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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651171/the-relevance-of-inter-and-intrastrain-differences-in-mice-and-rats-and-their-implications-for-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Wolfgang Löscher, Russell J Ferland, Thomas N Ferraro
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic background of mice and rats, even in inbred strains, can have a profound influence on measures of seizure susceptibility and epilepsy. These differences can be capitalized upon through genetic mapping studies to reveal genes important for seizures and epilepsy. However, strain background and particularly mixed genetic backgrounds of transgenic animals need careful consideration in both the selection of strains and in the interpretation of results and conclusions...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651170/an-analysis-of-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns
#2
Andrew C Vivas, Christian J Reitano, Hena Waseem, Selim R Benbadis, Fernando L Vale
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) may suffer from comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of epilepsy and depression is established, however the impact on PNES is unknown. Since many patients with PNES have comorbid depression, we explored the impact on quality of life (QOL) that VNS has on PWE and PNES. METHODS: The video electroencephalogram (vEEG) of all patients who underwent VNS at our institution was reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651124/a-review-of-people-who-did-not-attend-an-epilepsy-clinic-and-their-clinical-outcomes
#3
I Minshall, A Neligan
PURPOSE: To review the clinical outcomes of people who failed to attend or failed subsequent follow up in a Primary Care based specialist epilepsy service. METHOD: The case notes of 200 people who had failed to initially attend the service or subsequent follow up from 2005 to 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes were determined for 152 people, with the remaining 48 having left the area. For those not attending at all, 64% had no further recorded events, a further 22% came under alternative specialist care and were managed appropriately, 6% were already in remission at the time of referral or at follow up and stayed seizure free...
June 17, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649495/non-hyperammonaemic-valproate-encephalopathy-after-20%C3%A2-years-of-treatment
#4
Elizabeth Caruana Galizia, Jeremy D Isaacs, Hannah R Cock
Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiseizure drug with broad indications for different seizuretypes and epilepsy syndromes. Well-recognised side effects include weight gain, tremor, dizziness, and unsteadiness. Non-hyperammonaemic parkinsonism, with or without cognitive impairment, is a rare adverse effect of sodium valproate. We present the case of a sixty year-old lady with a generalized seizure disorder, treated with phenytoin, valproate, lamotrigine and clonazepam. Following withdrawal of phenytoin she developed an akinetic-rigid syndrome, with ataxia and marked cognitive impairment...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649286/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-epileptic-encephalopathy-common-causes-many-questions
#5
REVIEW
Siddharth Srivastava, Mustafa Sahin
Epileptic encephalopathies represent a particularly severe form of epilepsy, associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, including impaired social-communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors that are the hallmarks of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of epileptic encephalopathies is growing and demonstrates overlap with genes separately implicated in ASD. However, many questions remain about this connection, including whether epileptiform activity itself contributes to the development of ASD symptomatology...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649016/epileptic-seizure-detection-based-on-imbalanced-classification-and-wavelet-packet-transform
#6
Qi Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Liren Zhang, Fan Zhang, Fangzhou Xu, Yan Leng, Dongmei Wei, Meina Chen
PURPOSE: Automatic seizure detection is significant for the diagnosis of epilepsy and the reduction of massive workload for reviewing continuous EEG recordings. METHODS: Compared with the long non-seizure periods, the durations of the seizure events are much shorter in the continuous EEG recordings. So the seizure detection task can be regarded as an imbalanced classification problem. In this paper, a novel method based on the weighted extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed for seizure detection with imbalanced EEG data distribution...
June 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648954/fosphenytoin-induced-purple-glove-syndrome-a-case-report
#7
Joseph W Newman, Joseph R Blunck, Ronald K Fields, John E Croom
BACKGROUND: Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a poorly understood severe adverse drug reaction that is typically associated with intravenous phenytoin administration. Although fosphenytoin is thought to circumvent this risk of PGS, we reveal a rare case of PGS in a patient treated with fosphenytoin therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 71-year-old male with history of epilepsy was admitted for seizures and traumatic brain injury and intravenous fosphenytoin and levetiracetam were initiated...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648501/depolarized-gabaergic-signaling-in-subicular-microcircuits-mediates-generalized-seizure-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Yi Wang, Cenglin Xu, Zhenghao Xu, Caihong Ji, Jiao Liang, Ying Wang, Bin Chen, Xiaohua Wu, Feng Gao, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiaoming Li, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Secondary generalized seizure (sGS) is a major source of disability in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unclear cellular/circuit mechanisms. Here we found that clinical TLE patients with sGS showed reduced volume specifically in the subiculum compared with those without sGS. Further, using optogenetics and extracellular electrophysiological recording in mouse models, we found that photoactivation of subicular GABAergic neurons retarded sGS acquisition by inhibiting the firing of pyramidal neurons. Once sGS had been stably acquired, photoactivation of GABAergic neurons aggravated sGS expression via depolarized GABAergic signaling...
June 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648375/classifications-of-seizures-and-epilepsies-where-are-we-a-brief-historical-review-and-update
#9
REVIEW
Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Chun Yin William Leung, Chi Chung Alvin Ho, Ada Yung
In March 2017, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) announced their new classifications of seizures and epilepsies. Development of these classification systems led by the ILAE is a long and complicated process. Outsiders may find it difficult to understand the arguments behind. We summarize the major developmental milestones of the ILAE classification schemata. An update of the latest classification is also included. It is hope that this review can serve as an outline in learning the taxonomy in epileptology...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646797/the-experience-of-living-with-adult-onset-epilepsy
#10
Stephanie Kılınç, Anna van Wersch, Carol Campbell, Alison Guy
The incidence and prevalence of adults diagnosed with epilepsy is higher compared to those diagnosed in childhood, yet the experience of living with adult-onset epilepsy has rarely been examined. Hence, the current study took a phenomenological approach to examining the experience of living with epilepsy following diagnosis in adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 people from across the UK, diagnosed with epilepsy between the ages of eighteen and sixty, at two points in time, six months apart...
June 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646743/analysis-of-ictal-magnetoencephalography-using-gradient-magnetic-field-topography-gmft-in-patients-with-neocortical-epilepsy
#11
Hiroshi Shirozu, Akira Hashizume, Hiroshi Masuda, Yosuke Ito, Yoko Nakayama, Takefumi Higashijima, Masafumi Fukuda, Shigeki Kameyama
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate the usefulness of gradient magnetic-field topography (GMFT) for analysis of ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) in patients with neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: We identified 13 patients presenting with an ictal event during preoperative MEG. We applied equivalent current dipole (ECD) estimation and GMFT to detect and localize the ictal MEG onset, and compared these methods with the ictal onset zone (IOZ) derived from chronic intracranial electroencephalography...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645087/ep2-receptor-agonist-ono-ae1-259-01-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-and-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-but-causes-hippocampal-neurotoxicity
#13
Aline Carré Santos, Fernanda Rossatto Temp, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Amanda Titzel Hessel, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Lígia Gomes Miyazato, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Carlos Fernando Mello
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disease affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggests that inflammatory pathways contribute to the development of seizures in various forms of epilepsy. In this context, while the activation of the PGE2 EP2 receptor causes early neuroprotective and late neurotoxic effects, the role of EP2 receptor in seizures remains unclear. We investigated whether the systemic administration of the highly selective EP2 agonist ONO-AE1-259-01 prevented acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and pilocarpine-induced seizures...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644984/current-practice-and-recommendations-in-uk-epilepsy-monitoring-units-report-of-a-national-survey-and-workshop
#14
Khalid Hamandi, Sandor Beniczky, Beate Diehl, Rosalind H Kandler, Ronit M Pressler, Arjune Sen, Juliet Solomon, Matthew C Walker, Manny Bagary
PURPOSE: Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. METHOD: In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE...
June 15, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644979/intraoperative-fast-ripples-independently-predict-postsurgical-epilepsy-outcome-comparison-with-other-electrocorticographic-phenomena
#15
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Phoebe Hung, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
In the surgical management of epilepsy, the resection of cortex exhibiting interictal fast ripples (250-500Hz) on electrocorticography has been linked to postoperative seizure-freedom. Although fast ripples appear to accurately identify the epileptogenic zone-the minimum tissue that must be removed at surgery to achieve seizure-freedom-it has not been established that fast ripples are a superior biomarker in comparison with multimodal presurgical neuroimaging and other electrocorticography abnormalities. Hence, in the prediction of postoperative seizure-freedom, we compared the value of fast ripples with other intraoperative electocorticography abnormalities including focal slowing, paroxysmal fast activity, intermittent spike discharges, continuous epileptiform discharges, focal attenuation, and intraoperative seizures, as well as complete resection of the lesion defined by MRI and other neuroimaging...
June 16, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#16
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644202/the-insula-in-temporal-plus-epilepsy
#17
Carmen Barba, Lorella Minotti, Anne-Sophie Job, Philippe Kahane
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery is the most common type of surgical treatment offered to patients with drug-resistant focal seizures. However, the proportion of patients experiencing long-term freedom from seizures after TLE surgery remains suboptimal. Temporal plus epilepsy, which is characterized by a primary temporal epileptogenic zone extending to neighboring regions, has been demonstrated to be a major predictor of TLE surgery failures. In the context of the temporoperisylvian epilepsies, i.e., the most common type of temporal plus epilepsy, a possible role of the insula has often been hypothesized...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644201/insular-epilepsy-semiology-and-noninvasive-investigations
#18
Sami Obaid, Younes Zerouali, Dang Khoa Nguyen
In this review, authors discuss the semiology and noninvasive investigations of insular epilepsy, an underrecognized type of epilepsy, which may mimic other focal epilepsies. In line with the various functions of the insula and its widespread network of connections, insular epilepsy may feature a variety of early ictal manifestations from somatosensory, visceral, olfactory, gustatory, or vestibular manifestations. Depending on propagation pathways, insular seizures may also include altered consciousness, dystonic posturing, complex motor behaviors, and even autonomic features...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644200/electrical-stimulations-of-the-human-insula-their-contribution-to-the-ictal-semiology-of-insular-seizures
#19
Laure Mazzola, François Mauguière, Jean Isnard
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic stimulations of the insular cortex through intracranial electrodes aim at characterizing the semiology of insular seizures. These stimulations, carried out in the context of Stereo-Electro-Encephalography (SEEG) during presurgical monitoring of epilepsy, reproduce the ictal symptoms observed during the development of insular seizures. METHODS: The authors reviewed the results of insular stimulations performed in 222 patients admitted between 1997 and 2015 for presurgical SEEG exploration of atypical temporal or perisylvian epilepsy...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644097/thirty-day-postoperative-morbidity-and-mortality-after-temporal-lobectomy-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#20
Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Brandon McCutcheon, Meghan E Murphy, Kenan R Rajjoub, Daniel Ubl, Elizabeth B Habermann, Gregory Worrell, Mohamad Bydon, Jamie J Van Gompel
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobectomy is a well-established treatment modality for the management of medically refractory epilepsy in appropriately selected patients. The aim of this study was to assess 30-day morbidity and mortality after temporal lobectomy in cases registered in a national database. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using a multiinstitutional surgical registry compiled between 2006 and 2014. The authors identified patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and/or amygdalohippocampectomy for a primary diagnosis of intractable epilepsy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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