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Cavitary Pulmonary Disease children

David W Denning, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. However, many fungi are directly allergenic by colonising the respiratory tract or indirectly through contact with cell wall constituents and proteases, causing or exacerbating allergic disease...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kemal Odev, Ibrahim Guler, Tamer Altinok, Sevgi Pekcan, Abdussamed Batur, Hüseyin Ozbiner
A number of diseases produce focal or multiple thin-walled or thick-walled air- or fluid-containing cysts or cavitary lung lesions in both infants and children. In infants and children, there is a spectrum of focal or multifocal cystic and cavitary lung lesions including congenital lobar emphysema, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, pleuropulmonary blastoma, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, airway diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc...
2013: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Cristian Didilescu, Nicoleta Cioran, Domnica Chiotan, Gilda Popescu
According to the World Health Organization and Stop TB Partnership, tuberculosis among children often remains undiagnosed, the main reported causes being lack of access to health services or because health professionals unrecognizing the signs and symptoms of tuberculosis in this age group. In Romania, consistent with TB endemic levels, the overall incidence progressively decreased from 142.2%ooo in 2002 to 82.8%ooo in 2011, incidence of TB in children 0-14 years dropped steadily from 47.2 %ooo (1784 cases) in the same "peak year"2002 to 23...
January 2013: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
Na Rae Kim, Joungho Han
Pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions caused by diverse etiologies are commonly encountered in chest imaging. The terms "cyst" and "cavity" are used to describe air-filled regions in the center of a nodule or consolidation of the lung. To date, only radiologic aspects of these lesions have been addressed. The morphologies of pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions exhibit a broad spectrum, ranging from benign to malignant pulmonary diseases of acquired or congenital origin, including variable infectious diseases...
October 2012: Korean Journal of Pathology
Narendra B Vadlamudi, Udayakumar Navaneethan, Kirk A Thame, David R Kelly, Reed A Dimmitt, William T Harris
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects primarily the gastrointestinal system but can be associated with extraintestinal manifestations. Latent pulmonary involvement in children with CD has been described, but symptomatic pulmonary disease has rarely been reported in children. In this review, we report two pediatric cases, one with pleural effusion at the time of CD diagnosis and the other with bilateral cavitary lesions in a previously diagnosed CD patient. We review the current literature and summarize the diagnosis and management of pulmonary involvement in CD...
April 2013: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Shen-An Hwang, Kerry J Welsh, Marian L Kruzel, Jeffrey K Actor
The goal of vaccination to prevent tuberculosis disease (TB) is to offer long-term protection to the individual and the community. In addition, the success of any protective TB vaccine should include the ability to limit cavitary formation and disease progression. The current BCG vaccine protects against disseminated TB disease in children by promoting development of antigenic-specific responses. However, its efficacy is limited in preventing postprimary pulmonary disease in adults that is responsible for the majority of disease and transmission...
2011: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Jun Komukai, Kenji Matsumoto, Akiko Tomihara, Yuki Miyake, Tomomi Tatsumi, Kazuyo Arima, Katsura Danno, Satoshi Hirota, Hideki Yoshida, Shinichi Koda, Kazuhiko Terakawa, Akira Shimouchi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performances of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold assay (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) and to examine how a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should be diagnosed in contact investigations of children aged 6 to 17 years. METHODS: A total of 232 boys and girls aged 6 to 17 years who were in contact with 134 culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients (index cases) were examined both with QFT and TST. Factors influencing the results of the tests and their interactions were evaluated with multivariate analyses...
November 2011: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
A Dramowski, M M Morsheimer, A M Jordaan, T C Victor, P R Donald, H S Schaaf
SETTING: Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH) and Brooklyn Chest Hospital (BCH), South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To describe paediatric cases of rifampicin (RMP) monoresistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) disease. DESIGN: Records of children with culture-confirmed RMR-TB between 1 March 2003 and 28 February 2009 were identified from a prospectively recorded database of drug-resistant TB at TCH and BCH. Mutation analysis was performed on available specimens...
January 2012: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Andrea T Cruz, Lydia T Ong, Jeffrey R Starke
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe emergency department (ED) presentations of children with tuberculosis (TB) disease and assess the utility in children of TB screening tools developed for adults. METHODS: Children at most 18 years old with confirmed or probable TB seen at the Children's TB Clinic from 2005 to 2009 who were initially evaluated in the ED for symptoms compatible with TB in the preceding month were included. TB was classified as microbiologically confirmed disease or probable TB disease, as defined by the World Health Organization...
July 2011: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Anna Gillman, Ingela Berggren, Sten-Erik Bergström, Hedwig Wahlgren, Rutger Bennet
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: The decline of tuberculosis (TB) in the Swedish population since the middle of the 20th century resulted in decreased awareness of the disease. Increased migration from TB-endemic countries has resulted in new cases and risk of transmission. A day care provider was diagnosed with cavitary TB after being symptomatic for 5 months. We describe the contact tracing at the day care center, the clinical and radiographic findings, and treatment of the infected children...
December 2008: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
G Losurdo, A R Natalizia, A Amisano, L Bertoluzzo, E Mantero, R Giacchino
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is an important warning sign in a community, as it could signal recent infection of a cavitary form in an adult. Thus, while early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment in children, it is also imperative for the control of tuberculosis at the public health level since it allows rapid identification of contagious adult cases. Here we report four cases of difficult and delayed diagnosis of TB in children. From this experience we highlight the need for an extensive medical history of the patient during diagnostic work-up...
December 2007: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Dwight A Powell, W Garrett Hunt
TB is a common and serious global infection that is spread exclusively from person to person. The initial infection in most healthy people leads to LTBI 95% of the time, but untreated individuals have a 5% to 10% lifetime risk for reactivating their infection to develop highly infectious cavitary pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary disease. Following primary infection progressive disease is more likely to develop in children younger than 5 years old or those who are immunocompromised, particularly those with HIV infection...
2006: Advances in Pediatrics
Daniel Levine, Jonathan Akikusa, David Manson, Earl Silverman, Rayfel Schneider
BACKGROUND: Although pulmonary involvement occurs in the majority of children and adolescents with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), relatively little has been published regarding the CT imaging manifestations in this group of patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and types of chest CT abnormalities in active pediatric WG (pWG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a retrospective examination of 29 chest CT examinations performed at diagnosis (n=14) and during disease flares (n=15) in 18 children...
January 2007: Pediatric Radiology
B Celik, A Basoglu
Posttraumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is a rare cavitary lesion lacking an epithelial lining, which develops within the pulmonary parenchyma after blunt chest trauma. Such pseudocysts develop most commonly in children and young adults. The clinical course is usually benign with spontaneous resolution of the radiologic manifestations within 2 to 4 months after trauma. A young male injured in a motor vehicle accident, sustaining a posttraumatic pulmonary pseudocyst, is presented here.
September 2006: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Durdica Milković, Darko Richter, Ivka Zoricić-Letoja, Miljenko Raos, Ivan Koncul
Plain chest radiography plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis in childhood. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of characteristic chest radiographic findings at diagnosis in children with pulmonary tuberculosis. The age of the patients and the type and localization of radiographic changes at admission were retrospectively analyzed. We reviewed chest radiographs in 204 children admitted from January 1, 1991 until June 30, 1994 for newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis...
June 2005: Collegium Antropologicum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1965: American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine
Fouad Madhi, Claire Fuhrman, Isabelle Monnet, Kinan Atassi, Christine Poirier, Bruno Housset, Christophe Delacourt
Tuberculosis in children is often acquired by contact with a family or household member. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk factors for latent infection and active disease in exposed children in a suburb of Paris. We examined medical records for the period 1997-2000 at six departmental centers for medical prevention in Val de Marne. Thirty-nine patients aged 18 years or more with M. tuberculosis-positive sputum samples, and living with children or adolescents, were identified. Ninety-one children, aged 3 months-17 years, were exposed to these index cases...
September 2002: Pediatric Pulmonology
A Vourtsi, A Gouliamos, L Moulopoulos, X Papacharalampous, A Chatjiioannou, D Kehagias, N Lamki
Cystic and cavitary lung lesions constitute a spectrum of pulmonary diseases diagnosed in both children and adults. We reviewed the CT findings of the most common cystic and cavitary lung lesions and we defined useful morphological criteria that will help radiologists to distinguish benign from malignant cavitary lesions. However, in many cases the considerable overlap in morphological features of benign and malignant cavities renders transthoracic needle biopsy necessary to establish the correct diagnosis.
2001: European Radiology
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