-synaptic-inhibition-shapes-nmda-spikes-influencing-local-dendritic-processing-and-global-i-o-properties-of-cortical-neurons
#19
Michael Doron, Giuseppe Chindemi, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram, Idan Segev
The NMDA spike is a long-lasting nonlinear phenomenon initiated locally in the dendritic branches of a variety of cortical neurons. It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and in single-neuron computations. Combining dynamic system theory and computational approaches, we now explore how the timing of synaptic inhibition affects the NMDA spike and its associated membrane current. When impinging on its early phase, individual inhibitory synapses strongly, but transiently, dampen the NMDA spike; later inhibition prematurely terminates it...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#20
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
keyword
keyword
82349
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"