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Plasticity, synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329879/mir-134-modulates-chronic-stress-induced-structural-plasticity-and-depression-like-behaviors-via-downregulation-of-limk1-cofilin-signaling-in-rats
#1
Cuiqin Fan, Xiuzhi Zhu, Qiqi Song, Peng Wang, Zhuxi Liu, Shu Yan Yu
Increasing evidence has suggested that depression is a neuropsychiatric condition associated with neuroplasticity within specific brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which neuroplasticity exerts its effects in depression remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we show that chronic stress effectively induces depression-like behaviors in rats, an effect which was associated with structural changes in dendritic spines and synapse abnormalities within neurons of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#2
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#3
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326059/differential-requirement-of-de-novo-arc-protein-synthesis-in-the-insular-cortex-and-the-amygdala-for-safe-and-aversive-taste-long-term-memory-formation
#4
Guzmán-Ramos Kioko, Venkataraman Archana, Morin Jean-Pascal, Osorio-Gómez Daniel, Bermúdez-Rattoni Federico
Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325855/gating-of-long-term-potentiation-ltp-in-the-thalamocortical-auditory-system-of-rats-by-serotonergic-5-ht-receptors
#5
Karen K Y Lee, Chloe N Soutar, Hans C Dringenberg
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HT1ARs, 5-HT2Rs, and 5-HT3Rs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323417/loss-of-ethanol-inhibition-of-nmdar-mediated-currents-and-plasticity-of-cerebellar-synapses-in-mice-expressing-the-glun1-f639a-subunit
#6
Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316492/synapse-to-nucleus-communication-from-developmental-disorders-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Elena Marcello, Monica Di Luca, Fabrizio Gardoni
In the last decade several synaptonuclear protein messengers including Jacob, CRTC1, AIDA-1, ProSaP2/Shank3 and RNF10 have been identified and characterized as key players for modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Activation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses leads to their shuttling from the synapse to the nucleus, mostly importin-mediated, and subsequent regulation of gene transcription needed for long lasting modifications of synaptic function. Accordingly, increasing evidences show that alterations of the activity of synaptonuclear messengers are correlated to synaptic failure as observed in different synaptopathies...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305536/pou6f1-mediates-neuropeptide-dependent-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain
#8
Cynthia K McClard, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Isabella Herman, Zhandong Liu, Aiden Eblimit, Yalda Moayedi, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Daniel Colchado, Brandon Pekarek, Sugi Paneerselvam, Graeme Mardon, Benjamin R Arenkiel
The mouse olfactory bulb (OB) features continued, activity-dependent integration of adult-born neurons, providing a robust model to examine mechanisms of plasticity in the adult brain. We previously reported that local OB interneurons secrete the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in an activity-dependent manner onto adult-born granule neurons, and that local CRH signaling promotes expression of synaptic machinery in the bulb. This effect is mediated via activation of the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), which is developmentally regulated during adult-born neuron maturation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300903/multicontact-co-operativity-in-spike-timing-dependent-structural-plasticity-stabilizes-networks
#9
Moritz Deger, Alexander Seeholzer, Wulfram Gerstner
Excitatory synaptic connections in the adult neocortex consist of multiple synaptic contacts, almost exclusively formed on dendritic spines. Changes of spine volume, a correlate of synaptic strength, can be tracked in vivo for weeks. Here, we present a combined model of structural and spike-timing-dependent plasticity that explains the multicontact configuration of synapses in adult neocortical networks under steady-state and lesion-induced conditions. Our plasticity rule with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian terms stabilizes both the postsynaptic firing rate and correlations between the pre- and postsynaptic activity at an active synaptic contact...
December 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299809/status-epilepticus-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-increases-short-term-synaptic-facilitation-in-the-hippocampus-of-juvenile-rats
#10
T Yu Postnikova, A M Trofimova, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
We studied the effect of status epilepticus (SE) on short-term synaptic plasticity. The amplitudes of field potentials in response to extracellular stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals were recorded in hippocampal slices. Subtle modifications were revealed on day 1 after SE, whereas on days 3 and 7 we did not find any differences from the control. These data show that, one day after SE, the probability of a transmitter release in hippocampal synapses decreases that serves as a compensatory mechanism, which prevents seizure activity...
November 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298650/potential-application-of-centrifuges-to-protect-the-cns-in-space-and-on-earth
#11
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Yuki Shimizu, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Makoto Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Centrifuges are the principal means of generating physiological hypergravity and have been used for many medical purposes, including the therapy of psychiatric diseases and evaluation of vestibular system in the pilots. In particular, modern centrifuges have evolved into mechanically sophisticated precision instruments compared to primitive ones in old times, indicating that centrifuges might possess great potential in modern medicine. Indeed, studies are in progress to apply centrifuges to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
December 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295823/the-stress-induced-transcription-factor-nr4a1-adjusts-mitochondrial-function-and-synapse-number-in-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Freddy Jeanneteau, Christian Barrère, Mariska Vos, Carlie Jm De Vries, Claude Rouillard, Daniel Levesque, Yann Dromard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Vanja Duric, Tina C Franklin, Ronald S Duman, David A Lewis, Stephen D Ginsberg, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The energetic costs of behavioral chronic stress are unlikely to be sustainable without neuronal plasticity. Mitochondria have the capacity to handle synaptic activity up to a limit before energetic depletion occurs. Protective mechanisms driven by the induction of neuronal genes likely evolved to buffer the consequences of chronic stress on excitatory neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this circuitry is vulnerable to excitotoxic insults. Little is known about the genes involved in mitochondrial adaptation to the build up of chronic stress...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289296/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-tcdd-in-rat-brain-after-long-term-low-dose-exposure
#13
Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Heidi Q H Xie, Tuan Xu, Hualing Fu, Songyan Zhang, Rui Sha, Yingjie Xia, Bin Zhao
Several cohort studies have reported that dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls might impair the nervous system and lead to neurological or neurodegenerative diseases in the elder people, but there is limited research on the involved mechanism. By using microarray analysis, we figured out the differentially expressed genes between brain samples from SD rats after low-dose (0.1μg/(kg▪bw)) dioxin exposure for six months and controls. To investigate the function changes in the course of dioxin exposure, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286067/changes-in-microrna-expression-in-the-brachial-plexus-avulsion-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#14
Yuzhou Liu, Le Wang, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
The present study aimed to perform microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression profiling of the thalamus (T), the anterior cingulate (AC), the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC) and the blood (B) in post‑complete brachial plexus avulsion (CBPA) pain model, and analyze biological functions. Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague‑Dawley rats by CBPA. Animal behavioral tests were performed to differentiate the pain and control groups. DHSC, T, AC and B tissues were collected from the two groups for miRNA array analysis...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281813/loss-of-synapse-repressor-mdga1-enhances-perisomatic-inhibition-confers-resistance-to-network-excitation-and-impairs-cognitive-function
#15
Steven A Connor, Ina Ammendrup-Johnsen, Yasushi Kishimoto, Parisa Karimi Tari, Vedrana Cvetkovska, Takashi Harada, Daiki Ojima, Tohru Yamamoto, Yu Tian Wang, Ann Marie Craig
Synaptopathies contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders are linked to mutations in synaptic organizing molecules, including postsynaptic neuroligins, presynaptic neurexins, and MDGAs, which regulate their interaction. The role of MDGA1 in suppressing inhibitory versus excitatory synapses is controversial based on in vitro studies. We show that genetic deletion of MDGA1 in vivo elevates hippocampal CA1 inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density and transmission. Furthermore, MDGA1 is selectively expressed by pyramidal neurons and regulates perisomatic, but not distal dendritic, inhibitory synapses...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278848/bisphenol-a-antagonizes-the-rapidly-modulating-effect-of-dht-on-spinogenesis-and-long-term-potentiation-of-hippocampal-neurons
#16
Yang Yang, Zhaoqing Fang, Yuhua Dai, Yu Wang, Yufeng Liang, Xiaoyu Zhong, Qinwen Wang, Yizhong Hu, Zigui Zhang, Donghong Wu, Xiaohong Xu
Bisphenol A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. Recent studies found more obvious adverse effect of BPA on some neurobehavior in males than that in females. In this study, BPA at 10-100 nM rapidly increased the densities of the dendrite spine and synapse in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats in vitro within 1 h. Co-treatment of BPA (100 nM) with dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 10 nM) or with 17β-E2 (10 nM) completely eliminated the promotion of DHT or 17β-E2 in the densities of the dendritic spine and synapse...
December 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277679/intermittent-fasting-promotes-prolonged-associative-interactions-during-synaptic-tagging-capture-by-altering-the-metaplastic-properties-of-the-ca1-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Ananya Dasgupta, Joonki Kim, Anoop Manakkadan, Thiruma V Arumugam, Sreedharan Sajikumar
Metaplasticity is the inherent property of a neuron or neuronal population to undergo activity-dependent changes in neural function that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity. Here we studied the effect of intermittent fasting (IF) in governing the interactions of associative plasticity mechanisms in the pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal area CA1. Late long-term potentiation and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture at an interval of 120 min were evaluated in four groups of animals, AL (Ad libitum), IF12 (daily IF for 12 h), IF16 (daily IF for 16 h) and EOD (every other day IF for 24 h)...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277582/behavioral-tagging-synaptic-event-or-cellular-alteration
#18
REVIEW
Volker Korz
Recently a number of studies were published addressing the translation of the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis (STCH), developed and tested in hippocampal slices, into learning and long-term memory mechanisms in intact animals. Based on behavioral observations, these studies show similar results as in the original STCH experiments. A weak memory, induced by weak training in one hippocampus dependent behavioral task is converted into a long-term memory, by timely related induction of a long-term memory, induced by strong training in a second hippocampus dependent task...
December 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276735/circuit-and-synaptic-mechanisms-of-repeated-stress-perspectives-from-differing-contexts-duration-and-development
#19
REVIEW
Kevin G Bath, Scott J Russo, Kristen E Pleil, Eric S Wohleb, Ronald S Duman, Jason J Radley
The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was "Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods" and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress) on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276477/cholinergic-modulation-of-cortical-microcircuits-is-layer-specific-evidence-from-rodent-monkey-and-human-brain
#20
REVIEW
Joshua Obermayer, Matthijs B Verhoog, Antonio Luchicchi, Huibert D Mansvelder
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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