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David Kahoun, Soňa Řezková, Josef Královský
The effects of heat treatment and storage conditions on the composition of pure mead (honey wine) made from only honey and water were investigated. Heat treatment experiments were performed at 7 different temperatures ranging from 40°C to100°C with 10°C increments for 60min. Storage condition experiments were performed at room temperature (20-25°C) in daylight without direct sunlight and in darkness in a refrigerator at 4°C for 1, 2, 4 and 12weeks. The parameters evaluated were phenolic compounds, peak area of unidentified compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and antioxidant capacity...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Antonella Piccioni, Luca Neri, Sara Tambone, Cristina Pellegrini, Ketty Peris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Wande Liu, Jianrong Su
Acclimation to changing light conditions plays a crucial role in determining the competitive capability of tree species. There is currently limited information about acclimation to natural light gradient and its effect on shoot structure and biomass in Taxus species. We examined the acclimation of the leaf and shoot axis morphology, structure and biomass allocation of Taxus yunnanensis and T. chinensis var. mairei under three different natural light environments, full daylight, 40-60% full daylight and <10% full daylight...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christie Mayo, Bradley Mullens, E Paul Gibbs, N James MacLachlan
Within Northern California, Culicoides sonorensis is the major vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and annual infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (typically July‑November). Our recent studies compare the population dynamics of C. sonorensis midges with occurrence of BTV infection of C. sonorensis and sentinel dairy cattle throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal ('overwintering') periods of BTV activity. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on the sampled farms coincided with rising vernal temperature...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
C L Campbell, C T A Brown, K Wood, H Moseley
Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
C Rosales, N Krekeler, B Tennent-Brown, M A Stevenson, D Hanlon
AIMS: To describe selected periparturient variables in a sample of Thoroughbred mares and their foals on a commercial stud farm in New Zealand. METHODS: Data were collected for 969 foaling records from 592 mares by foaling attendants from one Thoroughbred stud farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand for the breeding seasons 2008-2013, inclusive, and collated retrospectively. The association between mare- and foal-level variables and gestation length, time of birth (expressed as the number of hours after midday), fetal membrane retention time, time for the foal to stand and suckle after birth, and foal mortality was quantified using linear and logistic regression models...
October 5, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Xiangjin Shen, Binhui Liu, Xianguo Lu
As a fragile ecological zone, the temperate grassland region of China has experienced dramatic land use/land cover (LULC) changes due to human disturbances. So far, the impacts of LULC change on climate especially the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in this region are still not well understood. Based on the OMR (observation minus reanalysis) method, this study investigated the effects of LULC on DTR in the temperate grassland region of China. Considering the possible uncertainty of the results due to spatial resolution of the reanalysis dataset, two reanalysis datasets with different spatial resolutions were utilized...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra Vaccaro, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Endogenous circadian clocks with ~24-h periodicity are found in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. Daylight synchronizes these clocks to solar time. In humans, shift-work and jet lag perturb clock synchronization, and such perturbations, when repeated or chronic, are strongly suspected to be detrimental to healthspan. Here we investigated locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster with genetically or environmentally disrupted clocks. We compared two mutations in period (per, a gene essential for circadian rhythmicity in Drosophila), after introducing them in a common reference genetic background: the arrhythmic per(01), and per(T) which displays robust short 16-h rhythms...
September 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Krisztina D László, Sven Cnattingius, Imre Janszky
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the circadian rhythm disruption following the transition into and out of daylight saving time (DST) is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous delivery. DESIGN: We compared the number of spontaneous deliveries in the Swedish Medical Birth Register during the week after the change to and the week after the change from DST (exposure periods) with the average number of spontaneous deliveries in the control period, defined as the week before and the week after each exposure period...
September 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Debkumar Nandi, Abu Taher, Rafique Ul Islam, Meenakshi Choudhary, Samarjeet Siwal, Kaushik Mallick
Due to the light excitation, the valence band electron of the copper (I) sulfide quantum dot transfer to the conduction band and act as a scavenger of the terminal proton of the alkyne in the presence of organic azide with the formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles, where the copper(I) species of Cu2S act as a catalyst for the reaction. The above cycloaddition reaction between alkyne and azide is commonly known as the Click reaction. In this study, experiments were carried out under the exposure of ultra-violate and daylight and also dark environment...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hao Liu, Fengwei Gu, Shuangyu Dong, Wei Liu, Hui Wang, Zhiqiang Chen, Jiafeng Wang
Flowering or heading is one of most important agronomic traits in rice. It has been characterized that CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-like (COL) proteins are critical flowering regulators in response to photoperiodic stress in plants. We have previously identified that the COL family member OsCOL9 can positively enhance the rice blast resistance. In the present study, we aimed to explore the functional role of OsCOL9 in modulating the photoperiodic flowering. Our data showed that overexpression of OsCOL9 delayed the flowering time under both short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions, leading to suppressed expressions of EHd1, RFT and Hd3a at the mRNA Level...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Richard A Stone, Yuval Cohen, Alice M McGlinn, Sherrill Davison, Susan Casavant, James Shaffer, Tejvir S Khurana, Machelle T Pardue, P Michael Iuvone
PURPOSE: The hypothesis that outdoor exposure might protect against myopia has generated much interest, although available data find only modest clinical efficacy. We tested the effect of outdoor rearing on form-deprivation myopia in chicks, a myopia model markedly inhibited by high-intensity indoor laboratory lighting. METHODS: Unilaterally goggled cohorts of White Leghorn chicks were maintained in a species-appropriate, outdoor rural setting during daylight hours to the extent permitted by weather...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Evgenios Agathokleous, Elena Paoletti, Costas J Saitanis, William J Manning, Tetsuto Sugai, Takayoshi Koike
It is widely accepted that elevated levels of surface ozone (O3) negatively affect plants. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a synthetic substance which effectively protects plants against O3-caused phytotoxicity. Among other questions, the one still open is: which EDU application method is more appropriate for treating fast-growing tree species. The main aims of this study were: (i) to test if chronic exposure of Salix sachalinensis plants to 200-400mgEDUL(-1), the usually applied range for protection against O3 phytotoxicity, is beneficial to plants; (ii) to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 on S...
September 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qi Dai, Qifeng Shan, Hien Lam, Luoxi Hao, Yi Lin, Zhe Cui
Optimization of solid-state lighting spectra is performed to achieve beneficial and tunable circadian effects. First, the minimum spectral circadian action factor (CAF) of 2700 K white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied for applications where biologically active illumination is undesirable. It is found that white-LEDs based on (i) RGB chips, (ii) blue & red chips plus green phosphor, and (iii) blue chip plus green & red phosphors are the corresponding minimum-CAF solutions at color-rendering index (CRI) requirements of 80, 90, and 95, respectively...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Vlastimil Bogdan, Tomáš Jůnek, Pavla Jůnková Vymyslická
The vertebrate fauna of the Philippines, known for its diversity and high proportion of endemic species, comprises mainly small- to medium-sized forms with a few large exceptions. As with other tropical ecosystems, the major threats to wildlife are habitat loss, hunting and invasive species, of which the feral cat (Felis catus) is considered the most damaging. Our camera-trapping study focused on a terrestrial vertebrate species inventory on Bohol Island and tempo-spatial co-occurrences of feral cats with their prey and competitors...
2016: PeerJ
Ozgur Bulent Timucin, Muhammed Arabaci, Ferhat Cuce, Boran Karatas, Sukru Onalan, Muhterem Yasar, Serkan Yildirim, M Fatih Karadag
Every day, we are acquiring more and more clues regarding the effects of different spectral structures (SS) of light on ocular axial length (OAL). As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterise the effects of light sources of different SS on OAL in fish through comparisons with indoor daylight. The experimental design was completely randomised with 4 treatments and 2 replications. Three hundred and fifty two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were housed in 8 tanks and fed for 71 days...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
T Luarte, C C Bonta, E A Silva-Rodriguez, P A Quijón, C Miranda, A A Farias, C Duarte
The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Krista K Ingram, Deborah M Gordon, Daniel A Friedman, Michael Greene, John Kahler, Swetha Peteru
Task allocation among social insect workers is an ideal framework for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural plasticity because workers of similar genotype adopt different behavioural phenotypes. Elegant laboratory studies have pioneered this effort, but field studies involving the genetic regulation of task allocation are rare. Here, we investigate the expression of the foraging gene in harvester ant workers from five age- and task-related groups in a natural population, and we experimentally test how exposure to light affects foraging expression in brood workers and foragers...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Julian F Sauterleute, Richard D Hedger, Christoph Hauer, Ulrich Pulg, Helge Skoglund, Line E Sundt-Hansen, Tor Haakon Bakken, Ola Ugedal
Rapid dewatering in rivers as a consequence of hydropower operations may cause stranding of juvenile fish and have a negative impact on fish populations. We implemented stranding into an Atlantic salmon population model in order to evaluate long-term effects on the population in the Dale River, Western Norway. Furthermore, we assessed the sensitivity of the stranding model to dewatered area in comparison to biological parameters, and compared different methods for calculating wetted area, the main abiotic input parameter to the population model...
August 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
W A Lagrèze, L Joachimsen, F Schaeffel
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data demonstrate a rise in myopia prevalence. Therefore interventions to reduce the risk of myopia and its progression are needed and increasingly often asked for. METHODS: Systematic literature search via PubMed in MEDLINE. RESULTS: Myopia progression can be reduced by the following means which are listed according to their efficacy: (1) Atropine eye drops low dosed to avoid clinically relevant side effects, (2) optical means aiming at the correction of peripheral hyperopic defocus, e...
August 26, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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