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M Nurul Abedin, Arthur T Bradley, Anupam K Misra, Yingxin Bai, Glenn D Hines, Shiv K Sharma
We report the development of an innovative standoff ultracompact micro-Raman instrument that would solve some of the limitations of traditional micro-Raman systems to provide a superior instrument for future NASA missions. This active remote sensor system, based on a 532 nm laser and a miniature spectrometer, is capable of inspection and identification of minerals, organics, and biogenic materials within several centimeters (2-20 cm) at a high 10 μm resolution. The sensor system is based on inelastic (Raman) light scattering and laser-induced fluorescence...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Maria Wilson, Jens Ådne Rekkedal Haga, Hans Erik Karlsen
Attacks by aquatic predators generate frontal water disturbances characterised by low-frequency gradients in pressure and particle motion. Low-frequency hearing is highly developed in cephalopods. Thus, we examined behavioural responses in juvenile cuttlefish to infrasonic accelerations mimicking main aspects of the hydrodynamic signals created by predators. In the experimental set-up, animals and their surrounding water moved as a unit to minimise lateral line activation and to allow examination of the contribution by the inner ear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gaston Nestor Galimberti
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) continues to increase worldwide. Currently available options for the treatment of AK include topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT). This split-face pilot study compared DL-PDT using 16% methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream versus 5-FU cream in patients with AK on the face/scalp. METHODS: Five male subjects (mean age 70 years) with grade I-III AK on the face/scalp were enrolled...
January 10, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Elliot Capp, Andrea L Liebl, Alexandra G Cones, Andrew F Russell
Projecting population responses to climate change requires an understanding of climatic impacts on key components of reproduction. Here, we investigate the associations among breeding phenology, climate and incubation schedules in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a 50 g passerine with female-only, intermittent incubation that typically breeds from late winter (July) to early summer (November). During daylight hours, breeding females spent an average of 33 min on the nest incubating (hereafter on-bouts) followed by 24-min foraging (hereafter off-bouts), leading to an average daytime nest attentiveness of 60%...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hwa Young Kim, Young Ah Lee, Hae Woon Jung, Min Jeoung Gu, Ji Young Kim, Gyung Min Lee, Jieun Lee, Ju Young Yoon, Sei Won Yang, Choong Ho Shin
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is reported to be more common in type 1 diabetes patients and might be associated with the increased urinary loss of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) consequent to impaired 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) circulation. We aimed to evaluate the possible increased urinary loss of VDBP, a correlation between VDBP and circulating 25(OH)D level, and risk factors influencing low vitamin D level in pediatric type 1 diabetes patients without microalbuminuria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of subjects who visited Seoul National University Children's Hospital between January and March 2013...
December 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Samuel M Williams, Bonnie J Holmes, Sean R Tracey, Julian G Pepperell, Michael L Domeier, Michael B Bennett
The black marlin (Istiompax indica) is a highly migratory billfish that occupies waters throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific. To characterize the vertical habitat use of I. indica, we examined the temperature-depth profiles collected using 102 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed off the east coast of Australia. Modelling of environmental variables revealed location, sea-surface height deviation, mixed layer depth and dissolved oxygen to all be significant predictors of vertical habitat use...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
David A Ellis, Kirk Luther, Rob Jenkins
Transitions into and out of Daylight Saving Time (DST) can provide insights into how a minor change to a regular sleep-wake cycle can inadvertently affect health. We examined the relationship between DST and missed medical appointments. Using a large dataset, the proportion of missed appointments were examined prior and post spring and autumn clock changes. As predicted, the number of missed medical appointments significantly increased following the spring (forward) clock change and the week of the clock change...
December 28, 2017: Chronobiology International
April Reese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Science
Joshua M Adie, Derek H Arnold
Cricket is a popular but potentially dangerous sport. It is played with a hard ball that can travel at great speeds. Serious injuries, including fatalities, have occurred when balls have struck participants. The game is traditionally played during daylight with a dark red ball, but recent games have been played during the day and at night using a 'pink' ball. We have reported data that seemed to justify concerns raised regarding the visibility of these new pink balls, as they were revealed to have a very low luminance contrast against pertinent backgrounds during twilight...
November 2017: I-Perception
David Robb, Thomas Barnes
One-third of nations have adopted some form of Daylight Saving Time (DST). Associated costs and benefits include impacts on accident rates. Using data from 12.6 million accident claims in New Zealand during 2005-2016, we model accident rates as a function of various date-based predictors including days before/after the start and end of DST, holidays, day of week, and month of year. This is the first study to consider multiple accident categories (Road, Work, Falls and Home & Community), and the first in the southern hemisphere...
December 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Loubna Shamseddine, Zeina Majzoub
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of ultratranslucent multilayered (UTML) zirconia according to thickness and layer level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectangles of UTML zirconia with four layers [dentin layer (DEL), first transitional layer (FTL), second transitional layer (STL), and enamel layer (ENL)] and four different thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mm) were milled from blanks. Digital images were taken in a dark studio against white and black backgrounds under simulated daylight illumination and international commission on illumination (CIE) Lab* color values recorded using Photoshop Creative Cloud software...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Gaston Nestor Galimberti
This split-face design study evaluated the effect of pretreatment with calcipotriol prior to daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) in patients with actinic keratosis (AK). The study included 11 subjects with grade I-III AK (mean age: 55 years). Subjects used once-daily calcipotriol 50 mcg/g ointment on half the face/scalp for 15days prior to DL-PDT. Evaluations of efficacy, safety and subject satisfaction were conducted 48hours and 7days after treatment, and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Three months after treatment with calcipotriol/DL-PDT and DL-PDT alone, the complete response rate was 85% and 70%, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Erin M Katz, Ruth M Scott, Christopher B Thomson, Eileen Mesa, Richard Evans, Michael G Conzemius
Objective To determine if environmental variables affect the average daily activity counts (AC) of dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or owners' perception of their dog's clinical signs or quality of life. Methods The AC and Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) owner questionnaires of 62 dogs with OA were compared with daily environmental variables including the following: average temperature (°C), high temperature (°C), low temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), total precipitation (mm), average barometric pressure (hPa) and total daylight hours...
November 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Nir Erdinest, Yair Morad
Myopia is the most common refractive error and is now endemic over the entire industrial world, particularly in Asia. High myopia is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Slowing the progress of myopia is possible, the most effective treatment being atropine ophthalmic drops, given in a dose-dependent fashion. Although high-dose atropine (1% and 0.5%) was found to be highly effective in slowing myopia progression, low-dose atropine (0.01%) was found to have the lowest rebound effect (accelerated myopia progression after treatment cessation) and was therefore, the most effective treatment in the long term...
November 2017: Harefuah
Ashlee Lillis, Jessica N Perelman, Apryle Panyi, T Aran Mooney
Snapping shrimp are perhaps the most pervasive sources of biological sound in the ocean. The snapping sounds of cryptic shrimp colonies in shallow coastal habitats worldwide create a near-continuous crackling with high spatiotemporal variability, yet the underlying acoustic ecology is not well understood. This study investigated sound production rates and acoustic behavior of snapping shrimp species common in the Western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico (Alpheus heterochaelis and Alpheus angulosus). Snap rates were measured in a controlled laboratory setting under natural light, temperature, and substrate conditions for shrimp held individually, in pairs, and in a ten-shrimp mesocosm, to test hypotheses that acoustic activity varies with time-of-day and social context...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
A L Popov, N M Zholobak, O I Balko, O B Balko, A B Shcherbakov, N R Popova, O S Ivanova, A E Baranchikov, V K Ivanov
We synthesised a new type of photochromic tungsten oxide nanoparticles, analysed their photocatalytic activity and carried out a thorough analysis of their effect on prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Ultrasmall hydrated tungsten oxide nanoparticles were prepared by means of hydrothermal treatment of tungstic acid in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a template, stabiliser and growth regulator. Tungstic acid was synthesised through an ion-exchange method using sodium tungstate solution and a strongly acidic cation exchange resin...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Michael Manley, Paul Collins, Linda Gray, Susan O'Gorman, Jackie McCavana
Daylight photodynamic therapy (dl-PDT) is as effective as conventional PDT (c-PDT) for treating actinic keratoses but has the advantage of reducing patient discomfort significantly. Topical dl-PDT and white light-PDT (wl-PDT) differ from c-PDT by way of light sources and methodology. We measured the variables associated with light dose delivery to skin surface and influence of geometry using a radiometer, a spectral radiometer and an illuminance meter. The associated errors of the measurement methods were assessed...
December 1, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Christian Schön, Elvir Becirovic, Martin Biel, Stylianos Michalakis
Achromatopsia (ACHM) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are inherited disorders caused by mutations in cone and rod photoreceptor-specific genes, respectively. ACHM strongly impairs daylight vision, whereas RP initially affects night vision and daylight vision at later stages. Currently, gene supplementation therapies utilizing recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are being developed for various forms of ACHM and RP. In this chapter, we describe the procedure of designing and developing specific and efficient rAAV vectors for cone- and rod-specific gene supplementation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anita J Crompton, Kelum A A Gamage, Steven Bell, Andrew P Wilson, Alex Jenkins, Divyesh Trivedi
In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC) wavelength range (180-280 nm). A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Alexandra Tikidji-Hamburyan, Katja Reinhard, Riccardo Storchi, Johannes Dietter, Hartwig Seitter, Katherine E Davis, Saad Idrees, Marion Mutter, Lauren Walmsley, Robert A Bedford, Marius Ueffing, Petri Ala-Laurila, Timothy M Brown, Robert J Lucas, Thomas A Münch
Rod and cone photoreceptors support vision across large light intensity ranges. Rods, active under dim illumination, are thought to saturate at higher (photopic) irradiances. The extent of rod saturation is not well defined; some studies report rod activity well into the photopic range. Using electrophysiological recordings from retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of cone-deficient and visually intact mice, we describe stimulus and physiological factors that influence photopic rod-driven responses...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
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