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Abigail K Corona, Holly M Saulsbery, Angel F Corona Velazquez, William T Jackson
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a medically important respiratory plus-strand RNA virus of children that has been linked to acute flaccid myelitis. We have determined that EV-D68 induces autophagic signaling and membrane formation. Autophagy, a homeostatic degradative process that breaks down protein aggregates and damaged organelles, promotes replication of multiple plus-strand viruses. Induction of autophagic signals promotes EV-D68 replication, but the virus inhibits the downstream degradative steps of autophagy in multiple ways...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Munvar Miya Shaik, Ian A Tamargo, Murtala B Abubakar, Mohammad A Kamal, Nigel H Greig, Siew Hua Gan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been observed in several diseases, including neurodegeneration. Multiple studies have reported altered expressions of miRNAs in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to those of healthy elderly adults. Some of the miRNAs found to be dysregulated in AD have been reported to correlate with neuropathological changes, including plaque and tangle accumulation, as well as altered expressions of species that are known to be involved in AD pathology...
March 21, 2018: Genes
Sicheng Tang, Yang Zhang, Pravat Dhakal, Laura Ravelo, Cheyenne L Anderson, Kevin M Collins, Françisco M Raymo
A photochemical strategy to encode fluorescence signals in vivo with spatial control was designed around the unique properties of a photoactivatable borondipyrromethene (BODIPY). The photoinduced disconnection of two oxazines, flanking a single BODIPY, in two consecutive steps produces a mixture of three emissive molecules with resolved fluorescence inside polymer beads. The relative amounts and emission intensities of the three fluorophores can be regulated precisely in each bead by adjusting the dose of activating photons to mark individual particles with distinct codes of fluorescence signals...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hyun Woo Noh, Soon Moon Jeong, Junghyun Cho, Jung-Il Hong
Single crystalline ZnO nanoplatelet structures were synthesized via a hydrothermal process on the surface of GaN microparticles. Growth of ZnO seeded on the GaN surface promoted faster growth along the directions within the basal plane of the ZnO crystal structure, resulting in the formation of 2-dimensional nanoplates with a thickness less than a few tens of nanometers at most. Electrical conduction across an individual nanoplate was measured and found to be extremely sensitive to UV illumination and the surrounding atmospheric environment...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Kaleb S Abbott, Hope M Queener, Lisa A Ostrin
SIGNIFICANCE: We investigated links between the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, light exposure, refractive error, and sleep. Results showed that morning melatonin was associated with light exposure, with modest differences in sleep quality between myopes and emmetropes. Findings suggest a complex relationship between light exposure and these physiological processes. PURPOSE: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) signal environmental light, with pathways to the midbrain to control pupil size and circadian rhythm...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Zhiqiang Cheng, Shengzhe Zhao, Lihao Han
A novel method for synthesizing ZnO/γ-Al2O3 nanofibers by electrospinning and subsequent calcination is reported. The prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ZnO/γ-Al2O3 nanofibers exhibited excellent capacity for adsorbing organics with a negative zeta potential such as methyl orange (95.8%) and heavy metal ions such as Cr(vi) in aqueous solution...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Inho Song, Seung-Chul Lee, Xiaobo Shang, Jaeyong Ahn, Hoon-Joo Jung, Chan-Uk Jeong, Sang-Wook Kim, Woojin Yoon, Hoseop Yun, O-Pil Kwon, Joon Hak Oh
This study investigates the performance of single-crystalline nanomaterials of wide-bandgap naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives with methylene-bridged aromatic side chains. Such materials are found to be easily used as high-performance, visible-blind near-UV light detectors. NDI single-crystalline nanoribbons are assembled using a simple solution-based process (without solvent-inclusion problems), which is then applied to organic phototransistors (OPTs). Such OPTs exhibit excellent n-channel transistor characteristics, including an average electron mobility of 1...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Syed Rakin Ahmed, Jeremy Mengyu Jia, Petr Bruza, Sergei Vinogradov, Shudong Jiang, David J Gladstone, Lesley A Jarvis, Brian W Pogue
Radiation therapy produces Cherenkov optical emission in tissue, and this light can be utilized to activate molecular probes. The feasibility of sensing luminescence from a tissue molecular oxygen sensor from within a human body phantom was examined using the geometry of the axillary lymph node region. Detection of regions down to 30-mm deep was feasible with submillimeter spatial resolution with the total quantity of the phosphorescent sensor PtG4 near 1 nanomole. Radiation sheet scanning in an epi-illumination geometry provided optimal coverage, and maximum intensity projection images provided illustration of the concept...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Min-Gyu Sung, Jong-In Han, Bongsoo Lee, Yong Keun Chang
Background: Microalgae, being a phototroph, grow in the presence of light, and utilizing photons in narrow and specific range of wavelengths. There have been numerous attempts to take advantage of this trait of wavelength-dependent growth for the purpose of increasing biomass productivity. One potential option involves wavelength conversion of sunlight. In the present study, three fluorescent dyes with blue, red, and green emission spectra were employed with the aim of improving sunlight utilization efficiency and thus enhancing biomass and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis gaditana ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Mihyun Choi, Marjorie Z Lazo, Minji Kang, Jeehye Lee, Choun-Ki Joo
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the degree of anterior capsule contraction (capsulorhexis contraction) with three different single-piece, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: Patients were prospectively randomized to be implanted with one of three types of IOLs during cataract surgery: the Ophtec Precizon (IOL A), the Lucid Korea Microflex (IOL B), and the Carl Zeiss Asphina (IOL C). One week, 2 weeks, and 6 months after surgery, the area of the anterior capsule opening was measured using digital retro-illumination images after dilation of the pupil...
March 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Ali Al-Naji, Javaan Chahl
Monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity is a challenge when attempted under adverse conditions, including different sleeping postures, environmental settings, and an unclear region of interest (ROI). This study proposes an efficient remote imaging system based on a Microsoft Kinect v2 sensor for the observation of cardiopulmonary-signal-and-detection-related abnormal cardiopulmonary events (e.g., tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, bradypnea, and central apnoea) in many possible sleeping postures within varying environmental settings including in total darkness and whether the subject is covered by a blanket or not...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Li Bao, Zhaoyang Qian, Maria B Lyng, Ling Wang, Yuan Yu, Ting Wang, Xiuqing Zhang, Huanming Yang, Nils Brünner, Jun Wang, Henrik J Ditzel
Single cancer cell sequencing studies currently use randomly-selected cells, limiting correlations between genomic aberrations, morphology and spatial localization. We laser-captured microdissected single cells from morphologically-distinct areas of primary breast cancer and corresponding lymph node metastasis and performed whole-exome or deep-target sequencing of greater than 100 such cells. Two major subclones co-existed in different areas of the primary tumor, and the lymph node metastasis originated from a minor subclone in the invasive front of the primary tumor with additional copy number changes including 8q gain, but no additional point mutations in driver genes...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Maria Spies, Jakub Polaczynski, Akhil Ajay, Dipankar Kalita, Jonas Lähnemann, Bruno Gayral, Martien den Hertog, Eva Monroy
Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Bethany L Brand, Shawntel J Collins, Linda E McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Yen-Chen Shih, Leeyih Wang, Hsiao-Chi Hsieh, King-Fu Lin
Ion accumulation of organometal halide perovskite (OHP) induced by electrode polarization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under illumination has been intensely studied and associated with widely observed current-voltage hysteresis behavior. This work dedicates to the investigation of charged species' behavior at the compact TiO2/OHP interface with respect to electrode polarization in PSC devices. By providing a comprehensive discussion of open-circuit voltage (VOC) buildup and VOC decay under illumination and in the dark for the PSCs modified with [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at the TiO2/OHP interface and their corresponding electrochemical impedance spectroscopies (EIS), a justified mechanism is proposed attempting to elucidate the dynamics of interfacial species with respect to the time and frequency domains...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jingxing Yang, Huilan Su, Wenshe Sun, Jiali Cai, Shiyuan Liu, Yimin Chai, Chunfu Zhang
Tumor combination therapy using nano formulations with multimodal synergistic therapeutic effects shows great potential for complete ablation of tumors. However, targeting tumor metastases with nano structures is a major obstacle for therapy. Therefore, developing a combination therapy system able to target both primary tumors and their metastases at distant sites with synergistic therapy is desirable for the complete eradication of tumors. To this end, a dual chemodrug-loaded theranostic system based on single walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) is developed for targeting both primary breast tumors and their lung metastases...
2018: Theranostics
Xiu-Liang Xia, Dong Xue, Ting-Hai Xiang, Huai-Yong Xu, De-Kun Song, Pei-Guang Cheng, Jian-Qiang Wang
The clinical significance and essential role of long non-coding RNA colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (lncRNA CRNDE) have been well illuminated in various cancers. However, the function of CRNDE in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) has not been reported at present. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CRNDE in IHCC. Firstly, the relative expression of CRNDE was observed to be upregulated in IHCC cell lines and tissues. And high CRNDE expression was statistically associated with IHCC differentiation grade, lymph node metastasis, tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) stage and size...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuan Feng, Yu-Chen Chen, Han Lv, Wenqing Xia, Cun-Nan Mao, Fan Bo, Huiyou Chen, Jin-Jing Xu, Xindao Yin
Purpose : Chronic subjective tinnitus may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate the functional connectivity network of the cerebellar regions in chronic tinnitus patients and controls. Methods : Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 28 chronic tinnitus patients and 29 healthy controls (well matched for age, sex and education) in this study. Cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity was characterized using a seed-based whole-brain correlation method...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Emil Agocs, Ravi Kiran Attota
There has been an increasing push to derive quantitative measurements using optical microscopes. While several aspects of microscopy have been identified to enhance quantitative imaging, non-uniform angular illumination asymmetry (ANILAS) across the field-of-view is an important factor that has been largely overlooked. Non-uniform ANILAS results in loss of imaging precision and can lead to, for example, less reliability in medical diagnoses. We use ANILAS maps to demonstrate that objective lens design, illumination wavelength and location of the aperture diaphragm are significant factors that contribute to illumination aberrations...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
C Schnedermann, X Yang, M Liebel, K M Spillane, J Lugtenburg, I Fernández, A Valentini, I Schapiro, M Olivucci, P Kukura, R A Mathies
Vibronic coupling is key to efficient energy flow in molecular systems and a critical component of most mechanisms invoking quantum effects in biological processes. Despite increasing evidence for coherent coupling of electronic states being mediated by vibrational motion, it is not clear how and to what degree properties associated with vibrational coherence such as phase and coupling of atomic motion can impact the efficiency of light-induced processes under natural, incoherent illumination. Here, we show that deuteration of the H11 -C11 =C12 -H12 double-bond of the 11-cis retinal chromophore in the visual pigment rhodopsin significantly and unexpectedly alters the photoisomerization yield while inducing smaller changes in the ultrafast isomerization dynamics assignable to known isotope effects...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemistry
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