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Plasticity, synapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341478/importance-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-i-mhc-i-expression-for-astroglial-reactivity-and-stability-of-neural-circuits-in-vitro
#1
André Luis Bombeiro, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues Hell, Gustavo Ferreira Simões, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
MHC-I molecules are involved in the antigenic presentation of cytosol-derived peptides to CD8T lymphocytes. In the nervous system, MHC-I expression is low to absent, occurring only during certain phases of development and aging or after injuries. The involvement of MHC-I in synaptic plasticity has been reported and, following lesion, astrocytes become reactive, limiting tissue damage. Such cells also attempt to restore homeostasis by secreting cytokines and neurotrophic factors. Moreover, astrocytes modulate synapse function, by taking up and releasing neurotransmitters and by limiting the synaptic cleft...
March 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341461/sequential-therapy-of-anti-nogo-a-antibody-treatment-and-treadmill-training-leads-to-cumulative-improvements-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#2
Kinon Chen, Barnaby C Marsh, Matthew Cowan, Yazi D Al'Joboori, Sylvain Gigout, Calvin C Smith, Neil Messenger, Nikita Gamper, Martin E Schwab, Ronaldo M Ichiyama
Intense training is the most clinically successful treatment modality following incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs). With the advent of plasticity enhancing treatments, understanding how treatments might interact when delivered in combination becomes critical. Here, we investigated a rational approach to sequentially combine treadmill locomotor training with antibody mediated suppression of the fiber growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A. Following a large but incomplete thoracic lesion, rats were immediately treated with either anti-Nogo-A or control antibody (2weeks) and then either left untrained or step-trained starting 3weeks after injury for 8weeks...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334640/mirnas-in-synapse-development-and-synaptic-plasticity
#3
REVIEW
Zhonghua Hu, Zheng Li
Synapses are functional units of the nervous system, through which information is transferred between neurons. The development and activity-dependent modification of synapses require temporally and spatially controlled modulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of gene expression. They are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and translation by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNAs. miRNAs are located to neuronal processes to regulate protein synthesis locally and their expression is regulated by synaptic activity...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334604/the-potential-role-of-gap-junctional-plasticity-in-the-regulation-of-state
#4
REVIEW
Philippe Coulon, Carole E Landisman
Electrical synapses are the functional correlate of gap junctions and allow transmission of small molecules and electrical current between coupled neurons. Instead of static pores, electrical synapses are actually plastic, similar to chemical synapses. In the thalamocortical system, gap junctions couple inhibitory neurons that are similar in their biochemical profile, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. We postulate that electrical synaptic plasticity among inhibitory neurons directly interacts with the switching between different firing patterns in a state-dependent and type-dependent manner...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334601/a-tale-of-two-inputs
#5
James Ashley, Vivian Budnik
In this issue of Neuron, Newman et al. (2017) image calcium events at single synapses of unanesthetized Drosophila larvae. Synaptic plasticity and homeostatic regulation of synapses is established to be input specific. Furthermore, plasticity forms involve selective recruitment of previously active or silent synapses.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#6
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333590/mean-first-passage-memory-lifetimes-by-reducing-complex-synapses-to-simple-synapses
#7
Terry Elliott
Memory models that store new memories by forgetting old ones have memory lifetimes that are rather short and grow only logarithmically in the number of synapses. Attempts to overcome these deficits include "complex" models of synaptic plasticity in which synapses possess internal states governing the expression of synaptic plasticity. Integrate-and-express, filter-based models of synaptic plasticity propose that synapses act as low-pass filters, integrating plasticity induction signals before expressing synaptic plasticity...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333583/an-approximation-of-the-error-backpropagation-algorithm-in-a-predictive-coding-network-with-local-hebbian-synaptic-plasticity
#8
James C R Whittington, Rafal Bogacz
To efficiently learn from feedback, cortical networks need to update synaptic weights on multiple levels of cortical hierarchy. An effective and well-known algorithm for computing such changes in synaptic weights is the error backpropagation algorithm. However, in this algorithm, the change in synaptic weights is a complex function of weights and activities of neurons not directly connected with the synapse being modified, whereas the changes in biological synapses are determined only by the activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331639/emerging-synaptic-molecules-as-candidates-in-the-etiology-of-neurological-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Viviana I Torres, Daniela Vallejo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#10
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323038/monocular-denervation-of-visual-nuclei-modulates-app-processing-and-sapp%C3%AE-production-a-possible-role-on-neural-plasticity
#11
Juliana Ferreira Vasques, Pedro Vinícius Bastos Heringer, Renata Guedes de Jesus Gonçalves, Paula Campello-Costa, Claudio Alberto Serfaty, Adriana da Cunha Faria-Melibeu
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is essential to physiological processes such as synapse formation and neural plasticity. Sequential proteolysis of APP by beta- and gamma-secretases generates amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer Disease. Alternative APP cleavage by alpha-secretase occurs within Aβ domain, releasing soluble α-APP (sAPPα), a neurotrophic fragment. Among other functions, sAPPα is important to synaptogenesis, neural survival and axonal growth. APP and sAPPα levels are increased in models of neuroplasticity, which suggests an important role for APP and its metabolites, especially sAPPα, in the rearranging brain...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320277/mechanisms-of-brain-glucocorticoid-resistance-in-stress-induced-psychopathologies
#12
REVIEW
V M Merkulov, T I Merkulova, N P Bondar
Exposure to stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and leads to increased levels of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. Prolonged elevation of GC levels causes neuronal dysfunction, decreases the density of synapses, and impairs neuronal plasticity. Decreased sensitivity to glucocorticoids (glucocorticoid resistance) that develops as a result of chronic stress is one of the characteristic features of stress-induced psychopathologies. In this article, we reviewed the published data on proposed molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of glucocorticoid resistance in brain, including changes in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, biosynthesis of GR isoforms, and GR posttranslational modifications...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320275/optogenetic-stimulation-increases-level-of-antiapoptotic-protein-bcl-xl-in-neurons
#13
D A Lanshakov, U S Drozd, N N Dygalo
The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL is associated with several neuroplastic processes such as formation of synapses, regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic responses, and release of neurotransmitters. Dependence of expression on activity of neurons is characteristic for many proteins participating in regulation of neuroplasticity. Whether such property is exhibited by the Bcl-xL protein was analyzed using in vivo optogenetic stimulation of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons expressing channelrhodopsin ChR2H134 under CAMKIIa promoter in the adeno-associated viral vector, followed by immunohistochemical determination of the level of Bcl-xL protein in these neurons and surrounding cells...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320269/status-epilepticus-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-in-rat-hippocampus-and-is-followed-by-changes-in-expression-of-nmda-receptors
#14
T Y Postnikova, O E Zubareva, A A Kovalenko, K K Kim, L G Magazanik, A V Zaitsev
Cognitive deficits and memory loss are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy are considered as a cellular substrate underlying memory processes. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus may undergo substantial changes after seizures. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear. In this study, we investigated the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices 24 h after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320266/mechanisms-of-long-term-plasticity-of-hippocampal-gabaergic-synapses
#15
REVIEW
A V Rozov, F F Valiullina, A P Bolshakov
Long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission have been considered as cellular mechanisms of memory in studies conducted in recent decades. These studies were predominantly focused on mechanisms underlying plasticity at excitatory synapses. Nevertheless, normal central nervous system functioning requires maintenance of a balance between inhibition and excitation, suggesting existence of similar modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Here we review the involvement of G-protein-coupled receptors in the generation of long-term changes in synaptic transmission of inhibitory synapses...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320264/molecular-mechanisms-of-neuroplasticity-an-expanding-universe
#16
REVIEW
N V Gulyaeva
Biochemical processes in synapses and other neuronal compartments underlie neuroplasticity (functional and structural alterations in the brain enabling adaptation to the environment, learning, memory, as well as rehabilitation after brain injury). This basic molecular level of brain plasticity covers numerous specific proteins (enzymes, receptors, structural proteins, etc.) participating in many coordinated and interacting signal and metabolic processes, their modulation forming a molecular basis for brain plasticity...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#17
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306698/oral-application-of-magnesium-l-threonate-attenuates-vincristine-induced-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-by-normalization-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#18
Ting Xu, Dai Li, Xin Zhou, Han-Dong Ouyang, Li-Jun Zhou, Hang Zhou, Hong-Mei Zhang, Xu-Hong Wei, Guosong Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Antineoplastic agents, including vincristine, often induce neuropathic pain and magnesium deficiency clinically, but the causal link between them has not been determined. No drug is available for treating this form of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Injection of vincristine (0.1 mg · kg · day, intraperitoneally, for 10 days) was used to induce nociceptive sensitization, which was accessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303089/protease-activated-receptor-2-par2-induces-long-term-depression-in-the-hippocampus-through-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4
#19
Efrat Shavit-Stein, Avital Artan-Furman, Ekaterina Feingold, Marina Ben Shimon, Zeev Itzekson-Hayosh, Joab Chapman, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Protease activated receptors (PARs) are involved in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. While it is well-accepted that PAR1 mediates long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic strength, the role of PAR2 in synaptic plasticity remains not well-understood. In this study, we assessed the role of PAR2-signaling in plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using field potential recordings, we report that PAR2-activation leads to long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission through a protein kinase A -dependent, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 -mediated mechanism, which requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298428/autoantibodies-to-synaptic-receptors-and-neuronal-cell-surface-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Christian Geis, Francesc Graus
Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially lethal, but now treatable, neurological and psychiatric syndromes previously considered idiopathic or not even suspected to be immune-mediated...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
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