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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910684/the-effect-of-ambient-light-condition-on-road-traffic-collisions-involving-pedestrians-on-pedestrian-crossings
#1
Jim Uttley, Steve Fotios
Previous research suggests darkness increases the risk of a collision involving a pedestrian and the severity of any injury suffered. Pedestrian crossings are intended to make it safer to cross the road, but it is not clear whether they are effective at doing this after-dark, compared with during daylight. Biannual clock changes resulting from transitions to and from daylight saving time were used to compare RTCs in the UK during daylight and darkness but at the same time of day, thus controlling for potential influences on RTC numbers not related to the ambient light condition...
September 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905294/high-patient-satisfaction-with-daylight-activated-methyl-aminolevulinate-cream-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-actinic-keratoses-results-of-an-observational-study-in-australia
#2
Jo-Ann See, Kurt Gebauer, Jason K Wu, Shobhan Manoharan, Nabil Kerrouche, John Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Actinic keratoses (AK) are treated to reduce the risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma and for symptomatic and cosmetic benefits. The objective of this observational study was to generate real-life data on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream (MAL DL-PDT) in treating mild to moderate facial/scalp AK. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted in Australia in patients receiving a single treatment of MAL DL-PDT for mild to moderate AK...
September 13, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891638/photochemistry-of-hydrochar-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-sulfadimidine-degradation
#3
Na Chen, Yahui Huang, Xiaojing Hou, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Biochar, mainly including pyrochar produced via pyrolysis of biomass at moderate temperatures of 350-700 oC and hydrochar formed by hydrothermal carbonization in a range of 150-350 oC, have received increasing attention because of their significant environmental impacts. It is known that pyrochar can generate reactive oxygen species even in the dark owing to the presence of persistent free radicals, but hydrochar is far less studied. In this study, we systematically investigate the photochemistry of hydrochar and check its effects on the sulfadimidine degradation...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888595/short-communication-the-diurnal-intake-and-behavior-of-dairy-cows-when-access-to-a-feed-of-consistent-nutritive-value-is-restricted
#4
A J John, S C Garcia, K L Kerrisk, M J Freeman, M R Islam, C E F Clark
The diurnal variation in pasture nutritive value adds a confounding factor to studies elucidating the effect of time of day on behavior. Our work separates the effect of time of day on both feeding and lying patterns for cows outdoors to enable the alignment of feeding behavior with feed management. We determined the diurnal intake patterns and behavior of dairy cows when the nutritive value of feed remained constant throughout 24 h in an outdoor environment, and when feed access was restricted. Nine nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows (live weight 626 ± 53 kg, age 96 ± 33 mo; mean ± SD) were split into 3 groups of 3 and offered lucerne hay cubes (cube volume 32 mm(3)) ad libitum according to 3 treatments: full access (FA, feed access 24 h), day access (DA, feed access between 0600 and 1800 h), and night access (NA, feed access between 1800 and 0600 h)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880969/anti-inflammatory-activities-of-garlic-sprouts-a-source-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan-in-raw-264-7-cells
#5
Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Paweł Paśko, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna Kała, Bożena Muszyńska
The purpose of this study was to analyze the indolic, phenolic, and fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of garlic sprouts growing in the dark and in the daylight. The pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of the garlic sprout extract were investigated by evaluating the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), glutathione S transferase (GSTM1), nuclear factor NF-κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein levels in the RAW 264...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878235/seasonal-and-geographical-impact-on-human-resting-periods
#6
Daniel Monsivais, Kunal Bhattacharya, Asim Ghosh, Robin I M Dunbar, Kimmo Kaski
We study the influence of seasonally and geographically related daily dynamics of daylight and ambient temperature on human resting or sleeping patterns using mobile phone data of a large number of individuals. We observe two daily inactivity periods in the people's aggregated mobile phone calling patterns and infer these to represent the resting times of the population. We find that the nocturnal resting period is strongly influenced by the length of daylight, and that its seasonal variation depends on the latitude, such that for people living in two different cities separated by eight latitudinal degrees, the difference in the resting periods of people between the summer and winter in southern cities is almost twice that in the northern cities...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876164/evaluating-the-blue-light-hazard-from-solid-state-lighting
#7
John D Bullough, Andrew Bierman, Mark S Rea
Purpose New light sources including light emitting diodes (LEDs) have elicited questions about retinal damage, including the blue-light hazard. Some organizations have recommended avoiding using LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) exceeding 3000 K, since they tend to produce greater short-wavelength energy. This paper provides quantitative comparisons among light sources and use cases as they affect blue-light hazard. Methods The spectral radiant power characteristics of incandescent, fluorescent, LED and daylight sources were evaluated in terms of blue-light hazard using standard procedures for phakic, aphakic and pseudophakic eyes...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874879/violet-laser-diode-enables-lighting-communication
#8
Yu-Chieh Chi, Yu-Fang Huang, Tsai-Chen Wu, Cheng-Ting Tsai, Li-Yin Chen, Hao-Chung Kuo, Gong-Ru Lin
Violet laser diode (VLD) based white-light source with high color rendering index (CRI) for lighting communication is implemented by covering with Y3Al5O12:Ce(3+) (YAG:Ce) or Lu3Al5O12:Ce(3+)/CaAlSiN3:Eu(2+) (LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu) phosphorous diffuser plates. After passing the beam of VLD biased at 70 mA (~2I th ) through the YAG:Ce phosphorous diffuser, a daylight with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5068 K and a CRI of 65 is acquired to provide a forward error correction (FEC) certified data rate of 4...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866027/cortisol-treatment-affects-locomotor-activity-and-swimming-behaviour-of-male-smallmouth-bass-engaged-in-paternal-care-a-field-study-using-acceleration-biologgers
#9
Dirk A Algera, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, Michael J Lawrence, Aaron J Zolderdo, Steven J Cooke
Paternal care, where the male provides sole care for the developing brood, is a common form of reproductive investment among teleost fish and ubiquitous in the Centrarchidae family. Throughout the parental care period, nesting males expend energy in a variety of swimming behaviours, including routine and burst swimming, vigilantly monitoring the nest area and protecting the brood from predators. Parental care is an energetically demanding period, which is presumably made even more difficult if fish are exposed to additional challenges such as those arising from human disturbance, resulting in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (i...
September 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861230/oxygen-minimum-zone-an-important-oceanographic-habitat-for-deep-diving-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#10
Yasuhiko Naito, Daniel P Costa, Taiki Adachi, Patrick W Robinson, Sarah H Peterson, Yoko Mitani, Akinori Takahashi
Little is known about the foraging behavior of top predators in the deep mesopelagic ocean. Elephant seals dive to the deep biota-poor oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) (>800 m depth) despite high diving costs in terms of energy and time, but how they successfully forage in the OMZ remains largely unknown. Assessment of their feeding rate is the key to understanding their foraging behavior, but this has been challenging. Here, we assessed the feeding rate of 14 female northern elephant seals determined by jaw motion events (JME) and dive cycle time to examine how feeding rates varied with dive depth, particularly in the OMZ...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846658/the-improvement-of-skin-whitening-of-phenylethyl-resorcinol-by-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#11
Bo-Sik Kim, Young-Guk Na, Jae-Hwan Choi, Inhye Kim, Eunji Lee, Sung-Yeon Kim, Jae-Young Lee, Cheong-Weon Cho
Phenylethyl resorcinol (4-(1-phenylethyl)1,3-benzenediol) (PR) is a new whitening agent that has been found to have the ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity. However, the application of PR is limited by photo instability and poor solubility. PR-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (PR-NLCs) were prepared by the hot-melted ultrasonic method. Glycerol monostearate and olive oil were selected as the solid lipid and liquid lipid for considering the solubility of PR in liquid lipid and partition coefficient of PR in solid lipid, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846164/cutaneous-sporotrichosis-treated-with-methylene-blue-daylight-photodynamic-therapy
#12
Ana Julia García-Malinis, Ana Milagro Beamonte, Luis Torres Sopena, Oscar García-Callen, Pilar Puertolas-Villacampa, Yolanda Gilaberte
Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus,Sporothrix schenckii. Acquisition typically occurs via cutaneous inoculation with development of a localized cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous infection. aPDT (antimicrobial photodynamic therapy) is a process that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in presence of a photosensitizer, visible light and oxygen which destroys fungal and bacterial cells(1). Daylight PDT (DL-PDT) uses the visible spectrum of daylight (400-750nm) for the activation of the photosensitizer instead of an artificial light source...
August 28, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844659/recapitulation-of-human-retinal-development-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-generates-transplantable-populations-of-cone-photoreceptors
#13
Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Kamil Kruczek, Arifa Naeem, Milan Fernando, Magdalena Kloc, Joana Ribeiro, Debbie Goh, Yanai Duran, Samuel J I Blackford, Laura Abelleira-Hervas, Robert D Sampson, Ian O Shum, Matthew J Branch, Peter J Gardner, Jane C Sowden, James W B Bainbridge, Alexander J Smith, Emma L West, Rachael A Pearson, Robin R Ali
Transplantation of rod photoreceptors, derived either from neonatal retinae or pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), can restore rod-mediated visual function in murine models of inherited blindness. However, humans depend more upon cone photoreceptors that are required for daylight, color, and high-acuity vision. Indeed, macular retinopathies involving loss of cones are leading causes of blindness. An essential step for developing stem cell-based therapies for maculopathies is the ability to generate transplantable human cones from renewable sources...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843095/truck-involved-crashes-injury-severity-analysis-for-different-lighting-conditions-on-rural-and-urban-roadways
#14
Majbah Uddin, Nathan Huynh
This paper investigates factors affecting injury severity of crashes involving trucks for different lighting conditions on rural and urban roadways. It uses 2009-2013 Ohio crash data from the Highway Safety Information System. The explanatory factors include the occupant, vehicle, collision, roadway, temporal and environmental characteristics. Six separate mixed logit models were developed considering three lighting conditions (daylight, dark, and dark-lighted) on two area types (rural and urban). A series of log-likelihood ratio tests were conducted to validate that these six separate models by lighting conditions and area types are warranted...
August 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808745/parathyroid-hormone-1-34-promotes-fracture-healing-in-ovariectomized-rats-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
G Y Liu, G L Cao, F M Tian, H P Song, L L Yuan, L D Geng, Z Y Zheng, L Zhang
Ovariectomized (OVX) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with femur fracture received vehicle, insulin, or insulin plus parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment for 2 and 3 weeks. Radiography, histomorphometry, histology, and immunohistochemistry in callus were evaluated. INTRODUCTION: Reports about effects of PTH plus insulin on callus formation of osteoporotic fracture with T2DM were limited. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the combination of PTH and insulin on fracture healing in OVX rats with T2DM...
August 14, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798734/mixotrophic-phytoflagellate-bacterivory-field-measurements-strongly-biased-by-standard-approaches-a-case-study
#16
Ruth Anderson, Klaus Jürgens, Per J Hansen
Bacterivory among small (≤20 μm) phytoflagellates (SP) is increasingly recognized as a globally relevant phenomenon, impacting a wide range of aspects from primary production levels to marine fisheries. However, to correctly parametrize mixotrophic SP in biogeochemical and food web models, a better understanding of the magnitude and regulation of in situ SP feeding is urgently needed. Current methods to determine SP bacterivory in the field may introduce biases by treating these organisms as equivalent to heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790976/factors-affecting-measurement-of-salivary-cortisol-and-secretory-immunoglobulin-a-in-field-studies-of-athletes
#17
Barry Thomas Pritchard, Warren Stanton, Roger Lord, Peter Petocz, Gert-Jan Pepping
AIMS: Biological and lifestyle factors, such as daily rhythm, caffeine ingestion, recent infection, and antibiotic intake, have been shown to influence measurements of salivary cortisol (SC) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Current methodology in unsynchronized, field-based biomarker studies does not take these effects into account. Moreover, very little is known about the combined effects of biological and lifestyle factors on SC and sIgA. This study supports development of a protocol for measuring biomarkers from saliva collected in field studies by examining the individual and combined effects of these factors on SC and sIgA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777766/risk-factors-for-roadway-single-and-multi-vehicle-all-terrain-vehicle-crashes-in%C3%A2-pennsylvania-2010-2013
#18
Serap Gorucu, Dennis Murphy, Cathy Kassab
BACKGROUND: All Terrain Vehicles on public roadways become major risk factors for the motorists. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of crashes and injury severity related to single vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) roadway crashes in Pennsylvania, USA. METHODS: Data on ATV crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed...
August 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766042/estimating-population-heat-exposure-and-impacts-on-working-people-in-conjunction-with-climate-change
#19
Tord Kjellstrom, Chris Freyberg, Bruno Lemke, Matthias Otto, David Briggs
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758801/using-medico-legal-data-to-investigate-fatal-older-road-user-crash-circumstances-and-risk-factors
#20
Sjaan Koppel, Lyndal Bugeja, Daisy Smith, Ashne Lamb, Jeremy Dwyer, Michael Fitzharris, Stuart Newstead, Angelo D'Elia, Judith Charlton
OBJECTIVE: This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. METHOD: The Coroners' Court of Victoria (CCOV)'s Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014...
July 31, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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