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Cavitary Pulmonary Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777923/diagnosis-and-management-of-pulmonary-infection-due-to-rhodococcus-equi
#1
REVIEW
Weijie V Lin, Robert L Kruse, Katharine Yang, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is a recognized cause of disease in humans, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. Because diphtheroids are regarded as part of normal respiratory flora, the importance of R. equi as a pulmonary pathogen may not be fully appreciated and its prevalence underestimated. Most treatment recommendations for R. equi infection were established before antiretroviral drugs became available for HIV/AIDS therapy, and therapeutic strategies may need to be updated...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724379/aspergillus-precipitating-antibody-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Shoji Suzuki, Takanori Asakura, Ho Namkoong, Satoshi Okamori, Kazuma Yagi, Hirofumi Kamata, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Yohei Funatsu, Yasushi Nakano, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Makoto Ishii, Tamotsu Ebihara, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
RATIONALE: Little is known about the role of Aspergillus precipitating antibody (APAb) in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD). OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with MAC-LD positive for APAb. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study targeting patients with MAC-LD. APAb was checked in all participants. Clinical variables included laboratory data, pulmonary function, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and health-related quality of life...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724184/high-mortality-in-patients-with-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-a-systematic-review
#3
Roland Diel, Marc Lipman, Wouter Hoefsloot
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in apparently immune-competent people is increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic review of the published literature on five-year all-cause mortality in patients with MAC lung disease, and pooled the mortality rates to give an overall estimate of five-year mortality from these studies. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature up to 1st August 2017 using PubMed® and ProQuest Dialog™ to search Medline® and Embase® databases, respectively...
May 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701371/surgical-treatment-of-complications-55-years-after-extraperiosteal-lucite-ball-plombage-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
Telma Calado, Magda Alvoeiro, Daniel Cabral, Mariana Antunes, Francisco Félix
INTRODUCTION: In the 1930-50s, before the introduction of antimicrobial drugs and development of techniques of pulmonary resssection, collapse therapy was the mainstream of treatment for cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. The methods to achieve the collapse included artificial pneumothorax with air refills, phrenic nerve crush, thoracoplasty and extrapleural plombage. The plombage involves creating a cavity surgically under the ribs in the upper chest wall and filling the space with inert material, such fat, paraffin wax, rubber ballons, oil and methyl-methacrylate (Lucite) balls...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690841/-cavitary-pulmonary-disease-differential-diagnosis-and-diagnosic-work-up
#5
Lilly Meyer, Andrea Schück, Urs Bürgi, Lars C Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665948/preclinical-tools-for-the-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-treatment-regimens-for-children
#6
E W Tucker, K E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens have been extrapolated from adults to children. However, pediatric disease merits different treatment strategies to avoid under- or over-treatment. While animal models have been pivotal in identifying effective regimens for adult disease, pediatric TB is heterogeneous and cannot be represented by a single preclinical model. Infants and young children most commonly have disseminated disease or tuberculous meningitis (TBM), school-aged children have paucibacillary disease, and adolescents have adult-like cavitary lung disease...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630082/pulmonary-hydatid-disease-with-aspergillosis-an-unusual-association-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#7
Rahul Chanderhas Goyal, Ruchita Tyagi, Bhavna Garg, Atul Mishra, Neena Sood
Echinococcosis is a common cause of pulmonary cavities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic fungus, can colonise pulmonary cavities caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, echinococcosis, bronchiectasis and neoplasms. Infection by Aspergillus is often seen in immunosuppressed cases. However, co-infection of Aspergillus with pulmonary echinococcosis is unexpected and very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient. We present the case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent male who came with non-resolving pneumonia and fever for 8 months and dyspnoea since 15 days accompanied by recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since 5 days...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618565/pharmacokinetics-of-rifapentine-and-rifampin-in-a-rabbit-model-of-tuberculosis-and-correlation-with-clinical-trial-data
#8
Dalin Rifat, Brendan Prideaux, Radojka M Savic, Michael E Urbanowski, Teresa L Parsons, Brian Luna, Mark A Marzinke, Alvaro A Ordonez, Vincent P DeMarco, Sanjay K Jain, Veronique Dartois, William R Bishai, Kelly E Dooley
In clinical trials of two rifamycin antibiotics (rifampin and rifapentine) for treating tuberculosis (TB), patients with cavitary lung lesions did not appear to derive benefit from rifapentine. Rifapentine was found not to outperform rifampin, despite a lower minimum inhibitory concentration against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse models of TB. To understand these findings, we have developed a rabbit model of TB that reliably develops lung cavities with features similar to those of patients with pulmonary cavitary TB...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607955/successful-long-term-management-of-two-cases-of-moderate-hemoptysis-due-to-chronic-cavitary-pulmonary-aspergillosis-with-bronchial-occlusion-using-silicone-spigots
#9
Naohiro Oda, Makoto Sakugawa, Shinobu Hosokawa, Nobuaki Fukamatsu, Akihiro Bessho
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a major cause of life-threatening hemoptysis. In symptomatic patients with simple aspergillomas, surgery is the main therapeutic method for preventing or treating life-threatening hemoptysis. However, the risks of both death and complications are higher in chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis than in simple aspergilloma. We herein report two patients with persistent moderate hemoptysis due to chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis who were not indicated for surgery, but were able to undergo successful long-term management with bronchial occlusion using silicone spigots...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559998/the-infection-returns-a-case-of-pulmonary-sporotrichosis-relapse-after-chemotherapy
#10
Samid M Farooqui, Houssein Youness
Background: Pulmonary sporotrichosis is a rare disease caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii . It is rarely found in association with malignancy. We present a case of pulmonary sporotrichosis recurrence after chemotherapy. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old man, treated for pulmonary sporotrichosis in the past, presented with dysphagia and was found to have squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. After undergoing chemotherapy, extensive cavitary lesions were observed on thoracic computed tomography scan...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559307/cough-frequency-during-treatment-associated-with-baseline-cavitary-volume-and-proximity-to-the-airway-in-pulmonary-tb
#11
Alvaro Proaño, David P Bui, José W López, Nancy M Vu, Marjory A Bravard, Gwenyth O Lee, Brian H Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J Mollura, Jon S Friedland, David A J Moore, Carlton A Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H Gilman
BACKGROUND: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings without the need of laboratory culture and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiologic characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has not been studied. METHODS: We analyzed data in 41 adults who were HIV negative and had culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB throughout treatment...
March 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547956/chronic-pulmonary-blastomycosis-mimicking-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#12
Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540054/the-effect-of-metformin-on-culture-conversion-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Ye-Jin Lee, Sung Koo Han, Ju Hee Park, Jung Kyu Lee, Deog Keom Kim, Hee Soon Chung, Eun Young Heo
Background/Aims: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) have increased morbidity and a high risk of treatment failure or recurrence. It is important to manage both diseases simultaneously. Among anti-diabetic drugs, metformin inhibits intracellular growth of mycobacteria. Therefore, we examined the effects of metformin on TB treatment, especially in patients with DM. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB diagnosed between 2011 and 2012...
March 16, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518379/cavitary-lung-diseases-a-clinical-radiologic-algorithmic-approach
#14
REVIEW
Khalid Gafoor, Shalin Patel, Francis Girvin, Nishant Gupta, David Naidich, Stephen Machnicki, Kevin K Brown, Atul Mehta, Bryan Husta, Jay H Ryu, George A Sarosi, Tomás Franquet, Johny Verschakelen, Takeshi Johkoh, William Travis, Suhail Raoof
Cavities occasionally are encountered on thoracic images. Their differential diagnosis is large and includes, among others, various infections, autoimmune conditions, and primary and metastatic malignancies. We offer an algorithmic approach to their evaluation by initially excluding mimics of cavities and then broadly classifying them according to the duration of clinical symptoms and radiographic abnormalities. An acute or subacute process (< 12 weeks) suggests common bacterial and uncommon nocardial and fungal causes of pulmonary abscesses, necrotizing pneumonias, and septic emboli...
March 6, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492932/spontaneous-pneumothorax-secondary-to-tuberculosis
#15
Hamida Kwas, Ines Zendah, Habib Ghedira
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a frequent complication of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and a severe form of the disease. In spite of the fact that TB is a common cause of pneumothorax, a very few series, have been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the experience of SP secondary to TB in patients who were hospitalized in our department between 2005 and 2015. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38,5±19 years. Two patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis...
April 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472922/efficacy-of-t-regulatory-cells-th17-cells-and-the-associated-markers-in-monitoring-tuberculosis-treatment-response
#16
Sonali Agrawal, Om Parkash, Alangudi Natarajan Palaniappan, Ashok Kumar Bhatia, Santosh Kumar, Devendra Singh Chauhan, M Madhan Kumar
Treatment monitoring is an essential aspect for tuberculosis (TB) disease management. Sputum smear microscopy is the only available tool for monitoring, but it suffers from demerits. Therefore, we sought to evaluate markers and cellular subsets of T regulatory (Treg) cells and T helper (Th) 17 cells in pulmonary TB patients (PTB) for TB treatment monitoring. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro (with purified protein derivative (PPD)) overnight which was followed by a polychromatic flow cytometry approach to study Treg and Th17 markers and cellular subsets in PTB ( n  = 12) undergoing antituberculous treatment (ATT)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464177/tb-or-not-tb-mycobacterium-celatum-mimicking-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-case-of-mistaken-identity
#17
Michael Chavarria, Larry Lutwick, Bonny L Dickinson
Mycobacterium celatum is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and a rare cause of infection in humans. Infection occurs primarily by inhalation or direct inoculation from environmental sources, and this pathogen has been reported to cause localized infections in the lungs and lymph nodes of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a case of pulmonary infection with M. celatum in an immunocompetent 68-year-old male with clinical features similar to tuberculosis...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429215/-a-clinican-linical-analysis-of-29-cases-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409693/pulmonary-mycobacterium-heckeshornense-infection-in-a-healthy-woman
#19
Fumio Kurosaki, Taichiro Yoshimoto, Masayuki Nakayama, Masashi Bando, Koichi Hagiwara
Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium heckeshornense (M. heckeshornense) in healthy adults without underlying diseases is very rare and optimal treatments have not yet been established. A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examinations following the identification of a pulmonary cavitary nodule. Acid-fast bacilli were cultured from specimens obtained by bronchofiberscopy, and identified with M. heckeshornense using nucleotide sequencing. Antimycobacterial chemotherapy was effective temporarily, while the nodular lesion subsequently worsened...
June 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379307/performance-of-computed-tomography-versus-chest-radiography-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-and-without-diabetes-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#20
Yosra M Alkabab, Mushira A Enani, Nouf Y Indarkiri, Scott K Heysell
Background: Prior research suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increasing risk for developing cavitary lung disease in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Additionally, chest computed tomography (CT) scan may be more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting cavitary disease in such patients. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of chest CT to chest X-ray in detecting cavitary lung disease and to compare the frequency of cavities between TB patients with DM and without DM...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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