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Renfeng Xu, Huachun Wang, Feng Jiang, Chunyan Xue, Zhenping Huang, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the typically narrower palpebral apertures of East Asian eyes in combination with the narrowing of this aperture during down-gaze combine to reduce light levels and image contrast in the inferior retina during near work, thus creating peripheral deprivation in these eyes that could generate deprivation myopia in children culturally encouraged to perform near work. METHODS: We photographed the right eyes of 53 Chinese children during down-gaze (from 10 to 40 degrees) from the fixation point and the primary gaze position...
October 18, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Timo J Autio, Timo Koskenkorva, Tuomo K Leino, Petri Koivunen, Olli-Pekka Alho
OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the pathophysiology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) with sequential monitoring of inflammatory biomarkers during an ARS episode and to clarify their diagnostic usability in bacterial ARS. STUDY DESIGN: Inception cohort study with 50 conscripts with ARS. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) counts at 2 to 3 and 9 to 10 days of symptoms during an ARS episode...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Gen Wang, Zheng Xing, Xiangkang Zeng, Chuanping Feng, David T McCarthy, Ana Deletic, Xiwang Zhang
An ultrathin photocatalytic film of titanium oxide was fabricated using two dimensional (2D) titanium oxide nanosheets (TONs) as building blocks. The as-prepared film was found be able to store photoelectrons upon UV irradiation due to the reduction/oxidation of T(4+)/Ti(3+) on the 2D TONs. Post-illumination discharging of the stored electrons produced antibacterial radicals, and as a result, the as-prepared film showed memory bactericidal activity toward E. faecalis and E. coli in the dark.
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Yuki Osaka, Satoshi Sugano, Shuichi Hashimoto
Fabricating nano-sized through-holes on a coverslip approximately 100 μm thick is challenging but rewarding when applied to ultrafine filters that separate proteins and DNA of various sizes and isolate viruses from cells. Toward this end, we developed an in situ etching-assisted laser processing technique exploiting gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic heating of a single gold nanoparticle through focused illumination of a continuous-wave laser beam enables structural modifications to be localized to the contact area on the glass surface...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Sam Y Bae, Ronald J Korniski, Michael Shearn, Harish M Manohara, Hrayr Shahinian
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging (stereo imaging) by endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery, especially in space-constrained applications such as brain surgery, is one of the most desired capabilities. Such capability exists at larger than 4-mm overall diameters. We report the development of a stereo imaging endoscope of 4-mm maximum diameter, called Multiangle, Rear-Viewing Endoscopic Tool (MARVEL) that uses a single-lens system with complementary multibandpass filter (CMBF) technology to achieve 3-D imaging...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
A Krigel, M Berdugo, E Picard, R Levy-Boukris, I Jaadane, L Jonet, M Dernigoghossian, C Andrieu-Soler, A Torriglia, F Behar-Cohen
To save energy, the European directives from the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (2005/32/CE) has recommended the replacement of incandescent lamps by more economic devices such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). However, the emission spectrum of these devices is enriched in blue radiations, known to be potentially dangerous to the retina. Recent studies showed that light exposure contribute to the onset of early stages of Age related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigate, in albinos and pigmented rats, the effects of different exposure protocols...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Maria Angela B Faustino, Lorenzo P Lopez, Jessica Pauline Afalla, Joselito Muldera, Nathaniel Hermosa, Arnel A Salvador, Armando S Somintac, Elmer S Estacio
A one-order-of-magnitude terahertz (THz) emission enhancement in the transmission geometry, over a 0.7-THz broadband range, was observed in semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) integrated with a subwavelength one-dimensional metal line array (1DMLA). THz emission of the 1DMLA samples showed an intensity increase and exhibited a full-width-at-half-maximum broadening relative to the emission of the bare substrate. Improved index matching could not account for the observed phenomenon. A nonlinear dependence of the integrated THz emission intensity on the number of illuminated lines and on the pump power was observed...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Yoshiro Urade, Yosuke Nakata, Toshihiro Nakanishi, Masao Kitano
We demonstrate that a self-complementary checkerboard-like metasurface works as a broadband coherent perfect absorber (CPA) when symmetrically illuminated by two counter-propagating incident waves. A theoretical analysis based on wave interference and the results of numerical simulations of the proposed metasurface are provided. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the proposed CPA in the terahertz regime by using a time-domain spectroscopy technique. We observe that the metasurface can work as a CPA below its lowest diffraction frequency...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Baohu Dai, Jizhuang Wang, Ze Xiong, Xiaojun Zhan, Wei Dai, Chien-Cheng Li, Shien-Ping Feng, Jinyao Tang
Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering...
October 17, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Donna Scott-Tilley, Heather Crites
This case report presents a patient who presented multiple times with vaginal injuries and bleeding, reporting sexual assault with a foreign object. Findings from her history and physical examination were consistent with sexual assault and human trafficking. The outcome of this case was not what we initially expected when the patient first presented for care. However, the patient ultimately received the care she needed. This case illuminates the need for excellent continuing education, interdisciplinary communication, and continuity of care...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Yasemin Saygili, Magnus Söderberg, Norman Pellet, Fabrizio Giordano, Yiming Cao, Ana B Munoz-Garcia, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Nick Vlachopoulos, Michele Pavone, Gerrit Boschloo, Ladislav Kavan, Jacques-E Moser, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt, Marina Freitag
Redox mediators play a major role determining the photocurrent and the photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). To maintain the photocurrent, the reduction of oxidized dye by the redox mediator should be significantly faster than the back electron transfer between TiO2 and the oxidized dye. The driving force for dye regeneration with the redox mediator should be sufficiently low to provide high photovoltages. With our introduction of new copper complexes as promising redox mediators in DSCs both criteria are satisfied to enhance power conversion efficiencies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wei-Yu Kong, Guo-An Wu, Kui-Yuan Wang, Teng-Fei Zhang, Yi-Feng Zou, Dan-Dan Wang, Lin-Bao Luo
A deep UV light photodetector is assembled by coating multilayer graphene on beta-gallium oxide (β-Ga2 O3 ) wafer. Optoelectronic analysis reveals that the heterojunction device is virtually blind to light illumination with wavelength longer than 280 nm, but is highly sensitive to 254 nm light with very good stability and reproducibility.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Carol A Casey, Ganapati Bhat, Melissa S Holzapfel, Armen Petrosyan
BACKGROUND: It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi; however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation...
October 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jongha Lee, Byeongjun Yoo, Hakyong Lee, Gi Doo Cha, Hee-Su Lee, Youngho Cho, Sang Yeon Kim, Hyunseon Seo, Woongchan Lee, Donghee Son, Myungjoo Kang, Hyung Min Kim, Yong Il Park, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Multi-dye-sensitized upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which harvest photons of wide wavelength range (450-975 nm) are designed and synthesized. The UCNPs embedded in photo-acid generating layer are integrated on destructible nonvolatile resistive memory device. Upon illumination of the light, the system permanently erases stored data, achieving enhanced information security.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Michael J Watts, David C Linch
Clinical practice and the technology of cell processing for autologous stem cell transplantation has continued to evolve over the last two decades and merits review of current quality control expectations. The external regulatory era has improved quality and safety standards but there is still variable practice, with specific risks illuminated by a number of clinical incidents. Viable CD34(+) cell assays may fail to indicate significant losses in progenitor function during storage, particularly after cryopreservation, and there is a need to develop an alternative, real time functional assay to replace colony assays...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Elisha E Simpson, N Justin Marshall, Karen L Cheney
Visual illusions occur when information from images are perceived differently from the actual physical properties of the stimulus in terms of brightness, size, colour and/or motion. Illusions are therefore important tools for sensory perception research and from an ecological perspective, relevant for visually guided animals viewing signals in heterogeneous environments. Here, we tested whether fish perceived a lightness cube illusion in which identical coloured targets appear (for humans) to return different spectral outputs depending on the apparent amount of illumination they are perceived to be under...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuai-Ru Zhu, Peng-Fei Liu, Meng-Ke Wu, Wen-Na Zhao, Guo-Chang Li, Kai Tao, Fei-Yan Yi, Lei Han
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as suitable materials for various applications in the area of photocatalysis. On the other hand, 2D BiOBr materials are efficient for the photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light illumination. In this work, BiOBr/NH2-MIL-125(Ti) composite photocatalysts with different NH2-MIL-125(Ti) content were prepared by incorporating NH2-MIL-125(Ti) with BiOBr using a co-precipitation method. A series of characterizations confirmed the strong synergistic effect between BiOBr and NH2-MIL-125(Ti)...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Tamika C B Zapolski, Sycarah Fisher, Wei-Wen Hsu, Jessica Barnes
African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4(th) and 12(th) grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed between racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
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