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Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

N Alipanah, A Cattamanchi, R Menzies, P C Hopewell, R E Chaisson, P Nahid
SETTING: Several recent trials evaluating 4-month fluoroquinolone (FQ) containing regimens found that none of the experimental regimens were non-inferior to standard 6-month therapy in treating patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). OBJECTIVE: To answer whether FQ-containing duration-shortened regimens are non-inferior to standard therapy in the treatment of patients with non-cavitary PTB. DESIGN: Systematic review of all randomized and quasi-randomized trials that substituted an FQ into standard therapy for less than 6 months' duration to treat drug-susceptible, non-cavitary PTB...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tomoshi Sugiyama, Koji Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Usami, Kohei Yokoi
We herein describe a surgical case of pulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with pulmonary infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed the occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and cavitary lesions in the right lower lobe of the lung. A further examination of the neck revealed the occlusion of aortic branches, and the patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis...
October 21, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Liqun Zhang, Yu Pang, Xia Yu, Yufeng Wang, Jie Lu, Mengqiu Gao, Hairong Huang, Yanlin Zhao
Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12...
October 12, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yukio Watanabe, Masahiko Kusumoto, Akihiko Yoshida, Kouya Shiraishi, Kenji Suzuki, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Koji Tsuta
BACKGROUND: Although cavitary lung cancers typically show thick-walled cavities on radiology, thin-walled cancers have recently been reported. However, the prognostic and pathologic differences between thin-walled and thick-walled variants are unclear. We reviewed detailed histologic features and survival outcomes of cavitary pulmonary adenocarcinomas to assess pathologic attributes, focusing particularly on cavity wall thickness. METHODS: We studied 132 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma involving cavitary formation, as determined with high-resolution computed tomography or histology, between 1998 and 2007...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ravish Kshatriya, Viral Patel, Sanjay Chaudhari, Purvesh Patel, Dhaval Prajapati, Nimit Khara, Rajiv Paliwal, Sateesh Patel
Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
D Vinay, V Ramasubramanian, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Laxman G Jessani
Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Deepti Rathee, Piyush Arora, Manoj Meena, Rohit Sarin, Pitambar Chakraborty, Anand Jaiswal, Mukesh Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen technique...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
John Kim, Byron Thomashow, Anjali Saqi
Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare form of malignancy that can present similarly to other necrotising cavitary lung diseases. We present a case of a Caucasian woman who presented with recurrent haemoptysis and a right upper lobe cavitary lesion on CT scan. She underwent selective embolisation of the right bronchial artery by interventional radiology to control her haemoptysis. Positron emission tomography/CT scan was performed which showed significant fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the right upper lobe cavitary lesion...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
K Afsal, P Selvaraj
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is a powerful immuno-modulator, which enhances expression of antimicrobial peptides and induces autophagy in monocytes/macrophages. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages, we have explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of receptors such as mannose receptor (CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) as well as autophagy genes such as ATG5 and Beclin-1 (BECN1) in monocytes/macrophages of healthy controls (HCs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with and without cavitary disease...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
Chathuranga Lakmal Fonseka, Sampath Rukshani Galappaththi, Anuradha Illagatilaka, Dulani Dasanayake, Nirmali Tissera
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. This disease usually develops in a host with an immunocompromised state. Acute pulmonary melioidosis commonly presents as a lobar consolidation with or without pulmonary nodules or abscesses involving the upper lobes of the lungs. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a young healthy female who does not have known risk factors or immunocompromised state, presented with bilateral multiple cavitary lesions involving all three zones of the lungs...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Erdoğan Çetinkaya, Mustafa Çörtük, Şule Gül, Ali Mert, Hilal Boyacı, Ertan Çam, H Erhan Dincer
Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Su Jin Hong, Tae Jung Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Jeong-Soo Park
To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy.Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arun Kumar Subbiah, Sudheer Arava, Soumita Bagchi, Karan Madan, Chandan J Das, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal
The differential diagnoses of a cavitary lung lesion in renal transplant recipients would include infection, malignancy and less commonly inflammatory diseases. Bacterial infection, Tuberculosis, Nocardiosis, fungal infections like Aspergillosis and Cryptococcosis need to be considered in these patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis usually presents 16-21 mo after transplantation, more frequently in patients who have a high level of cumulative immunosuppression. Here we discuss an interesting patient who never received any induction/anti-rejection therapy but developed both BK virus nephropathy as well as severe pulmonary Cryptococcal infection after remaining stable for 6 years after transplantation...
June 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Panibud Wongprommek, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum (H. capsulatum), a dimorphic fungus. Histoplasmosis is not endemic to Thailand. Cases of histoplasmosis are sporadic and mostly associated with HIV disease. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of histoplasmosis in Thai patients have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with histoplasmosis at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective investigation studied adult patients with histoplasmosis who attended Siriraj Hospital for treatment between 2002 and 2012 (11 years)...
March 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Atsuhisa Tamura
The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing...
January 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Leonardo Martinez, Juliet N Sekandi, Maria E Castellanos, Sarah Zalwango, Christopher C Whalen
RATIONALE: Policy recommendations on contact investigation of HIV seropositive tuberculosis patients have changed several times. Current epidemiological evidence informing these recommendations is considered low quality and few large studies investigating the infectiousness of HIV seropositive and seronegative index cases have been performed in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the infectiousness of HIV seropositive and seronegative tuberculosis patients to their household contacts and examined potential modifiers of this relationship...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nageswar Rao Gopathi, Venu Mandava, Usha Rani Namballa, Sravani Makala
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary Koch's disease is an important component of tuberculosis control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis remains a common problem. AIM: The present study is aimed to compare the results of induced sputum and bronchial washings smear in patients suspected to have sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Biswajeet Mohapatra, Poornima Sivakumar, Subhankar Bhattacharya, Santanu Dutta
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus which colonizes in the cavitary lesions in the lungs. In our part of the world, where tuberculosis is endemic, the healed tubercular cavities form a good nidus for this fungus. The fungus forms a fungal ball or aspergilloma within the cavity, which erodes the walls of the cavity and causes hemoptysis by erosion of the bronchial vessels. Hemoptysis is the main symptom. Antifungal agents are not useful against the fungal ball. Surgery in the form of lobectomy is the primary treatment...
January 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
C Coitinho, G Greif, J van Ingen, P Laserra, C Robello, C Rivas
A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen.
January 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
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