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Anabolic androgen steroid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670477/prevalence-attitude-knowledge-and-practice-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-aas-use-among-gym-participants
#1
Sami D Althobiti, Nassar M Alqurashi, Abdulmajeed S Alotaibi, Turki F Alharthi, Khaled A Alswat
Background: Anabolic steroids (AS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives that last longer than physiological androgens in the body. Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is spreading among athletes. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of gym participants in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among gym users from February 2017 to May 2017. The questionnaire included information on demographics related to the use of AAS and lifestyle habits...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660668/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-applied-to-the-highly-selective-isolation-of-urinary-steroid-hormones-prior-to-gc-ms-analysis
#2
Mickael Doué, Caroline West, Emmanuelle Bichon, Bruno Le Bizec, Eric Lesellier
To assess the presence of prohibited anabolic substances used to promote growth in livestock, calf urine is the most relevant matrix. However, the sample preparation methods (required to remove unwanted matrix components and fractionate isobaric species that may be unresolved by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry GC/MS) are long and complex. In this context, semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was considered to possibly simplify the sample preparation in reducing the number of procedures...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657200/complementary-bodybuilding-a-potential-risk-for-permanent-kidney-disease
#3
Wael El-Reshaid, Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Ahmad Ramadan, John Patrick Madda
We report our experience of renal disease associated with bodybuilders who had been on high-protein diet, anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), and growth hormone (GH) for years. A total of 22 adult males who volunteered information about use of high protein diet and AAS or GH were seen over a six-year period with renal disease. Kidney biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in eight, nephroangiosclerosis in four, chronic interstitial nephritis in three, acute interstitial nephritis in two, nephrocalcinosis with chronic interstitial nephritis in two, and single patients with membranous glomerulopathy, crescentic glomerulopathy, and sclerosing glomerulonephritis...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651261/defining-the-construct-of-synthetic-androgen-intoxication-an-application-of-general-brain-arousal
#4
Tom Hildebrandt, Ashley Heywood, Daniel Wesley, Kurt Schulz
Synthetic androgens (i. e., anabolic-androgenic steroids) are the primary component to the majority of problematic appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use. Despite evidence that these substances are associated with increased risk for aggression, violence, body image disturbances, and polypharmacy and can develop a pattern of chronic use consistent with drug dependence, there are no formal definitions of androgen intoxication. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to establish a testable theory of androgen intoxication...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621580/use-of-nutritional-supplements-contaminated-with-banned-doping-substances-by-recreational-adolescent-athletes-in-athens-greece
#5
Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Nassia Kioukia-Fougia, Petros Papalexis, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Flora Bacopoulou, Christina Tsitsimpikou
Although the use of nutritional supplements by adult athletes has been extensively studied, information on supplements consumption by adolescent athletes is still limited. The present study reports on the use of nutritional supplements contaminated with banned doping substances among 170 recreational adolescent athletes from eleven, randomly selected, gym centres, in Athens, Greece. Nutritional supplements consumption was reported by almost 60% of the study population, with proteins/amino acids and vitamins being the most popular...
April 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618151/procoagulant-state-in-current-and-former-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-abusers
#6
Simon Chang, Jon J Rasmussen, Mikkel N Frandsen, Morten Schou, Marie L Johansen, Jens Faber, Anna-Marie B Münster, Johannes J Sidelmann, Caroline Kistorp
BACKGROUND:  Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abusers are considered at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that current and former AAS abuse would induce a procoagulant shift in the haemostatic balance. METHODS:  Men 18 to 50 years of age were included as current AAS abusers, former AAS abusers or controls. Morning blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Thrombin generation (lag time, time to peak, peak height, and endogenous thrombin potential [ETP]) and coagulation factor II (prothrombin), VII and X, antithrombin, protein C, free protein S and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were assessed...
April 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601260/sensitive-enzyme-immunoassay-for-screening-methandienone-in-dietary-supplements
#7
Sandra Sýkorová, Lucie Fojtíková, Martin Kuchař, Petra Mikšátková, Ludmila Karamonová, Ladislav Fukal, Oldřich Lapčík, Barbora Holubová
Methandienone is a synthetic exogenous steroid which, like other anabolic steroids, is strictly regulated in many countries. In recent years, increasing numbers have been detected of illegal additions into dietary supplements of methandienone and other anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). In this work, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been constructed for the detection of methandienone using an antiserum against methandienone. Under optimal experimental conditions, the ELISA achieved a limit of detection of 0...
March 30, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570240/unambiguous-identification-and-characterization-of-a-long-term-human-metabolite-of-dehydrochloromethyltestosterone
#8
Guro Forsdahl, Thomas Geisendorfer, Lorenz Göschl, Sandra Pfeffer, Peter Gärtner, Mario Thevis, Günter Gmeiner
In doping control analysis, the characterization of urinary steroid metabolites is of high interest for a targeted and long-term detection of prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). In this work, the structure of a long-term metabolite of dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (DHCMT) was elucidated. Altogether, eight possible metabolites with a 17α-methyl-17β-hydroxymethyl - structure were synthesized and compared to a major DHCMT long-term metabolite detected in reference urine excretion samples. The confirmed structure of the metabolite was 4α-chloro-18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-5α-androst-13-en-3α-ol...
March 23, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560159/prevalence-and-awareness-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-among-gymnasts-in-the-western-province-of-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#9
Khaled Abdullah Al Bishi, Ayman Afify
Background: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone (testosterone) that are increasingly used by athletes as performance enhancing drugs to increase muscle mass and strength. Multiple health adverse effects may be caused by its non-medical use. Several international and regional studies showed the high prevalence of AAS usage and low level of awareness of it among different populations. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of AAS and to determine the level of awareness toward it among gymnasts in the western province of Riyadh...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548567/metabolic-study-of-methylstenbolone-in-horses-using-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#10
Timmy L S Choi, Jenny K Y Wong, Wai Him Kwok, Peter Curl, Stewart Mechie, Terence S M Wan
Methylstenbolone (2,17α-dimethyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one) is a synthetic anabolic and androgenic steroid (AAS) sold as an oral 'nutritional supplement' under the brand names 'Ultradrol', 'M-Sten' and 'Methyl-Sten'. Like other AASs, methylstenbolone is a prohibited substance in both human and equine sports. This paper describes the studies of the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of methylstenbolone in horses using LC/HRMS, GC/MS and GC/MS/MS. Phase I in vitro metabolic study of methylstenbolone was performed using homogenised horse liver...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544993/combined-chemical-and-biotechnological-production-of-20%C3%AE-oh-nordhcmt-a-long-term-metabolite-of-oral-turinabol-dhcmt
#11
Jiaxin Liu, Lei Chen, Jan Felix Joseph, Alexandra Naß, Anna Stoll, Xavier de la Torre, Francesco Botrè, Gerhard Wolber, Maria Kristina Parr, Matthias Bureik
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are misused very frequently in sport competitions as performance enhancing agents. One of the doping compounds that has been detected with increased frequency in the last few years is dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (DHCMT, 4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one; brand name Oral Turinabol). The long-term DHCMT metabolite 20βOH-NorDHCMT (4-chloro-17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-norandrosta-1,4,13-trien-3-one) was reported earlier to be detectable in urine samples for more than 22 days after DHCMT administration; however, purified reference material was not available so far...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542171/psychosocial-correlates-of-gap-time-to-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use
#12
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525360/identifying-a-typology-of-men-who-use-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas
#13
Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Geoff Bates, Vivian Hope, Joseph Kean, John Campbell, Josie Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition that the Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) using population is diverse, empirical studies to develop theories to conceptualise this variance in use have been limited. METHODS: In this study, using cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression, we identify typologies of people who use AAS and examine variations in motivations for AAS use across types in a sample of 611 men who use AAS. RESULTS: The cluster analysis identified four groups in the data with different risk profiles...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518637/-blood-letting-self-phlebotomy-in-injecting-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-within-performance-and-image-enhancing-drug-pied-culture
#14
Rebekah Brennan, John Wells, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: New evidence with regard to a previously undocumented practice - self phlebotomy, known as 'bloodletting' - incontemporary injecting performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) culture is the subject of this paper. While self phlebotomy has been evidenced in psychiatric patients previously, it was performed here in people who inject AAS as a self directed health care procedure. METHODS: Data was collected from five publicly accessible internet discussion forums and coded using NVivo software...
March 5, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514442/effects-of-nandrolone-decanoate-on-expression-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-in-the-rat-testis
#15
TaeSun Min, Ki-Ho Lee
Objective: Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is an anabolic-androgenic steroid frequently used for clinical treatment. However, the inappropriate use of ND results in the reduction of serum testosterone level and sperm production. The suppressive effect of ND on testosterone production has not been investigated in detail. The present study was designed to examine the effect of ND on the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the rat testis. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats at 50 days of age were subcutaneously administrated with either 2 or 10 mg of ND/kg body weight/week for 2 or 12 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490719/associations-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-with-other-behavioral-disorders-an-analysis-using-directed-acyclic-graphs
#16
Gen Kanayama, Harrison G Pope, James I Hudson
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is known to be associated with other psychiatric disorders, such as body image disorders, conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other substance use disorders (SUD) - but the causal pathways among these conditions remain poorly delineated. METHODS: We created a directed acyclic graph to diagram hypothesized relationships among AAS use and dependence, body image disorder (BID), conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other SUD...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487480/modulation-of-tryptophan-and-serotonin-metabolism-as-a-biochemical-basis-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-androgenic-anabolic-steroids-and-other-image-and-performance-enhancing-agents
#17
Abdulla A-B Badawy
Modulation of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism may underpin the behavioral effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and associated image and performance enhancers. Euphoria, arousal, and decreased anxiety observed with moderate use and exercise may involve enhanced cerebral serotonin synthesis and function by increased release of albumin-bound Trp and estrogen-mediated liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition and enhancement of serotonin function. Aggression, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and psychosis, observed on withdrawal of AAS or with use of large doses, can be caused by decreased serotonin synthesis due to TDO induction on withdrawal, excess Trp inhibiting the 2 enzymes of serotonin synthesis, and increased cerebral levels of neuroactive kynurenines...
2018: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484740/physical-appearance-concerns-are-uniquely-associated-with-the-severity-of-steroid-dependence-and-depression-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#18
Scott Griffiths, Brendan Jacka, Louisa Degenhardt, Stuart B Murray, Briony Larance
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Emerging research suggests that the sub-population of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users who experience physical appearance concerns may suffer greater psychological dysfunction than other sub-populations, including users with athletic or occupational concerns. Thus, among current AAS users, we sought to determine whether, and to what extent, social physique anxiety-an established measure of appearance concern-was associated with psychological dysfunction. DESIGN AND METHODS: Interviews were conducted with a sample of 74 male AAS users living in Australia...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477956/an-un-desirable-trade-of-harms-how-elite-athletes-might-react-to-medically-supervised-doping-and-their-considerations-of-side-effects-in-this-situation
#19
Marie Overbye
BACKGROUND: The zero-tolerance approach to doping in sport has long been criticised. Legalising 'doping' under medical supervision has been proposed as a better way of protecting both athletes' health and fair competition. This paper investigates how elite athletes might react if specific doping substances were permitted under medical supervision and explore athletes' considerations about side-effects in this situation. The results are interpreted using a framework, which views elite sport as an exceptional and risky working environment...
February 22, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477345/effects-of-stanozolol-on-apoptosis-mechanisms-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-cardiac-tissue
#20
Mehtap Kara, Eren Ozcagli, Tuğba Kotil, Buket Alpertunga
Stanozolol is a widely used 17α-alkylated anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) derivative. Despite stanozolol's adverse effects, its effect on oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial apoptosis pathway is not clearly defined. In our study, thirty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups as control (C), vehicle control (VC), steroid (ST), vehicle control-exercise (VCE), and steroid-exercise (STE). Animals were subcutaneously administered stanozolol 5 mg/kg in steroid groups and propylene glycol 1 ml/kg in the vehicle-control groups...
February 22, 2018: Steroids
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