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saliva cortisol

Masahiro Kinoshita, Sachiko Iwata, Hisayoshi Okamura, Mamoru Saikusa, Naoko Hara, Chihoko Urata, Yuko Araki, Osuke Iwata
Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2-3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30-40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nina Smyth, Lisa Thorn, Frank Hucklebridge, Angela Clow, Phil Evans
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is typically measured in the domestic setting. Moderate sample timing inaccuracy has been shown to result in erroneous CAR estimates and such inaccuracy has been shown partially to explain inconsistency in the CAR literature. The need for more reliable measurement of the CAR has recently been highlighted in expert consensus guidelines where it was pointed out that less than 6% of published studies provided electronic-monitoring of saliva sampling time in the post-awakening period...
September 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Salzitsa Anastasova, Blair Crewther, Pawel Bembnowicz, Vincenzo Curto, Henry Md Ip, Bruno Rosa, Guang-Zhong Yang
In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel...
September 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yin Liu, David M Almeida, Michael J Rovine, Steven H Zarit
OBJECTIVES: The study examined the typical diurnal cortisol trajectory and its differential associations with an intervention, the adult day services (ADS) use, among a sample of family caregivers who experienced high levels of daily stress. METHOD: On hundred and sixty-five caregivers of individuals with dementia completed an 8-day diary on daily stressors, positive events, sleep quality, and ADS use. The caregivers also provided five saliva samples on each diary day...
October 13, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Meredith G Mock, Eric T Trexler, Kristin S Ondrak
OBJECTIVES: Traditional evaluations of metabolic health may overlook underlying dysfunction in individuals who show no signs of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic health in overweight and obese adults using traditional and non-traditional cardiometabolic variables. A secondary purpose was to evaluate differences between overweight/obese and male/female cohorts, respectively. METHODS: Forty-nine overweight and obese adults (Mean ± SD; Age=35...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Nese Direk, Marieke J H J Dekker, Annemarie I Luik, Clemens Kirschbaum, Yolanda B de Rijke, Albert Hofman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier
Determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are increasingly explored in population-based studies. However, functional tests measuring the negative feedback of the HPA axis cannot easily be implemented into large observational studies. Furthermore, high doses of dexamethasone often completely suppress the HPA axis in healthy persons. This study aimed to detect the effects of the health, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric problems and cognitive functions on the negative feedback of the HPA axis using a very low-dose (0...
2016: PloS One
Claudia Lange, Lorenz Deutschenbaur, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Marc Walter, Christian G Huber
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that exposure to social stress plays a crucial role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia; however, the reaction of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) to experimentally induced social stress is not yet fully understood. METHOD: Original research published between January 1993 and August 2015 was included in this systematic literature research. Social stress paradigms, reporting subjective responses to stress measures, plasma or saliva cortisol, or heart rate (HR) in patients with SSD were included...
October 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Marie Aarrebo Jensen, Åse Marie Hansen, Jesper Kristiansen, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, Anne Helene Garde
Night work is associated with a large range of acute health problems and possibly also health consequences in the long run. Yet, only very few field studies specifically investigate the effects of consecutive night shift on key physiological regulatory systems. In this field study, we investigated the effects of consecutive night shifts on three hormones, melatonin, cortisol, and testosterone, among police officers at work. More specifically, the aim was to investigate how the diurnal rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and testosterone responded to two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts and a corresponding number of days for recovery...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
Girija Kaimal, Kendra Ray, Juan Muniz
This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work...
April 2, 2016: Art Ther (Alex)
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Bernard Wallner
BACKGROUND: Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Dominika Tobolska, Krzysztof Maria Wilczyński, Miłosz Lorek, Elżbieta Mazgaj, Krzysztof Krysta, Aneta Gawlik, Marek Krzystanek
INTRODUCTION: The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) plays a pivotal role in response to a range of external and internal factors often described as a "stress". Growing evidence in a literature, suggest various dysregulations of HPAA, in course of numerous mental disorders. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder seem to have elevated basal cortisol secretion, what might be caused by the diminution of glucocorticoid receptors' amount. It was of the interest if the cortisol concentrations in patients with diagnosed schizophrenia who underwent treatment, differs from healthy individuals...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
L Maierova, A Borisuit, J-L Scartezzini, S M Jaeggi, C Schmidt, M Münch
Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are modulated by external factors such as light or temperature. We studied whether self-selected office lighting during the habitual waking period had a different impact on alertness, cognitive performance and hormonal secretion in extreme morning and evening chronotypes (N = 32), whose preferred bed- and wake-up times differed by several hours. The self-selected lighting condition was compared with constant bright light and a control condition in dim light. Saliva samples for hormonal analyses, subjective ratings of alertness, wellbeing, visual comfort and cognitive performance were regularly collected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nina Kaseva, Riikka Pyhälä, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Katri Räikkönen, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Johan G Eriksson, Petteri Hovi, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i...
2016: PloS One
Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range, César Ades, Jördis Kristin Scheidegger, Erich Möstl, Kurt Kotrschal
The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment...
2016: PloS One
Tuba Ozgocer, Sedat Yildiz, Cihat Uçar
Non-invasive measurement of cortisol in saliva is of prime importance as it represents a bioavailable neuroendocrine marker for stress. Therefore, in this study, we developed an enzyme immune assay that was suitable for salivary cortisol measurements. For that purpose, rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against cortisol-3-CMO:BSA conjugate. The test was based on competition of liquid phase cortisol with conjugated cortisol on the solid phase. Primary antibody was used to bind available sites on the conjugate, which was proportional to numbers of cortisol in liquid phase...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Alison L Miller, Ju-Hyun Song, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Katherine Rosenblum, Niko Kaciroti, Delia M Vazquez
Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation...
September 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Ellen Wikenius, Vibeke Moe, Marian Kjellevold, Lars Smith, Robert Lyle, Rune Waagbø, Christian Magnus Page, Anne Margrethe Myhre
Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus...
2016: PloS One
Alicia Carissimi, Alessandra Castro Martins, Fabiane Dresch, Lilian Corrêa da Silva, Cristian Patrick Zeni, Maria Paz Hidalgo
School start time influences sleep parameters. Differences between circadian sleep parameters on weekends and weekdays have been associated with obesity, sleep, and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, circadian rhythm dysregulation affects the secretion of some hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol. In the current study, we investigate the effect of school start time on cortisol and melatonin levels in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study of 454 students (mean age, 12...
August 31, 2016: Chronobiology International
Licia M Clowtis, Duck-Hee Kang, Nikhil S Padhye, Cathy Rozmus, Michelle S Barratt
BACKGROUND: Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. METHODS: Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting...
September 2016: Nursing Research
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