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Asiful Alam, Simone Dehm, Frank Hennrich, Yuriy Zakharko, Arko Graf, Moritz Pfohl, Ihteaz M Hossain, Manfred M Kappes, Jana Zaumseil, Ralph Krupke, Benjamin S Flavel
Monochiral (7,5) single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are integrated into a field effect transistor device in which the built-in electric field at the nanotube/metal contact allows for exciton separation under illumination. Variable wavelength spectroscopy and 2D surface mapping of devices consisting of 10-20 nanotubes are performed in the visible region and a strong correlation between the nanotube's second optical transition (S22) and the photocurrent is found. After integration, the SWCNTs are non-covalently modified with three different fluorescent dye molecules with off-resonant absorption maxima at 532 nm, 565 nm, and 610 nm...
July 27, 2017: Nanoscale
Kui Wu, Cem Yuksel
Modeling cloth with fiber-level geometry can produce highly realistic details. However, rendering fiber-level cloth models not only has a high memory cost but it also has a high computation cost even for offline rendering applications. In this paper we present a real-time fiber-level cloth rendering method for current GPUs. Our method procedurally generates fiber-level geometric details on-the-fly using yarn-level control points for minimizing the data transfer to the GPU. We also reduce the rasterization operations by collectively representing the fibers near the center of each ply that form the yarn structure...
July 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Simon Chamberland, Helen H Yang, Michael M Pan, Stephen W Evans, Sihui Guan, Mariya Chavarha, Ying Yang, Charleen Salesse, Haodi Wu, Joseph C Wu, Thomas R Clandinin, Katalin Toth, Michael Z Lin, François St-Pierre
Monitoring voltage dynamics in defined neurons deep in the brain is critical for unraveling the function of neuronal circuits, but is challenging due to the limited performance of existing tools. In particular, while genetically encoded voltage indicators have shown promise for optical detection of voltage transients, many indicators exhibit low sensitivity when imaged under two-photon illumination. Previous studies thus fell short of visualizing voltage dynamics in individual neurons in single trials. Here, we report ASAP2s, a novel voltage indicator with improved sensitivity...
July 27, 2017: ELife
Jaroslav Icha, Michael Weber, Jennifer C Waters, Caren Norden
Phototoxicity frequently occurs during live fluorescence microscopy, and its consequences are often underestimated. Damage to cellular macromolecules upon excitation light illumination can impair sample physiology, and even lead to sample death. In this review, we explain how phototoxicity influences live samples, and we highlight that, besides the obvious effects of phototoxicity, there are often subtler consequences of illumination that are imperceptible when only the morphology of samples is examined. Such less apparent manifestations of phototoxicity are equally problematic, and can change the conclusions drawn from an experiment...
August 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Wang-Sen Qin, Jin Wu, Yang Chen, Fa-Cai Cui, Fu-Ming Zhang, Guan-Ting Lyu, Hong-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA1) had been reported to produce three groups of isoforms categorized as long, middle, and short groups, of which short NuMA displayed distinct localization patterns compared to long and middle isoforms. However, the function of short NuMA was not clear in the progress of cancer formation. This study aimed to unveil the role of short NuMA in cancer pathogenesis. METHODS: The expression levels of short isoforms were explored in paired gastric carcinoma (GC) samples and different cell lines...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Li Gu, Zhi-Wen Gong, Wei-Zhong Li
Ecological niches remain central to explaining community structure, and niche-based studies have helped us to better understand species interactions, distributions, coexistence and associated mechanisms. Quercus wutaishansea populations on Loess Plateau are currently expanding their dominance in natural secondary forest types. In the present paper, we focused on the dynamic changes of niches and interspecific association among different changed stages. The overall interspecies association of the three communities exhibited positive association for Variance Ratio (VR) >1; the value of χ(2) significance test further revealed that the overall association had reached the level of significant association...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Ruhlandt, M Töpperwien, M Krenkel, R Mokso, T Salditt
We present an approach towards four dimensional (4d) movies of materials, showing dynamic processes within the entire 3d structure. The method is based on tomographic reconstruction on dynamically curved paths using a motion model estimated by optical flow techniques, considerably reducing the typical motion artefacts of dynamic tomography. At the same time we exploit x-ray phase contrast based on free propagation to enhance the signal from micron scale structure recorded with illumination times down to a millisecond (ms)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Changhyeong Yoon, Munkyu Kang, Jin H Hong, Taeseok D Yang, Jingchao Xing, Hongki Yoo, Youngwoon Choi, Wonshik Choi
Thin waveguides such as graded-index lenses and fiber bundles are often used as imaging probes for high-resolution endomicroscopes. However, strong back-reflection from the end surfaces of the probes makes it difficult for them to resolve weak contrast objects, especially in the reflectance-mode imaging. Here we propose a method to spatially isolate illumination pathways from detection channels, and demonstrate wide-field reflectance imaging free from back-reflection noise. In the image fiber bundle, we send illumination light through individual core fibers and detect signals from target objects through the other fibers...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Curt Meine
Extinction deeply colors the way we think about conservation and the role of humans in nature. It is easy to overlook how recently, in fact, it has entered our consciousness. Only in the last two centuries has science sought to critically study life's origins, development, and diversification. Only in the last several generations have we identified and calibrated life's five major extinction events and speculated on their causes and effects. And only in recent decades have we come to appreciate the still-unfolding fate of life's diversity under the increasing influence of humanity...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Ouyang et al. (2017; hereafter O2017) claim to have offered evidence that light pollution affects the health of free-living great tits (Parus major). Since 2012, they illuminated forests with either white, green, red or no artificial light at night (ALAN; Figure 1). Individuals in the white light treatment showed an increase in nightly activity in March 2014, which was linked to changes in health and physiology from March to May 2014. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily
Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group...
2017: PloS One
Moshik Cohen, Adi Salomon
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most powerful tools for nanoscale inspection and imaging. It is broadly used for biomedicine, materials science and nanotechnology, enabling spatial resolution beyond the optical diffraction limit. In SEM, a high-energy electron beam illuminates a specimen and the emitted secondary electrons are routed to a positively-biased, synchronized detector for image creation. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate a cloaking of metallic objects from a secondary electron image...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Evan W Miller
Optical methods for interrogating membrane potential changes in neurons promise to revolutionize our ability to dissect the activity of individual cells embedded in neural circuits underlying behavior and sensation. A number of voltage imaging strategies have emerged in the past few years. This Perspective discusses developments in both small-molecule and genetically encoded fluorescent indicators of membrane potential. We survey recent advances in small-molecule fluorescent indicators that rely on photoinduced electron transfer to sense voltage as well as refinements of voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins and new opsin-based strategies for monitoring voltage changes...
July 26, 2017: Biochemistry
Zengxing Lu, Peilian Li, Jianguo Wan, Zhifeng Huang, Guo Tian, Danfeng Pan, Zhen Fan, Xingsen Gao, Jun-Ming Liu
Recently, ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we have prepared well-ordered micro-arrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO3 (T-BFO) films by pulsed laser deposition technique. Polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination...
July 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Toufic El Arnaout, P J Cullen
Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography are useful methods for high resolution shape imaging. Visible microscopy is also common, however, developing a low-cost and customizable system for surface and shape investigation of optically active particles is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate an assembly offering good light sensitivity, flexibility of illumination and contrasts from varying angles. The design was applied, together with recent programs for focus-stacking, to analyze crystals of taurine, L-glutamic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and copper sulfate, along with digital 3D-360° modelling of phosphorescent [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 and strontium aluminate particles...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kami Kim
The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) of apicomplexan parasites is essential for secretion of micronemes and host cell invasion and egress. Both kinase specificity and localization can determine which substrates are phosphorylated. The functions of plasma membrane and cytosolic PKG isoforms of Toxoplasma gondii were unknown because of difficulties precisely manipulating expression of essential genes. Brown et al. (K. M. Brown, S. Long, and L. D. Sibley, mBio 8:e00375-17,
July 25, 2017: MBio
Luca Sardo, Angel Lin, Svetlana Khakhina, Lucas Beckman, Luis Ricon, Weam Elbezanti, Tara Jaison, Harshad Vishwasrao, Hari Shroff, Christopher Janetopoulos, Zachary A Klase
Chromatin modification is traditionally queried by biochemical assays that provide average measurements of static events since the analysis requires components from many cells. Microscopy can visualize single cells, but the cell body and organelles can hamper staining and visualization of the nucleus. Normally, chromatin is visualized by immunostaining a fixed sample or by expressing exogenous fluorescently tagged proteins in a live cell. Alternative microscopy tools to observe changes of endogenous chromatin in real-time are needed...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
E A Wasserman, A Chakroff, R Saxe, L Young
Characterizing how representations of moral violations are organized, cognitively and neurally, is central to understanding how people conceive and judge them. Past work has identified brain regions that represent morally relevant features and distinguish moral domains, but has not yet advanced a broader account of where and on what basis neural representations of moral violations are organized. With searchlight representational similarity analysis, we investigate where category membership drives similarity in neural patterns during moral judgment of violations from two key moral domains: Harm and Purity...
July 22, 2017: NeuroImage
Jin Wang, Beibei Yang, Shumin Li, Bo Yan, Hui Xu, Ke Zhang, Yuting Shi, Chunyang Zhai, Yukou Du
Herein, a sensitive photo-electrochemical sensor based on C3N4 and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets modified glassy carbon electrode (C3N4-RGO/GCE) has been fabricated for the detection of rutin under UV light illumination. In C3N4-RGO catalyst, RGO not only works as a template but also promotes electron transfer, meanwhile, C3N4 acts as a photocatalyst. Benefiting from the superior electron transfer capacity and efficient UV light effect of the C3N4-RGO catalyst, we get a photo-electrochemical sensor for the rutin detecting with a low detection limit of 1...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Nathan Wales, Benjamin K Blackman
In a new study, previously unknown populations of wild date palm have been identified in remote areas of Oman. Genomic analyses indicate date palm domestication occurred in the eastern portion of the Arabian Peninsula and reveal substantial subsequent gene flow with African palm populations.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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