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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334039/refractory-epilepsy-the-role-of-positron-emission-tomography
#1
Tommy L H Chan, Jonathan Romsa, David A Steven, Jorge G Burneo
RATIONALE: Presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus is critical to successful surgery. Traditionally, localization of the epileptogenic focus depends on seizure semiology, scalp video-electroencephalography (vEEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological assessment, and, when needed, intracranial EEG (iEEG). We aimed to explore the role of positron emission tomography (PET) in the presurgical evaluation of patients with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on patients from London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) with refractory epilepsy who underwent PET from September of 2011 to April of 2016...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331847/longitudinal-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-microstructural-and-macrostructural-changes-following-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#2
Cameron A Elliott, Donald W Gross, B Matt Wheatley, Christian Beaulieu, Tejas Sankar
OBJECTIVES: 1) Characterize the evolution of microstructural changes in the contralateral, non-operated hippocampus-using longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). 2) Characterize the downstream extra-hippocampal volumetric changes of the fornix and mammillary bodies after TLE surgery. 3) Examine the relationship between these measures and seizure/cognitive outcome. METHODS: Serial structural and DTI brain MRI scans were collected in 25 TLE patients pre- and post-surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy, ATL - 13; selective amygdalohippocampectomy, SelAH - 12) and in 12 healthy controls...
January 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331789/anticonvulsant-activities-of-%C3%AE-asaronol-e-3-hydroxyasarone-an-active-constituent-derived-from-%C3%AE-asarone
#4
Xirui He, Yajun Bai, Min Zeng, Zefeng Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Ning Xu, Fanggang Qin, Xiaoyang Wei, Meimei Zhao, Ni Wu, Zehua Li, Yajun Zhang, Tai-Ping Fan, Xiaohui Zheng
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of chronic neurological disorders that affects 0.5-1.0% of the world's population during their lifetime. There is a still significant need to develop novel anticonvulsant drugs that possess superior efficacy, broad spectrum of activities and good safety profile. METHODS: α-Asaronol and two current antiseizure drugs (α-asarone and carbamazepine (CBZ)) were assessed by in vivo anticonvulsant screening with the three most employed standard animal seizure models, including maximal electroshock seizure (MES), subcutaneous injection-pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP)-induced seizures in mice...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331765/5-6-dihydropyrimidine-1-2h-carbothioamides-synthesis-in-vitro-gaba-at-screening-anticonvulsant-activity-and-molecular-modelling-study
#5
Meeta Sahu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Vidushi Sharma, Sharad Wakode
Even after considerable advances in the field of epilepsy treatment, convulsions are inefficiently controlled by standard drug therapy. Herein, a series of pyrimidine-carbothioamide derivatives 4(a-t) was designed as anticonvulsant agents by doing some important structural modifications in well-known anticonvulsant drugs. Two classical animal models were used for the in vivo anticonvulsant screening, maximum electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) models; followed by motor impairment study by rotarod method...
January 2, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331203/have-we-forgotten-about-forgetting-a-critical-review-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Anneli Cassel, Michael D Kopelman
Forgetting has been researched for over a century. This literature highlighted how forgetting rates can vary dependent on factors in the design and method. Recent interest in forgetting revived with evidence suggesting that seizures experienced almost immediately after matched learning could accelerate forgetting. This was followed by a growth in forgetting studies in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), including a subset of those with transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). These patients have been described as expressing concerns about memory, yet often perform within 'normal' ranges on standard neuropsychological memory assessments...
December 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331082/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-2-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Delia M Talos, Leah M Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, as both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment. METHODS: Surgically resected hippocampal and temporal lobe samples from therapy-resistant TLE patients were analyzed by Western blotting to quantify the expression of established mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity markers and upstream or downstream signaling pathways involving the two complexes...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329111/severe-peri-ictal-respiratory-dysfunction-is-common-in-dravet-syndrome
#8
YuJaung Kim, Eduardo Bravo, Caitlin K Thirnbeck, Lori A Smith-Mellecker, Se Hee Kim, Brian K Gehlbach, Linda C Laux, Douglas R Nordli Jr, George B Richerson
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe childhood-onset epilepsy commonly due to mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN1A. DS patients have a high risk of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP), believed to be due to cardiac mechanisms. Here we show that DS patients have peri-ictal respiratory dysfunction. One patient who had severe and prolonged postictal hypoventilation later died of SUDEP. Mice with an Scn1aR1407X/+ loss of function mutation died after spontaneous and heat-induced seizures due to central apnea followed by progressive bradycardia...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#9
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329017/amiodarone-a-multi-channel-blocker-enhances-anticonvulsive-effect-of-carbamazepine-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#10
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
Cardiac arrhythmia may occur in the course of epilepsy. Simultaneous therapy of the two diseases might be complicated by drug interactions since antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic agents share some molecular targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug working as a multi-channel blocker, on the protective activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Amiodarone at doses up to 75 mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold in mice...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327519/psychiatric-co-morbidities-in-women-with-epilepsy
#11
Uma Sundar, Sonal Thakur Honrao, Nilesh Shah
Background: The co-existence of psychiatric co-morbidities with Epilepsy in women is multifactorial and complex, being closely related to hormonal status, medication side effects, and psychosocial factors. Aims: We aimed to study associated Psychiatric co-morbidities in women with Epilepsy (WWE), and correlate the same with seizure subtype and medication , compliance with treatment and seizure control. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, interview based study in OPD over 18 months, evaluating WWE over 13 years of age with at least 1 seizure in the last 1 year...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327348/respiratory-dysfunction-progresses-with-age-in-kcna1-null-mice-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#12
Kristina A Simeone, Jodi Hallgren, Charles S Bockman, Ankita Aggarwal, Vikash Kansal, Lauren Netzel, Shruthi H Iyer, Stephanie A Matthews, Malavika Deodhar, Peter J Oldenburg, Peter W Abel, Timothy A Simeone
OBJECTIVE: Increased breathing rate, apnea, and respiratory failure are associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We recently demonstrated the progressive nature of epilepsy and mortality in Kcna1-/- mice, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy and SUDEP. Here we tested the hypothesis that respiratory dysfunction progresses with age in Kcna1-/- mice, thereby increasing risk of respiratory failure and sudden death (SD). METHODS: Respiratory parameters were determined in conscious mice at baseline and following increasing doses of methacholine (MCh) using noninvasive airway mechanics (NAM) systems...
January 12, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327337/generalized-nonmotor-absence-seizures-what-do-absence-generalized-and-nonmotor-mean
#13
REVIEW
Iris Unterberger, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Luef, Gerhard Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Clinical absences are now classified as "generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures" by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The aim of this paper is to critically review the concept of absences and to put the accompanying focal and motor symptoms into the context of the emerging pathophysiological knowledge. METHODS: For this narrative review we performed an extensive literature search on the term "absence," and analyzed the plethora of symptoms observed in clinical absences...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327224/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-headache-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-experience-from-a-tertiary-epilepsy-center
#14
Metin Dedei Daryan, Betül Tekin Güveli, Sezin Alpaydın Baslo, Kasım Mulhan, Hüseyin Sarı, Zeynep Ezgi Balçık, Dilek Ataklı
The comorbidity of headache and epilepsy is often seen in neurological practice. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, types of, and risk factors for headache in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We assessed a total of 200 patients and 100 healthy controls in our study. Headache was classified in participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Demographical, clinical features and headache characteristics were recorded. Seizure and headache temporal profiles were noted. Headache was present in 111 (56%) patients and 50 (50%) healthy participants...
January 11, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325826/myoclonic-absence-seizures-with-complex-gestural-automatisms
#15
Kenneth A Myers, Ingrid E Scheffer
Epilepsy with myoclonic absences is a rare generalized epilepsy syndrome with distinctive seizures. Two unrelated children had mild developmental impairment and onset of myoclonic-absences at 3 and 8 years. Seizures were characterized by bilateral 3 Hz myoclonic jerks superimposed on tonic abduction of the upper limbs. Events lasted 10-60 s, and complex gestural automatisms were often observed; in one case, a boy undid his seatbelt and attempted to exit a moving vehicle. Post-ictally, both children immediately regained awareness without recollection of their actions...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324507/determining-when-to-stop-antiepileptic-drug-treatment
#16
Steven C Schachter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients diagnosed with epilepsy continues to rise and the pharmacological and device-based treatment options for epilepsy increase, determining when to stop antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment continues to be an important issue for patient management and counseling. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on outcomes following AED withdrawal in seizure-free adults with epilepsy. Practical considerations are also discussed because, despite the importance of this topic, relatively little progress has been made in the past year regarding the identification of patients whose risk for recurrent seizures after AED withdrawal is no higher than that of the general population...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324401/unblinded-randomized-multicenter-trial-comparing-lamotrigine-and-valproate-combination-with-controlled-release-carbamazepine-monotherapy-as-initial-drug-regimen-in-untreated-epilepsy
#17
Byung In Lee, Soon Kee No, Sang-Doe Yi, Hyang Woon Lee, Ok Joon Kim, Sang Ho Kim, Myeong Kyu Kim, Sung Eun Kim, Yo Sik Kim, Jae Moon Kim, Se-Jin Lee, Dong Jin Shin, Sung Pa Park, Yeong In Kim, Kyoung Heo, Yong Won Cho, Yang-Je Cho, Youn Nam Kim
PURPOSE: To compare controlled-release carbamazepine monotherapy (CBZ-CR) with lamotrigine and valproate combination therapy (LTG + VPA) in equivalent total drug load, as initial drug regimen in untreated patients with partial and/or generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). METHODS: This unblinded, randomized, 60-week superiority trial recruited patients having two or more unprovoked seizures with at least one seizure during previous three months. After randomization into CBZ-CR or LTG + VPA, patients entered into eight-week titration phase (TP), followed by 52-week maintenance phase (MP)...
December 29, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324398/epilepsy-in-patients-with-pineal-gland-cyst
#18
Jelena Bosnjak, Silva Soldo Butkovic, Snjezana Miskov, Lejla Coric, Ana Jadrijevic-Tomas, Vlatka Mejaski-Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe types of epileptic seizures in patients with pineal gland cyst (PGC) and their outcome during follow up period (6-10 years). We wanted to determine whether patients with epilepsy differ in PGC volume and compression of the PGC on surrounding brain structures compared to patients with PGC, without epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectivelly 92 patients with PGC detected on magnetic resonance (MR) of the brain due to various neurological symptoms during the period 2006-2010...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322880/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-due-to-oxcarbazepine-withdrawal-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Chaoyang Jing, Lichao Sun, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Weihong Lin
Background Reversible splenial lesion syndrome is a distinct entity radiologically characterized by a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. According to previous reports, this condition may be associated with antiepileptic drug use or withdrawal. We herein report a case of reversible splenial lesion syndrome associated with oxcarbazepine withdrawal. Case Report A 39-year-old man presented with an 8-year history of epileptic seizures. During the previous 3 years, he had taken oxcarbazepine irregularly...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322654/brand-to-generic-levetiracetam-switching-a-four-years-prospective-observational-real-life-study
#20
Michele Trimboli, Emilio Russo, Laura Mumoli, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesco Fortunato, Giovanni Mastroianni, Francesca Abate, Giovambattista De Sarro, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the switching from branded levetiracetam (LEV; ® Keppra) to a LEV generic equivalent product (® Matever) in an epilepsy cohort could result adequate in terms of seizures control and tolerability. METHODS: To be eligible for the study, patients were taking ® Keppra as monotherapy or polytherapy for at least six months. Since March 2013 to April 2017, patients were proposed to switch to ® Matever as part of their follow-up...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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