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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#1
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096497/bdnf-regains-function-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-deficits-caused-by-diencephalic-damage
#2
Lindsey C Vedder, Lisa M Savage
Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage induced by TD in rats. Thus, despite a lack of extensive hippocampal cell loss, diencephalic brain damage down-regulates plastic processes within the hippocampus, likely contributing to impaired hippocampal-dependent behaviors...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#3
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093559/gradation-approx-10-size-states-of-synaptic-strength-by-quantal-addition-of-structural-modules
#4
Kang K L Liu, Michael F Hagan, John E Lisman
Memory storage involves activity-dependent strengthening of synaptic transmission, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). The late phase of LTP is thought to encode long-term memory and involves structural processes that enlarge the synapse. Hence, understanding how synapse size is graded provides fundamental information about the information storage capability of synapses. Recent work using electron microscopy (EM) to quantify synapse dimensions has suggested that synapses may structurally encode as many as 26 functionally distinct states, which correspond to a series of proportionally spaced synapse sizes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#5
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093557/hebbian-plasticity-requires-compensatory-processes-on-multiple-timescales
#6
REVIEW
Friedemann Zenke, Wulfram Gerstner
We review a body of theoretical and experimental research on Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, starting from a puzzling observation: while homeostasis of synapses found in experiments is a slow compensatory process, most mathematical models of synaptic plasticity use rapid compensatory processes (RCPs). Even worse, with the slow homeostatic plasticity reported in experiments, simulations of existing plasticity models cannot maintain network stability unless further control mechanisms are implemented. To solve this paradox, we suggest that in addition to slow forms of homeostatic plasticity there are RCPs which stabilize synaptic plasticity on short timescales...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093550/experience-dependent-homeostasis-of-noise-at-inhibitory-synapses-preserves-information-coding-in-adult-visual-cortex
#7
Ming Gao, Jessica L Whitt, Shiyong Huang, Angela Lee, Stefan Mihalas, Alfredo Kirkwood, Hey-Kyoung Lee
Synapses are intrinsically 'noisy' in that neurotransmitter is occasionally released in the absence of an action potential. At inhibitory synapses, the frequency of action potential-independent release is orders of magnitude higher than that at excitatory synapses raising speculations that it may serve a function. Here we report that the frequency of action potential-independent inhibitory synaptic 'noise' (i.e. miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, mIPSCs) is highly regulated by sensory experience in visual cortex...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093548/astrocytic-control-of-synaptic-function
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Papouin, Jaclyn Dunphy, Michaela Tolman, Jeannine C Foley, Philip G Haydon
Astrocytes intimately interact with synapses, both morphologically and, as evidenced in the past 20 years, at the functional level. Ultrathin astrocytic processes contact and sometimes enwrap the synaptic elements, sense synaptic transmission and shape or alter the synaptic signal by releasing signalling molecules. Yet, the consequences of such interactions in terms of information processing in the brain remain very elusive. This is largely due to two major constraints: (i) the exquisitely complex, dynamic and ultrathin nature of distal astrocytic processes that renders their investigation highly challenging and (ii) our lack of understanding of how information is encoded by local and global fluctuations of intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093546/time-course-and-mechanisms-of-homeostatic-plasticity-in-layers-2-3-and-5-of-the-barrel-cortex
#9
Stanislaw Glazewski, Stuart Greenhill, Kevin Fox
Recent studies have shown that ocular dominance plasticity in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex exhibits a form of homeostatic plasticity that is related to synaptic scaling and depends on TNFα. In this study, we tested whether a similar form of plasticity was present in layer 2/3 of the barrel cortex and, therefore, whether the mechanism was likely to be a general property of cortical neurons. We found that whisker deprivation could induce homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 of barrel cortex, but not in a mouse strain lacking synaptic scaling...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093479/paired-stimulation-for-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-primate-sensorimotor-cortex
#10
Stephanie C Seeman, Brian J Mogen, Eberhard E Fetz, Steve I Perlmutter
: Classic studies in vitro have described spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at a synapse: the connection from neuron A to neuron B is strengthened (or weakened) when A fires before (or after) B within an optimal time window. Accordingly, more recent in vivo works have demonstrated behavioral effects consistent with an STDP mechanism; however many relied on single-unit recordings. The ability to modify cortical connections becomes useful in the context of injury when connectivity, and associated behavior, is compromised...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093473/differential-regulation-of-nmda-receptor-mediated-transmission-by-sk-channels-underlies-dorsal-ventral-differences-in-dynamics-of-schaffer-collateral-synaptic-function
#11
Walter E Babiec, Shekib A Jami, Ryan Guglietta, Patrick B Chen, Thomas J O'Dell
: Behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence indicates that the dorsal and ventral zones of the hippocampus have distinct roles in cognition. How the unique functions of these zones might depend on differences in synaptic and neuronal function arising from the strikingly different gene expression profiles exhibited by dorsal and ventral CA1 pyramidal cells is unclear. To begin to address this question, we investigated the mechanisms underlying differences in synaptic transmission and plasticity at dorsal and ventral Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses in the mouse hippocampus...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#12
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#13
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#14
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#15
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073939/nanoscale-molecular-reorganization-of-the-inhibitory-postsynaptic-density-is-a-determinant-of-gabaergic-synaptic-potentiation
#16
Francesca Pennacchietti, Sebastiano Vascon, Thierry Nieus, Christian Rosillo, Sabyasachi Das, Shiva Tyagarajan, Alberto Diaspro, Alessio Del Bue, Enrica Maria Petrini, Andrea Barberis, Francesca Cella Zanacchi
: Gephyrin is a key scaffold protein mediating the anchoring of GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses. Here we exploited super-resolution techniques combined with proximity-based clustering analysis and model simulations to investigate the single molecule gephyrin reorganization during plasticity of inhibitory synapses in mouse hippocampal cultured neurons. This approach revealed that during the expression of inhibitory long-term potentiation the increase of gephyrin density at postsynaptic sites is associated with the promoted formation of gephyrin nano-domains...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070120/the-protocadherin-17-gene-affects-cognition-personality-amygdala-structure-and-function-synapse-development-and-risk-of-major-mood-disorders
#17
H Chang, N Hoshina, C Zhang, Y Ma, H Cao, Y Wang, D-D Wu, S E Bergen, M Landén, C M Hultman, M Preisig, Z Kutalik, E Castelao, M Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, A J Forstner, J Strohmaier, J Hecker, T G Schulze, B Müller-Myhsok, A Reif, P B Mitchell, N G Martin, P R Schofield, S Cichon, M M Nöthen, H Walter, S Erk, A Heinz, N Amin, C M van Duijn, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Tost, X Xiao, T Yamamoto, M Rietschel, M Li
Major mood disorders, which primarily include bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, are the leading cause of disability worldwide and pose a major challenge in identifying robust risk genes. Here, we present data from independent large-scale clinical data sets (including 29 557 cases and 32 056 controls) revealing brain expressed protocadherin 17 (PCDH17) as a susceptibility gene for major mood disorders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the PCDH17 region are significantly associated with major mood disorders; subjects carrying the risk allele showed impaired cognitive abilities, increased vulnerable personality features, decreased amygdala volume and altered amygdala function as compared with non-carriers...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070023/magnetic-skyrmion-based-synaptic-devices
#18
Yangqi Huang, Wang Kang, Xichao Zhang, Yan Zhou, Weisheng Zhao
Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates for next-generation information carriers, owing to their small size, topological stability, and ultralow depinning current density. A wide variety of skyrmionic device concepts and prototypes have recently been proposed, highlighting their potential applications. Furthermore, the intrinsic properties of skyrmions enable new functionalities that may be inaccessible to conventional electronic devices. Here, we report on a skyrmion-based artificial synapse device for neuromorphic systems...
January 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#19
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069435/astrocytes-and-presynaptic-plasticity-in-the-striatum-evidence-and-unanswered-questions
#20
Anton Dvorzhak, Igor Melnick, Rosemarie Grantyn
One of the main functions of astrocytes is to ensure glutamate homeostasis by glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. However, during the past ten years it has become clear that astrocytes may also induce changes in synaptic glutamate release when respective pathways must cope with the consequences of brain damage or other alterations in their functional requirements. The loss of glutamatergic synapses in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease is likely to associate with a continuous redistribution of presynaptic activity within the pool of surviving synapses, and astrocytes may have a role in the maintenance of independent control at individual glutamate release sites...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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