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Plasticity, synapse

Ming Xiao, Daozhi Shen, Kevin P Musselman, Walter W Duley, Y Norman Zhou
Neuromorphic computational systems that emulate biological synapses in the human brain are fundamental in the development of artificial intelligence protocols beyond the standard von Neumann architecture. Such systems require new types of building blocks, such as memristors that access a quasi-continuous and wide range of conductive states, which is still an obstacle for the realization of high-efficiency and large-capacity learning in neuromorphoric simulation. Here, we introduce hydrogen and sodium titanate nanobelts, the intermediate products of hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts, to emulate the synaptic behavior...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Yuan-Hao Chen, Tung-Tai Kuo, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Barry J Hoffer, Yu-Ching Chou, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Hsin-I Ma, Jonathan P Miller
Aim: To determine the precise effects of post-traumatic seizure activity on hippocampal processes, we induced seizures at various intervals after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and analyzed plasticity at CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Material and Methods: Rats were initially separated into two groups; one exposed solely to fluid percussion injury (FPI) at 2 Psi and the other only receiving kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures without FPI. Electrophysiological (ePhys) studies including paired-pulse stimulation for short-term presynaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses of the hippocampus for post-synaptic function survey were followed at post-event 1 hour, 3 and 7 days respectively...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Maria Meringolo, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the numerous mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The identification of PD pathogenic mutations and the use of different animal models have contributed to better elucidate the processes underlying the disease. Here, we report a brief survey of some relevant cellular mechanisms, including autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial impairment, with the main aim to focus on their potential convergent roles in determining early alterations at the synaptic level, mainly consisting in a decrease in dopamine release at nigrostriatal terminals and loss of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Joseph E Pick, Edward B Ziff
A fundamental property of the brain is its ability to modify its function in response to its own activity. This ability for self-modification depends to a large extent on synaptic plasticity. It is now appreciated that for excitatory synapses, a significant part of synaptic plasticity depends upon changes in the post synaptic response to glutamate released from nerve terminals. Modification of the post synaptic response depends, in turn, on changes in the abundances of AMPA receptors in the post synaptic membrane...
March 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Bin Li, Yaqing Liu, Changjin Wan, Zhiyuan Liu, Ming Wang, Dianpeng Qi, Jiancan Yu, Pingqiang Cai, Meng Xiao, Yi Zeng, Xiaodong Chen
Memristive synapses based on resistive switching are promising electronic devices that emulate the synaptic plasticity in neural systems. Short-term plasticity (STP), reflecting a temporal strengthening of the synaptic connection, allows artificial synapses to perform critical computational functions, such as fast response and information filtering. To mediate this fundamental property in memristive electronic devices, the regulation of the dynamic resistive change is necessary for an artificial synapse. Here, it is demonstrated that the orientation of mesopores in the dielectric silica layer can be used to modulate the STP of an artificial memristive synapse...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Matthew V Green, Jonathan D Raybuck, Xinwen Zhang, Mariah M Wu, Stanley A Thayer
A defining feature of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is the loss of excitatory synaptic connections. Synaptic changes that occur during exposure to HIV appear to result, in part, from a homeostatic scaling response. Here we discuss the mechanisms of these changes from the perspective that they might be part of a coping mechanism that reduces synapses to prevent excitotoxicity. In transgenic animals expressing the HIV proteins Tat or gp120, the loss of synaptic markers precedes changes in neuronal number...
March 14, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Jacque P K Ip, Ikue Nagakura, Jeremy Petravicz, Keji Li, Erik A C Wiemer, Mriganka Sur
Microdeletion of a region in chromosome 16p11.2 increases susceptibility to autism. Although this region contains exons of 29 genes, disrupting only a small segment of the region, which spans 5 genes, is sufficient to cause autistic traits. One candidate gene in this critical segment is MVP , which encodes for the major vault protein (MVP) that has been implicated in regulation of cellular transport mechanisms. MVP expression levels in MVP +/- mice closely phenocopy those of 16p11.2 mutant mice, suggesting that MVP +/- mice may serve as a model of MVP function in 16p11...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
John J Marshall, Jian Xu, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that function both by generating ionotropic currents through an integral ion channel pore, and through coupling to downstream metabotropic signaling pathways. They are highly expressed in the striatum yet their roles in regulating striatal synapses are not known. Using mice of both sexes we demonstrate that GluK2 containing kainate receptors expressed in direct pathway Spiny Projection Neurons (dSPNs) inhibit glutamate release at corticostriatal synapses in the dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
Hippocampus is importantly involved in dopamine-dependent behaviors and dopamine is a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the dopaminergic innervation appears to be disproportionally segregated along the hippocampal longitudinal (dorsoventral) axis with unknown consequences for synaptic plasticity. In this study we examined the actions of endogenously released dopamine and the effects of exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists on theta-burst stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory synaptic potential (fEPSP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH)...
March 14, 2018: Synapse
Mantas Mikaitis, Garibaldi Pineda García, James C Knight, Steve B Furber
SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity-believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine's widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine's antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Samir Haj-Dahmane, Roh-Yu Shen, Matthew W Elmes, Keith Studholme, Martha P Kanjiya, Diane Bogdan, Panayotis K Thanos, Jeremy T Miyauchi, Stella E Tsirka, Dale G Deutsch, Martin Kaczocha
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid-signaling molecules involved in the regulation of numerous behaviors and physiological functions. Released by postsynaptic neurons, eCBs mediate retrograde modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity by activating presynaptic cannabinoid receptors. While the cellular mechanisms by which eCBs control synaptic function have been well characterized, the mechanisms controlling their retrograde synaptic transport remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that fatty-acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), a canonical intracellular carrier of eCBs, is indispensable for retrograde eCB transport in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRn)...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tae-Yong Choi, Seung-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Jung Kim, Jae Ryul Bae, Kwang Min Lee, Youhwa Jo, Soo-Jeong Kim, A-Ram Lee, Sekyu Choi, La-Mee Choi, Sunhoe Bang, Mi-Ryoung Song, Jongkyeong Chung, Kyung Jin Lee, Sung Hyun Kim, Chul-Seung Park, Se-Young Choi
Mutations in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene cause human intellectual disability, one of the most common cognitive disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of CRBN -related intellectual disability remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of CRBN in synaptic function and animal behavior using male mouse and Drosophila models. Crbn knockout (KO) mice showed normal brain and spine morphology as well as intact synaptic plasticity; however, they also exhibited decreases in synaptic transmission and presynaptic release probability exclusively in excitatory synapses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Guillaume Pernelle, Wilten Nicola, Claudia Clopath
Cortical oscillations are thought to be involved in many cognitive functions and processes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to regulate oscillations. One prominent but understudied mechanism is gap junction coupling. Gap junctions are ubiquitous in cortex between GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, recent experiments indicate their strength can be modified in an activity-dependent manner, similar to chemical synapses. We hypothesized that activity-dependent gap junction plasticity acts as a mechanism to regulate oscillations in the cortex...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Angela M Getz, Pierre Wijdenes, Saba Riaz, Naweed I Syed
All functions of the nervous system are contingent upon the precise organization of neuronal connections that are initially patterned during development, and then continually modified throughout life. Determining the mechanisms that specify the formation and functional modulation of synaptic circuitry are critical to advancing both our fundamental understanding of the nervous system as well as the various neurodevelopmental, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders that are met in clinical practice when these processes go awry...
March 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Chen Bian, Yan Huang, Haitao Zhu, Yangang Zhao, Jikai Zhao, Jiqiang Zhang
Steroids have been demonstrated to play profound roles in the regulation of hippocampal function by acting on their receptors, which need coactivators for their transcriptional activities. Previous studies have shown that steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is the predominant coactivator in the hippocampus, but its exact role and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed SRC-1 RNA interference lentiviruses, injected them into the hippocampus of male mice, and then examined the changes in the expression of selected synaptic proteins, CA1 synapse density, postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness, and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Xuke Han, Huangan Wu, Ping Yin, Zeqin Chen, Xiaohua Cao, Yanhong Duan, Jian Xu, Lixing Lao, Shifen Xu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on Wistar Kyoto (WKY) depressive model rats and explore the possible mechanism of EA on hippocampal CA1 region neuronal synaptic plasticity. METHODS: The male WKY rats were randomized to three experimental groups (EA, Sham EA, and Model group, n = 8/group), and Wistar rats as the normal control group (n = 8). EA treatment was administered once daily for 3 weeks at acupuncture points Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (EX-HN3)...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Fenghua Chen, Jibrin Danladi, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Heidi K Müller, Gregers Wegener, Connie Sanchez, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Preclinical studies have indicated that antidepressant effect of vortioxetine involves increased synaptic plasticity and promotion of spine maturation. Mitochondria dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological basis of major depressive disorder. Taking into consideration that vortioxetine increases spine number and dendritic branching in hippocampus CA1 faster than fluoxetine, we hypothesize that new spines induced by vortioxetine can rapidly form functional synapses by mitochondrial support, accompanied by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-signaling...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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