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Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909682/case-report-of-invasive-disseminated-candidiasis-with-peripheral-nodular-cavitary-lesions-in-the-lung
#1
Hafiza Arshad, Silvia Garcia, Misbahuddin Khaja
We report a case of invasive candidiasis presenting as multiple lung nodules and cavitary lesions with minimal pleural effusion. Candida infections of the lung are rare but can occur after hematologic dissemination of the yeast from other body sites, such as the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Here, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female with a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who presented with fever, productive cough, and pulmonary nodules and cavitary lesions seen on a chest computed tomography (CT)...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#2
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882275/a-case-of-an-enigmatic-pulmonary-infiltrate
#3
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Michel Chalhoub, Jean Paul Atallah
The differential diagnosis of a pulmonary mass in an immunosuppressed host with a history of cancer is broad and includes malignant, infectious and inflammatory etiologies. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a rare cause of opportunistic infection in susceptible individuals that can present as either localized or disseminated disease. On radiologic studies, the pulmonary disease can manifest as heterogeneous linear or nodular densities, a mass-like lesion, or thin-walled cavitary lesions. We present the case of pulmonary MAC in a patient with a history of lung cancer requiring lobectomy, and splenic lymphoma being treated with chemotherapy, presenting with extreme fatigue and a fludeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid mass on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)...
October 13, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872397/pulmonary-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-fish-tank-granuloma-of-the-lung
#4
Prasad Palani Velu, Susan E Fernandes, Ian F Laurenson, Donald D Noble
A 65-year-old man presented with a six-month history of lethargy, weight loss and dry cough. He had a background of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest radiograph showed new right upper lobe cavitary opacification. Sputum cultures were acid-fast bacilli smear positive and yielded Mycobacterium marinum - a non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) often found in aquatic environments and rarely associated with respiratory disease. The suspected source was silent aspiration of contaminated water, likely due to his initiating the siphon of his fish-tank by mouth...
November 2016: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867565/changes-in-cholesterol-level-correlate-with-the-course-of-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#5
Ji Young Hong, Go Eun Yang, Yousang Ko, Yong Bum Park, Yun Su Sim, Sung Hoon Park, Chang Youl Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Myung Goo Lee
BACKGROUND: Nutritional assessment is important in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. The therapeutic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet in tuberculosis (TB) patients has been demonstrated, but the role of cholesterol in PNTM disease is unclear. This study evaluated the sequential changes in nutritional markers, including cholesterol, total lymphocyte count and visceral fat volume, according to the PNTM disease course. METHODS: This was an age-, sex- and number of comorbid diseases-matched case-control analysis of 89 patients with PNTM disease and 356 controls, who were participants in a Korean national survey...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843856/induced-sputum-versus-bronchial-washings-in-the-diagnosis-of-sputum-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
Gopathi Nageswar Rao, Mandava Venu, Namballa Usha Rani, Makala Sravani
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary TB (PT) is an important component of TB control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and smear-negative PT remains a common problem. This study compares the results of induced sputum (IS) and bronchial washings (BWs) in detecting sputum negative PT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816904/aspergillus-serology-have-we-arrived-yet
#8
Malcolm D Richardson, Iain D Page
Aspergillosis presents in various clinical forms, among them chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, which is a spectrum of disease entities including aspergilloma, chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, and chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also contributes to fungal allergy and sensitization. Analysis of the immune response to Aspergillus and its antigens is an integral part of the diagnosis of these diseases. Over the past half century, the techniques used to determine antibody titers have evolved from testing for precipitating and agglutinating antibodies by agar gel double diffusion and immunolectrophoresis to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant proteins as capture antigens...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776595/treatment-of-non-cavitary-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-shortened-fluoroquinolone-based-regimens-a-meta-analysis
#9
N Alipanah, A Cattamanchi, R Menzies, P C Hopewell, R E Chaisson, P Nahid
SETTING: Several recent trials evaluating 4-month fluoroquinolone (FQ) containing regimens found that none of the experimental regimens were non-inferior to standard 6-month therapy in treating patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). OBJECTIVE: To answer whether FQ-containing duration-shortened regimens are non-inferior to standard therapy in the treatment of patients with non-cavitary PTB. DESIGN: Systematic review of all randomized and quasi-randomized trials that substituted an FQ into standard therapy for less than 6 months' duration to treat drug-susceptible, non-cavitary PTB...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770384/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-concomitant-with-a-pulmonary-artery-occlusion-caused-by-takayasu-s-arteritis
#10
Tomoshi Sugiyama, Koji Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Usami, Kohei Yokoi
We herein describe a surgical case of pulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with pulmonary infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed the occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and cavitary lesions in the right lower lobe of the lung. A further examination of the neck revealed the occlusion of aortic branches, and the patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis...
October 21, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729644/risk-factors-for-pulmonary-cavitation-in-tuberculosis-patients-from-china
#11
Liqun Zhang, Yu Pang, Xia Yu, Yufeng Wang, Jie Lu, Mengqiu Gao, Hairong Huang, Yanlin Zhao
Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12...
October 12, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663793/cavity-wall-thickness-in-solitary-cavitary-lung-adenocarcinomas-is-a-prognostic-indicator
#12
Yukio Watanabe, Masahiko Kusumoto, Akihiko Yoshida, Kouya Shiraishi, Kenji Suzuki, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Koji Tsuta
BACKGROUND: Although cavitary lung cancers typically show thick-walled cavities on radiology, thin-walled cancers have recently been reported. However, the prognostic and pathologic differences between thin-walled and thick-walled variants are unclear. We reviewed detailed histologic features and survival outcomes of cavitary pulmonary adenocarcinomas to assess pathologic attributes, focusing particularly on cavity wall thickness. METHODS: We studied 132 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma involving cavitary formation, as determined with high-resolution computed tomography or histology, between 1998 and 2007...
December 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625459/cannon-ball-appearance-on-radiology-in-a-middle-aged-diabetic-female
#13
Ravish Kshatriya, Viral Patel, Sanjay Chaudhari, Purvesh Patel, Dhaval Prajapati, Nimit Khara, Rajiv Paliwal, Sateesh Patel
Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625451/botryomycosis-in-a-lung-cavity
#14
D Vinay, V Ramasubramanian, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Laxman G Jessani
Botryomycosis is a rare pyogranulomatous disease characterized by suppurative and often granulomatous bacterial infection of the skin, soft tissues and viscera. Only about 90 cases have been reported in world literature till date: 75% of them are cases of cutaneous botryomycosis. Of the 18 reported cases of primary pulmonary botryomycosis, only one had histologically proven botryomycosis in a lung cavity. We report here a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis occurring in a lung cavity, which is to the best of our knowledge first such case from India...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625444/comparative-study-of-clinico-bacterio-radiological-profile-and-treatment-outcome-of-smokers-and-nonsmokers-suffering-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
Deepti Rathee, Piyush Arora, Manoj Meena, Rohit Sarin, Pitambar Chakraborty, Anand Jaiswal, Mukesh Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen technique...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507695/pulmonary-cavitary-lesion-and-haemoptysis-rare-aetiology-on-biopsy
#16
John Kim, Byron Thomashow, Anjali Saqi
Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare form of malignancy that can present similarly to other necrotising cavitary lung diseases. We present a case of a Caucasian woman who presented with recurrent haemoptysis and a right upper lobe cavitary lesion on CT scan. She underwent selective embolisation of the right bronchial artery by interventional radiology to control her haemoptysis. Positron emission tomography/CT scan was performed which showed significant fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the right upper lobe cavitary lesion...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468344/multiple-cavitary-pulmonary-nodules-caused-by-mycobacterium-intracellulare
#17
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449998/effect-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-expression-of-mannose-receptor-dc-sign-and-autophagy-genes-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
K Afsal, P Selvaraj
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is a powerful immuno-modulator, which enhances expression of antimicrobial peptides and induces autophagy in monocytes/macrophages. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages, we have explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of receptors such as mannose receptor (CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) as well as autophagy genes such as ATG5 and Beclin-1 (BECN1) in monocytes/macrophages of healthy controls (HCs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with and without cavitary disease...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448660/acute-pulmonary-melioidosis-presenting-with-multiple-bilateral-cavitary-lesions-in-a-healthy-young-adult-an-authentic-case-report-from-sri-lanka
#19
Chathuranga Lakmal Fonseka, Sampath Rukshani Galappaththi, Anuradha Illagatilaka, Dulani Dasanayake, Nirmali Tissera
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. This disease usually develops in a host with an immunocompromised state. Acute pulmonary melioidosis commonly presents as a lobar consolidation with or without pulmonary nodules or abscesses involving the upper lobes of the lungs. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a young healthy female who does not have known risk factors or immunocompromised state, presented with bilateral multiple cavitary lesions involving all three zones of the lungs...
2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418930/simultaneous-chronic-invasive-fungal-infection-and-tracheal-fungus-ball-mimicking-cancer-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#20
Erdoğan Çetinkaya, Mustafa Çörtük, Şule Gül, Ali Mert, Hilal Boyacı, Ertan Çam, H Erhan Dincer
Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
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