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Lung mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222012/effects-of-the-nasal-passage-on-forced-oscillation-lung-function-measurements
#1
Chuong Ngo, Karl Krüger, Thomas Vollmer, Stefan Winter, Bernhard Penzlin, Sylvia Lehmann, Steffen Leonhardt, Berno Misgeld
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive pulmonary function test which is based on the measurement of respiratory impedance. Recently, promising results were obtained by the application of FOT on patients with respiratory failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). By using a nasal mask instead of a mouthpiece, the influences of the nasal passage and upper shunt alter the measured mechanical impedance. In this paper, we investigated the effects of the nasal passage and mask on FOT measurements from eight healthy subjects...
February 21, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221999/coupling-effect-of-double-lungs-on-a-vcv-ventilator-with-automatic-secretion-clearance-function
#2
Yan Shi, Bolun Zhang, Maolin Cai, Weiqing Xu
For patients with mechanical ventilation, secretions in airway are harmful and sometimes even mortal, it's of great significance to clear secretion timely and efficiently. In this paper, a new secretion clearance method for VCV (volume-controlled ventilation) ventilator is put forward, and a secretion clearance system with a VCV ventilator and double lungs is designed. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the secretion clearance system is built and verified via experimental study. Finally, to illustrate the influence of key parameters of respiratory system and secretion clearance system on the secretion clearance characteristics, coupling effects of two lungs on VCV secretion clearance system are studied by an orthogonal experiment, it can be obtained that rise of tidal volume adds to efficiency of secretion clearance while effect of area, compliance and suction pressure on efficiency of secretion clearance needs further study...
February 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221717/cerebral-and-lung-effects-of-a-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-with-sp-b-and-sp-c-analogs-in-preterm-lambs
#3
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Xabier Murgia, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Federico Bianco, Nicola Pelizzi, Begoña Loureiro, Jon López de Heredia Y Goya
BACKGROUND: Though natural surfactants (SF) are clinically superior to protein-free synthetic preparations, CHF-5633, a synthetic SF containing SP-B and SP-C analog peptides is a potential alternative to natural SF for treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding the safety of this new treatment for the neonatal brain. We sought to compare the cerebral and pulmonary effects of this new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633) with those of natural porcine surfactant (Cursosurf) in premature lambs with RDS...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221200/pathogenic-link-between-postextubation-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-an-experimental-study
#4
Emanuele Rezoagli, Alberto Zanella, Massimo Cressoni, Lorenzo De Marchi, Theodor Kolobow, Lorenzo Berra
BACKGROUND: The presence of an endotracheal tube is the main cause for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), but pneumonia can still develop in hospitalized patients after endotracheal tube removal (postextubation pneumonia [PEP]). We hypothesized that short-term intubation (24 hours) can play a role in the pathogenesis of PEP. To test such hypothesis, we initially evaluated the occurrence of lung colonization and VAP in sheep that were intubated and mechanically ventilated for 24 hours...
February 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221172/interventional-pulmonology-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Daniela Gompelmann, Nilab Sarmand, Felix J F Herth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are widespread diseases associated with progressive dyspnea because of airflow limitation and hyperinflation. Fundamental therapeutic strategies consist of pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, and surgical therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 14 years, endoscopic therapeutic modalities emerged as a substantial part of severe COPD and emphysema treatment...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221171/pathogenesis-of-severe-pneumonia-advances-and-knowledge-gaps
#6
Joseph P Mizgerd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumonia is a common disease that becomes severe in a subset of patients, dependent on host biology including mechanisms of immune resistance and tissue resilience. This review emphasizes discoveries in pneumonia biology from 2016, highlighting questions and directions that are especially pressing or newly emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel cell-cell interactions mediating innate immune responses against microbes in the lung have been elucidated, between distinct leukocyte subtypes as well as between leukocytes and the structural cells of the lung...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220783/an-integrative-approach-unveils-fosl1-as-an-oncogene-vulnerability-in-kras-driven-lung-and-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Adrian Vallejo, Naiara Perurena, Elisabet Guruceaga, Pawel K Mazur, Susana Martinez-Canarias, Carolina Zandueta, Karmele Valencia, Andrea Arricibita, Dana Gwinn, Leanne C Sayles, Chen-Hua Chuang, Laura Guembe, Peter Bailey, David K Chang, Andrew Biankin, Mariano Ponz-Sarvise, Jesper B Andersen, Purvesh Khatri, Aline Bozec, E Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Julien Sage, Fernando Lecanda, Silve Vicent
KRAS mutated tumours represent a large fraction of human cancers, but the vast majority remains refractory to current clinical therapies. Thus, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by KRAS oncogene may yield alternative therapeutic strategies. Here we report the identification of a common transcriptional signature across mutant KRAS cancers of distinct tissue origin that includes the transcription factor FOSL1. High FOSL1 expression identifies mutant KRAS lung and pancreatic cancer patients with the worst survival outcome...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219838/natural-helper-cells-are-associated-with-the-exacerbated-airway-inflammation-seen-during-rsv-reinfection-of-neonatally-primed-mice
#8
Jianqi Wu, Haiyan Hu, Lei Xu, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Yulin Cui, Ruonan Chai, Dandan Wang, Beixing Liu
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in neonatal mice causes more aggressive airway disease when the mice are reinfected with the same virus as adults. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not entirely defined. Natural helper (NH) cells are considered a key factor for virus-induced or exacerbated airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness by producing type 2 cytokines. To confirm whether NH cells are involved in the aggravated lung pathology seen during reinfection, BALB/c mice were initially infected as neonates and reinfected in adulthood...
February 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219640/identification-and-characterization-of-functional-antioxidant-response-elements-in-the-promoter-of-the-aldo-keto-reductase-akr1b10-gene
#9
Toru Nishinaka, Takeshi Miura, Kahori Shimizu, Tomoyuki Terada
AKR1B10 is a human-type aldo-keto reductase. The up-regulation of AKR1B10 has been associated with various cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma, viral and bacterial infections, and skin diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying AKR1B10 gene regulation are not fully understood. We previously indicated the involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in AKR1B10 gene regulation. There are at least five potential Nrf2-responsive consensus sequences, so-called antioxidant response elements (AREs), and several ARE-like sequences in the 5'-flanking region up to -3282 bp of the AKR1B10 gene...
February 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219569/intrabronchial-pneumonectomy-for-vanishing%C3%A2-lung-syndrome-first-reported-case
#10
Nicholas Ballay, Brent Soder, Jeremiah Smith, Ashley Miller, James R Headrick
Vanishing lung syndrome is a clinical presentation of giant bullous emphysema associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 50-year-old white woman with vanishing lung syndrome who presented with a spontaneous secondary pneumothorax and an uncontrolled bronchopleural fistula. The large bronchopleural fistula was initially controlled with a double-lumen endotracheal tube and a tube thoracostomy. After surgical efforts failed, complete left lung isolation was performed with multiple intrabronchial valves...
March 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219480/de-repression-of-the-rac-activator-elmo1-in-cancer-stem-cells-drives-progression-of-tgf%C3%AE-deficient-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-transition-zones
#11
Heather A McCauley, Véronique Chevrier, Daniel Birnbaum, Géraldine Guasch
Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219384/clarithromycin-attenuates-il-13-induced-periostin-production-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#12
Kosaku Komiya, Shoichiro Ohta, Kazuhiko Arima, Masahiro Ogawa, Shoichi Suzuki, Yasutaka Mitamura, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Tomohito Yoshihara, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Bruce K Rubin, Kenji Izuhara
BACKGROUND: Periostin is a biomarker indicating the presence of type 2 inflammation and submucosal fibrosis; serum periostin levels have been associated with asthma severity. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects and are considered a potential therapy for patients with severe asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether macrolides can also modulate pulmonary periostin production. METHODS: Using quantitative PCR and ELISA, we measured periostin production in human lung fibroblasts stimulated by interleukin-13 (IL-13) in the presence of two 14-member-ring macrolides-clarithromycin or erythromycin-or a 16-member-ring macrolide, josamycin...
February 20, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219204/-correlation-between-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-zxf1-and-prognosis-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-its-potential-molecular-mechanism
#13
G F Pan, X F Zhou, J P Zhao
Objective: To investigate the correlation between expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) ZXF1 and clinicopathological characteristics, as well as prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma; and to explore its potential molecular mechanism. Methods: A total of 83 lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 83 paracancerous lung tissue samples from lung adenocarcinoma patients were collected. The mRNA expression of ZXF1 in the tumors and the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219203/-precision-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-harboring-egfr-mutation
#14
D M Yuan, Y Song
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become the preferred treatment option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) according to major practice guidelines. Gefitinib, elortinib and icotinib formed the cornerstone of first-line EGFR-TKIs in the clinical practice in our country. Now, with the continuously emerging of new types of EGFR-TKIs and ever-increasing publication of clinical trial results on afatinib, AZD9291 and other TKIs, we have more first-line choices for patients with EGFR mutations...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219202/-precision-treatment-after-resistance-to-first-generation-egfr-tki-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
C Pi, Y C Zhang, C R Xu, Q Zhou
Recently, with the research progress in molecular classification, the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been established as a model of anti-tumor treatment of precision medicine. The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) has transformed the treatment of NSCLC from platinum based doublet chemotherapy into era of target therapy. EGFR-TKI, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, have been recommended as standard first-line treatment of patients with EGFR mutation...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218840/drug-repurposing-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-that-alleviate-neutrophilic-inflammation-in-acute-lung-injury-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-inhibiting-leukotriene-a4-hydrolase-and-blocking-ltb4-biosynthesis
#16
Weiqiang Lu, Xue Yao, Ping Ouyang, Ningning Dong, Dang Wu, Xingwu Jiang, Zengrui Wu, Chen Zhang, Zhongyu Xu, Yun Tang, Shien Zou, Mingyao Liu, Jian Li, Ming-Hua Zeng, Ping Lin, Feixiong Cheng, Jin Huang
Acute lung injury (ALI) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are both serious public health problems with high incidence and mortality rate in adults, and with few drugs available for the efficient treatment in clinic. In this study, we identified that two known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, 1) and its analog 4-(dimethylamino)-N-[7-(hydroxyamino)-7-oxoheptyl]benzamide (2), are effective inhibitors of Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), across a panel of 18 HDAC inhibitors, using enzymatic assay, thermofluor assay, and X-ray Crystallographic investigation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218802/non-invasive-ventilation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Fidelma Moran, Judy M Bradley, Amanda J Piper
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review...
February 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218740/maresin1-stimulates-alveolar-fluid-clearance-through-the-alveolar-epithelial-sodium-channel-na-k-atpase-via-the-alx-pi3k-nedd4-2-pathway
#18
Jun-Li Zhang, Xiao-Jun Zhuo, Jing Lin, Ling-Chun Luo, Wei-Yang Ying, Xiang Xie, Hua-Wei Zhang, Jing-Xiang Yang, Dan Li, Fang Gao Smith, Sheng-Wei Jin
Maresin1 (MaR1) is a new docosahexaenoic acid-derived pro-resolving agent that promotes the resolution of inflammation. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect and underlining mechanisms of MaR1 in modulating alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) on LPS-induced acute lung injury. MaR1 was injected intravenously or administered by instillation (200 ng/kg) 8 h after LPS (14 mg/kg) administration and AFC was measured in live rats. In primary rat alveolar type II epithelial cells, MaR1 (100 nM) was added to the culture medium with lipopolysaccharide for 6 h...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218580/circulating-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-adult-patients-with-pulmonary-infectious-diseases
#19
Karol Majewski, Paulina Żelechowska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
PURPOSE: The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37 plays a role in the immune response in the course of lung infections; however, the exact role of LL-37 in defense mechanisms against bacteria within the respiratory tract is has not been precisely described. The aim of our study was to evaluate LL-37 concentrations in the serum of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients, patients with pneumonia caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to compare them with those of healthy subjects...
February 19, 2017: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218446/in-situ-bioorthogonal-metabolic-labeling-for-fluorescence-imaging-of-virus-infection-in-vivo
#20
Hong Pan, Wen-Jun Li, Xiang-Jie Yao, Ya-Yun Wu, Lan-Lan Liu, Hua-Mei He, Ren-Li Zhang, Yi-Fan Ma, Lin-Tao Cai
Optical fluorescence imaging is an important strategy to explore the mechanism of virus-host interaction. However, current fluorescent tag labeling strategies often dampen viral infectivity. The present study explores an in situ fluorescent labeling strategy in order to preserve viral infectivity and precisely monitor viral infection in vivo. In contrast to pre-labeling strategy, mice are first intranasally infected with azide-modified H5N1 pseudotype virus (N3 -H5N1p), followed by injection of dibenzocyclooctyl (DBCO)-functionalized fluorescence 6 h later...
February 20, 2017: Small
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