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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637254/phylogeography-of-lionfishes-pterois-indicate-taxonomic-over-splitting-and-hybrid-origin-of-the-invasive-pterois-volitans
#1
Christie L Wilcox, Hiroyuki Motomura, Mizuki Matsunuma, Brian W Bowen
The lionfish is an iconic marine fish, and recently renowned for a disastrous introduction into the West Atlantic. Genetic surveys of the putative invaders (Pterois volitans and P. miles) in their natural Indo-Pacific range can illuminate both topics. Previous research indicated that P. volitans and P. miles are sister species that hybridize in the invasive range, but hybridization in the native range is unknown. Here we apply mtDNA COI and two nuclear introns (S7 RP1 and Gpd2) from 229 lionfish including the two invaders and two closely-related taxa (44 P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636528/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-energy-stores-for-jumping-in-planthoppers-and-froghoppers-from-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#2
Igor Siwanowicz, Malcolm Burrows
Jumping in planthopper and froghopper insects is propelled by a catapult-like mechanism requiring mechanical storage of energy and its quick release to accelerate the hind legs rapidly. To understand the functional biomechanics involved in these challenging movements, the internal skeleton, tendons and muscles involved were reconstructed in 3-D from confocal scans in unprecedented detail. Energy to power jumping was generated by slow contractions of hind leg depressor muscles and then stored by bending specialised elements of the thoracic skeleton that are composites of the rubbery protein resilin sandwiched between layers of harder cuticle with air-filled tunnels reducing mass...
June 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636350/integrating-a-semi-transparent-fullerene-free-organic-solar-cell-in-tandem-with-a-bivo4-photoanode-for-unassisted-solar-water-splitting
#3
Yuelin Peng, Gokul V Govindaraju, Dong Ki Lee, Kyoung-Shin Choi, Trisha L Andrew
We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semi-transparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially-connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636050/photoelectrochemical-ion-concentration-polarization-membraneless-ion-filtration-based-on-light-driven-electrochemical-reactions
#4
Eunsoo Yoon, Collin D Davies, Tim A Hooper, Richard M Crooks
In this article we report a microelectrochemical system that is able to partially desalinate water. The underlying principles are similar to previous reports in which a local electric field resists passage of ions. However, in the present case, no membrane is required and, most interestingly, much of the power for desalination originates from light rather than electricity. This could greatly increase the power efficiency for desalination. The device is based on a TiO2 photoanode coupled to a Pt cathode. Illumination of the photoanode drives faradaic reactions at the cathode that lead to an ion depletion zone...
June 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635643/a-multi-wavelength-opto-electronic-patch-sensor-to-effectively-detect-physiological-changes-against-human-skin-types
#5
Liangwen Yan, Sijung Hu, Abdullah Alzahrani, Samah Alharbi, Panagiotis Blanos
Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR)...
June 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635570/quality-dementia-care-prerequisites-and-relational-ethics-among-multicultural-healthcare-providers
#6
Gerd Sylvi Sellevold, Veslemøy Egede-Nissen, Rita Jakobsen, Venke Sørlie
BACKGROUND: Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635300/pyridine-dinucleotides-from-molecules-to-man
#7
Joshua P Fessel, William M Oldham
SIGNIFICANCE: Pyridine dinucleotides, NAD and NADP, were discovered over 100 years ago as necessary cofactors for fermentation in yeast extracts. Since that time, these molecules have been recognized as fundamental players in a variety of cellular processes, including energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene transcription, among many others. Given their critical role as mediators of cellular responses to metabolic perturbations, it is unsurprising that dysregulation of NAD and NADP metabolism has been associated with the pathobiology of many chronic human diseases...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634810/microrna-regulation-of-skeletal-development
#8
REVIEW
Steven R Sera, Nicole I Zur Nieden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteogenesis is a complex process involving the specification of multiple progenitor cells and their maturation and differentiation into matrix-secreting osteoblasts. Osteogenesis occurs not only during embryogenesis but also during growth, after an injury, and in normal homeostatic maintenance. While much is known about osteogenesis-associated regulatory genes, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are epigenetic regulators of protein expression, is just beginning to be explored...
June 20, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632879/reliability-and-agreement-between-metrics-of-cone-spacing-in-adaptive-optics-images-of-the-human-retinal-photoreceptor-mosaic
#9
Daniela Giannini, Giuseppe Lombardo, Letizia Mariotti, Nicholas Devaney, Sebastiano Serrao, Marco Lombardo
Purpose: To assess reliability and agreement among three metrics used to evaluate the distribution of cell distances in adaptive optics (AO) images of the cone mosaic. Methods: Using an AO flood illumination retinal camera, we acquired images of the cone mosaic in 20 healthy subjects and 12 patients with retinal diseases. The three spacing metrics studied were the center-to-center spacing (Scc), the local cone spacing (LCS), and the density recovery profile distance (DRPD)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632337/non-equilibrium-assembly-of-light-activated-colloidal-mixtures
#10
Dhruv P Singh, Udit Choudhury, Peer Fischer, Andrew G Mark
The collective phenomena exhibited by artificial active matter systems present novel routes to fabricating out-of-equilibrium microscale assemblies. Here, the crystallization of passive silica colloids into well-controlled 2D assemblies is shown, which is directed by a small number of self-propelled active colloids. The active colloids are titania-silica Janus particles that are propelled when illuminated by UV light. The strength of the attractive interaction and thus the extent of the assembled clusters can be regulated by the light intensity...
June 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631209/allelopathic-effects-of-exogenous-phenylalanine-a-comparison-of-four-monocot-species
#11
Barbara R Evans, Garima Bali, Art Ragauskas, Riddhi Shah, Hugh O'Neill, Cory Howard, Fayola Lavenhouse, Dawn Ramirez, Kelly Weston, Kelly Ramey, Valerie Cangemi, Brian Kinney, Claudia Partee, Teresa Ware, Brian Davison
Exogenous phenylalanine stunted annual ryegrass but not switchgrass or winter grain rye, with deuterium incorporation up to 3% from phenyalanine-d 8 . Toxicity to duckweed varied with illumination intensity and glucose uptake. Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin...
June 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631087/molar-incisor-hypomineralization-proportion-and-severity-in-primary-public-school-children-in-graz-austria
#12
Barbara Buchgraber, Lumnije Kqiku, Kurt A Ebeleseder
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in primary school children in Graz (southeast of Austria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 1111 children aged 6 to 12 years (mean age 9.0 ± 1.2), a wet examination of all teeth was performed by three trained examiners using a dental chair, optimal illumination, a dental mirror, and a dental explorer. All teeth with MIH lesions were registered so that different definitions of MIH were applicable...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630681/imaging-optical-scattering-of-butterfly-wing-scales-with-a-microscope
#13
Jinxin Fu, Beom-Jin Yoon, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao
A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as Morpho butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of Morpho butterflies. We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630678/on-the-colour-of-wing-scales-in-butterflies-iridescence-and-preferred-orientation-of-single-gyroid-photonic-crystals
#14
Robert W Corkery, Eric C Tyrode
Lycaenid butterflies from the genera Callophrys, Cyanophrys and Thecla have evolved remarkable biophotonic gyroid nanostructures within their wing scales that have only recently been replicated by nanoscale additive manufacturing. These nanostructures selectively reflect parts of the visible spectrum to give their characteristic non-iridescent, matte-green appearance, despite a distinct blue-green-yellow iridescence predicted for individual crystals from theory. It has been hypothesized that the organism must achieve its uniform appearance by growing crystals with some restrictions on the possible distribution of orientations, yet preferential orientation observed in Callophrys rubi confirms that this distribution need not be uniform...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630451/electronic-band-alignment-at-complex-oxide-interfaces-measured-by-scanning-photocurrent-microscopy
#15
J H Yoon, H J Jung, J T Hong, Ji-Yong Park, Soonil Lee, S W Lee, Y H Ahn
The band alignment at an Al2O3/SrTiO3 heterointerface forming a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) was investigated using scanning photocurrent microscopy (SPCM) in an electrolyte-gated environment. We used a focused UV laser source for above-the-bandgap illumination on the SrTiO3 layer, creating electron-hole pairs that contributed to the photocurrent through migration towards the metal electrodes. The polarity of the SPCM signals of a bare SrTiO3 device shows typical p-type behavior at zero gate bias, in which the photogenerated electrons are collected by the electrodes...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630442/ir-sensitivity-enhancement-of-cmos-image-sensor-with-diffractive-light-trapping-pixels
#16
Sozo Yokogawa, Itaru Oshiyama, Harumi Ikeda, Yoshiki Ebiko, Tomoyuki Hirano, Suguru Saito, Takashi Oinoue, Yoshiya Hagimoto, Hayato Iwamoto
We report on the IR sensitivity enhancement of back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (BI-CIS) with 2-dimensional diffractive inverted pyramid array structure (IPA) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and deep trench isolation (DTI). FDTD simulations of semi-infinite thick c-Si having 2D IPAs on its surface whose pitches over 400 nm shows more than 30% improvement of light absorption at λ = 850 nm and the maximum enhancement of 43% with the 540 nm pitch at the wavelength is confirmed. A prototype BI-CIS sample with pixel size of 1...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630307/nanophotonics-enabled-solar-membrane-distillation-for-off-grid-water-purification
#17
Pratiksha D Dongare, Alessandro Alabastri, Seth Pedersen, Katherine R Zodrow, Nathaniel J Hogan, Oara Neumann, Jinjian Wu, Tianxiao Wang, Akshay Deshmukh, Menachem Elimelech, Qilin Li, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J Halas
With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629848/a-novel-intrinsic-electroretinogram-response-in-isolated-mouse-retina
#18
Motoharu Takao, Yumi Fukuda, Takeshi Morita
Since the discovery of intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC) was reported in 2002, many features specific to this cell type have been described. However, scare information is available on the retinographic components directly reflecting ipRGC activity. In this study, we identified the electroretinogram (microERG) that reflects the photoresponses by ipRGCs in ex vivo preparations of the mouse retina, in which classical photoreceptors (cones and rods) were ablated mechanically and photochemically...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629139/novel-descattering-approach-for-stereo-vision-in-dense-suspended-scatterer-environments
#19
Chanh D Tr Nguyen, Jihyuk Park, Kyeong-Yong Cho, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun Kim
In this paper, we propose a model-based scattering removal method for stereo vision for robot manipulation in indoor scattering media where the commonly used ranging sensors are unable to work. Stereo vision is an inherently ill-posed and challenging problem. It is even more difficult in the case of images of dense fog or dense steam scenes illuminated by active light sources. Images taken in such environments suffer attenuation of object radiance and scattering of the active light sources. To solve this problem, we first derive the imaging model for images taken in a dense scattering medium with a single active illumination close to the cameras...
June 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628486/inactivation-of-bacterial-biofilms-by-visible-light-activated-unmodified-zno-nanorods
#20
Kristina Aponiene, Tomas Serevičius, Zivile Luksiene, Saulius Jursenas
Various zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are widely used for photocatalytic antibacterial applications. Since ZnO possess a wide bandgap, it is believed that only UV light may efficiently assist bacterial inactivation and diverse crystal lattice modifications should be applied in order to narrow the bandgap for efficient visible light absorption. In this work we show that even unmodified ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth technique were found to possess intrinsic defects which can be activated by visible light ( = 405 nm) and successfully applied for total inactivation of various highly resistant bacterial biofilms rather than more sensitive planktonic bacteria...
June 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
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