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Mingxing Wang, Wei Li, Ying Wang, Yongbo Song, Jian Wang, Maosheng Cheng
Studies on human genetics have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 as an appealing target for the treatment of pain. In this study, we put forward a ligand-based pharmacophore for the first time, which was generated by a set of multiple chemical scaffolds including sulfonamide and non-sulfonamide derivatives and consisted of four chemical features: an aromatic ring, a hydrophobic group and two hydrogen acceptors. The active cavity was divided into three regions according to the properties of the amino acids surrounded and was used for the docking of 16 known active inhibitors...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Canan Eroğlu, Ebru Avcı, Hasibe Vural, Ercan Kurar
Sinapic acid (SA) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and found in various vegetables and fruit species. Aim was to evaluate the anticancer effects of SA in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The effect of SA on cell viability was determined using XTT assay. Expressions of 8 genes for apoptosis and 6 genes for metastasis were evaluated by qPCR. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit. Effect of SA on cell invasion was evaluated with cell invasion assay. The IC50 dose of SA in PC-3 and LNCaP cells was found to be 1000 μM for 72 h...
May 21, 2018: Gene
Viviana Gradinaru, Jennifer Treweek, Kristin Overton, Karl Deisseroth
Over the past five years, a rapidly developing experimental approach has enabled high-resolution and high-content information retrieval from intact multicellular animal (metazoan) systems. New chemical and physical forms are created in the hydrogel-tissue chemistry process, and the retention and retrieval of crucial phenotypic information regarding constituent cells and molecules (and their joint interrelationships) are thereby enabled. For example, rich data sets defining both single-cell-resolution gene expression and single-cell-resolution activity during behavior can now be collected while still preserving information on three-dimensional positioning and/or brain-wide wiring of those very same neurons-even within vertebrate brains...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
Anneli Ozanne, Ingela Henoch, Susann Strang
AIM: To illuminate experiences of living with life-threatening diseases as described in blogs and the experience of blogging about these matters. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 21 blogs was performed. RESULTS: It was difficult for bloggers to accept what they perceived to be the unacceptable aspects of having an life-threatening disease. They searched for hope and acceptance, and tried to manage their life. They felt strengthened by supportive encounters with health professionals, relatives, friends, and from their blogging...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Michael A Rosen, Deborah DiazGranados, Aaron S Dietz, Lauren E Benishek, David Thompson, Peter J Pronovost, Sallie J Weaver
Few industries match the scale of health care. In the United States alone, an estimated 85% of the population has at least 1 health care encounter annually and at least one quarter of these people experience 4 to 9 encounters annually. A single visit requires collaboration among a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, administrative staff, patients, and their loved ones. Multiple visits often occur across different clinicians working in different organizations. Ineffective care coordination and the underlying suboptimal teamwork processes are a public health issue...
May 2018: American Psychologist
Kyung-Ran Park, Hyung-Mun Yun, In Jun Yeo, Sehyung Cho, Jin Tae Hong, Yong Seok Jeong
AIMS: Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that regulate redox balance that are critical for maintaining the cellular potential for self-renewal and stemness. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach in tissue reconstruction. However, to obtain functional cells for use in clinical applications, stem cell technology still requires improvements. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that PRDX6 levels were decreased during osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)...
May 24, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Zhili Zhao, Honghai Zhang, Sheng Liu, Xinzhong Wang
Most LED luminaires face the problem of color nonuniformity in illumination fields, which seriously degrades their lighting quality. To address this issue, we proposed a freeform TIR lens, which could be applied to the most widely adopted phosphor-converted LEDs and multicolor LED arrays. Based on light pattern overlap and energy mapping, the novel TIR lens comprised the freeform panel and the collimator. Analysis of angular color uniformity (ACU), based on a phosphor-converted white LED model, proved that the normalized standard deviation (NSD) of the LED integrated with the freeform TIR lens significantly decreased from 0...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Makoto Okui, Koki Wakunami, Ryutaro Oi, Yasuyuki Ichihashi, Boaz Jessie Jackin, Kenji Yamamoto
To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Noah R Van Zandt, Jack E McCrae, Mark F Spencer, Michael J Steinbock, Milo W Hyde, Steven T Fiorino
Polychromatic laser light can reduce speckle noise in wavefront-sensing and imaging applications that use direct-detection schemes. To help quantify the achievable reduction in speckle, this paper investigates the accuracy and numerical efficiency of three separate wave-optics methods. Each method simulates the active illumination of extended objects with polychromatic laser light. In turn, this paper uses the Monte Carlo method, the depth-slicing method, and the spectral-slicing method, respectively, to simulate the laser-object interaction...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Tino Hausotte, Andreas Gröschl, Janik Schaude
This article presents a new robust, precise, high-frequency focal-distance-modulated confocal point sensor for probing in coordinate measuring systems (CMSs). While maintaining the known advantages of the confocal measurement principle, the sensor represents an innovative combination of a fiber-coupled confocal illumination and detection with a tuneable, acoustically driven gradient-index fluid lens for modulation of the focus distance and a novel signal processing utilizing a lock-in amplifier. The new arrangement is able to achieve an approximately linear characteristic curve for the optimized feedback control of the CMS in scanning sample mode...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
M Bichra, T Meinecke, P Fesser, L Müller, M Hoffmann, S Sinzinger
The in-line characterization of freeform optical elements during the production cycle is challenging. Recently, we presented a compact sensor setup for the characterization of the wavefront generated by freeform optical elements in transmission. The sensor is based on a common-path interferometer consisting of diffractive components and Fourier filtering being adapted to the subsequent numerical post processing. Additionally, it offers several degrees of freedom for enlarging the measurement range of the wavefront gradients...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Maged Alotaibi, Sueli Skinner-Ramos, Hira Farooq, Nouf Alharbi, Hawra Alghasham, Luis Grave de Peralta
We describe experiments where Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) and dual-space microscopy (DSM) are implemented for imaging photonic crystals using a hemispherical digital condenser (HDC). Phase-recovery imaging simulations show that both techniques should be able to image photonic crystals with a period below the Rayleigh resolution limit. However, after processing the experimental images using both phase-recovery algorithms, we found that DSM can, but FPM cannot, image periodic structures with a period below the diffraction limit...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Liping Yang, Maomao Wang, Paul M Slattum, Benjamin R Bunes, Yuanhao Wang, Chuanyi Wang, Ling Zang
Perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) derivatives have been extensively studied for one-dimensional self-assembled systems and for applications in photocatalysis. Herein, we constructed a PTCDI-based donor-acceptor (D-A) supramolecular system via in situ self-assembly on an indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass surface. The self-assembled PTCDI nanostructures exhibit well-defined nanofibril morphologies and strong photocurrents. Interestingly, a strong and reversible electrochromic color change was observed during cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ender Karaca, Jennifer E Posey, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Davut Pehlivan, Tamar Harel, Shalini N Jhangiani, Yavuz Bayram, Xiaofei Song, Vahid Bahrambeigi, Ozge Ozalp Yuregir, Sevcan Bozdogan, Gozde Yesil, Sedat Isikay, Donna Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, James R Lupski
PurposeMultilocus variation-pathogenic variants in two or more disease genes-can potentially explain the underlying genetic basis for apparent phenotypic expansion in cases for which the observed clinical features extend beyond those reported in association with a "known" disease gene.MethodsAnalyses focused on 106 patients, 19 for whom apparent phenotypic expansion was previously attributed to variation at known disease genes. We performed a retrospective computational reanalysis of whole-exome sequencing data using stringent Variant Call File filtering criteria to determine whether molecular diagnoses involving additional disease loci might explain the observed expanded phenotypes...
April 26, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Alexander Yang, Zach Folzenlogen, A Samy Youssef
Modern surgical approaches are becoming more minimalistic, associated with the term 'minimally invasive'. The endoscope provides a more panoramic anatomical view in addition to the ability to access narrow deep corners with decent illumination and clear visualization. Endoscopic assisted microsurgery through a tailored small craniotomy is the foundation of keyhole surgery. The endoscope can be advanced deeper into the field, thus enhancing an exposure and allowing bimanual dissection, thus prompting smaller craniotomies and tailored key exposures...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Stefan Schünemann, Maurice van Gastel, Harun Tüysüz
Halide perovskites have attracted great attention in the fields of photovoltaics, LEDs, lasers, and most recently photocatalysis due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we present an all-inorganic halide perovskites CsPbBr3/TiO2 composite material for the selective benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde under visible light illumination. The catalyst, which is prepared via a facile wet-impregnation method, shows very good selectivities towards benzaldehyde (90 % at 50 % conversion). Action spectra and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies reveal that photo-excited electrons formed within the CsPbBr3 upon visible light illumination take part in the reaction via the reduction of oxygen to form superoxide radicals...
May 23, 2018: ChemSusChem
Fan Zhang, Yong-Heng Wang, Xiaowen Tang, Ruibo Wu
The TEAS, one of the sesquiterpene cyclases (FPPC), shows enzyme promiscuity that can effectively catalyze both the natural substrate (trans,trans)-FPP and the non-native (cis,trans)-FPP substrate to generate diverse products/byproducts. So far, the catalytic mechanism of the promiscuous substrate is still unclear. In this work, QM(DFT)/MM MD simulations were employed to illuminate the predominant 1,6-closure pathway reaction mechanism for the non-native substrate (cis,trans)-FPP, while the 1,10-closure pathway is the major reaction for the native substrate...
May 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Brian C Shin, Christopher K Heinrich, Julie W Cheng, Mohamed Keheila, Jim Ken-Chie Shen, Patrick W Yang, Salim Cheriyan, Samuel R Abourbih, Nazih Khater, D Duane Baldwin
PURPOSE: Endourologic procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) employ the use of foot pedals in low-light operating room (OR) settings. These pedals can be especially difficult to locate or distinguish when several pedals are present during a single operation. Improper instrument activation in the OR has led to serious complications ranging from unintentional electrocautery to patient burns and even an intraoperative explosion. This study evaluates the impact of color-coded illumination on speed and efficiency of foot pedal activation...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Bin Yang, Ya-Juan Li, Yu-Xuan Tang, Xin Mao, Cheng Luo, Mei-Shan Wang, Wei-Qiao Deng, Ke-Li Han
We developed a high-performance photodetector based on (CH3 NH3 )3 Sb2 I9 (MA3 Sb2 I9 ) microsingle crystals (MSCs). The MA3 Sb2 I9 single crystals exhibit a low-trap state density of ∼1010 cm-3 and a long carrier diffusion length reaching 3.0 μm, suggesting its great potential for optoelectronic applications. However, the centimeter single crystal (CSC)-based photodetector exhibits low responsivity (10-6 A/W under 1 sun illumination) due to low charge-carrier collection efficiency. By constructing the MSC photodetector with efficient charge-carrier collection, the responsivity can be improved by three orders of magnitude (under 1 sun illumination) and reach 40 A/W with monochromatic light (460 nm)...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Minghui Liu, Shuoxing Jiang, Omar Loza, Petr Šulc, Nour Eddine Fahmi
We describe a reconfigurable DNA nano-tweezer that can be switched between a close and open state with a brief pulse of UV light. In its initial state, the tweezer is held shut using a hairpin with a single-stranded poly-A loop. Also incorporated in the structure is a poly-T trigger strand bearing seven photocaged residues. Upon illumination with 365 nm light, the cages are removed and the trigger strand hybridizes to the loop, opening the tweezer and increasing the distance between its arms from 4 to 18 nm...
May 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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