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Autism and diet

Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Andrea G Edlow
There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring...
September 29, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Jiangbo Wu, Caroline G M de Theije, Sofia Lopes da Silva, Suzanne Abbring, Hilma van der Horst, Laus M Broersen, Linette Willemsen, Martien Kas, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current study demonstrated that the amino acids histidine, lysine, threonine inhibited mTOR signaling and IgE-mediated mast cell activation, while the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine had no effect on mTOR signaling in BMMCs...
September 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Enzo Grossi, Sara Melli, Delia Dunca, Vittorio Terruzzi
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that typically displays socio-communicative impairment as well as restricted stereotyped interests and activities, in which gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported. We report the case of a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis, severe cognitive disability and celiac disease in which an unexpected improvement of autistic core symptoms was observed after four months of probiotic treatment. METHOD: The case study refers to a 12 years old boy with ASD and severe cognitive disability attending the Villa Santa Maria Institute in resident care since 2009...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Solange Heller-Rouassant, María Eugenia Flores-Quijano
Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Koji Tanoue, Tetsuya Takamasu, Kiyoshi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food selectivity is commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to investigate the eating habit histories of children with ASD. METHODS: We analyzed 3-day food records completed by the parents and assessed how many unique foods each child consumed. The parents were also interviewed about their child's diet of complementary foods and estimated number of food repertoires at the ages of 3, 6, 12 and 18 years...
September 7, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. FINDINGS: Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days...
2016: Molecular Autism
Salma Mansour, Vanja Rozenblat, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Chiara Paganini, Janet Treasure, Isabel Krug
The aim of the study was to assess the extent of overlap between autistic traits, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and to explore the mediating effects of negative attitudes towards emotional expression and emotion dysregulation. The sample comprised 416 university students (82% females, 17-48 years [M=19.76, SD=3.85]), who completed an online questionnaire assessing eating attitudes and behaviours (including dieting, bulimia and oral control), body dissatisfaction, and autistic traits (including the Autism Quotient [AQ] and its related subscales as well as the Empathising Quotient)...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Richelle Mychasiuk, Jong M Rho
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hallmark behavioral features. The spectrum of disorders that fall within the ASD umbrella encompass a distinct but overlapping symptom complex that likely results from an array of molecular and genetic aberrations rather than a single genetic mutation. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat low-carbohydrate anti-seizure and neuroprotective diet that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of ASD-like behaviors in animal and human studies...
August 16, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Parakalan Rangarajan, Aparna Karthikeyan, S T Dheen
Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is mediated by sustained activation of microglial cells, the innate immune cells of the CNS. Studies have mainly focused on identifying the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of microglial activation. This is crucial in designing therapeutic strategies for neuropathologies in which prolonged microglial activation is known to exacerbate disease condition. In recent years, increasing evidence show that naturally occurring compounds present in regular diet could function as "nutraceuticals," arresting microglial activation, and thus conferring neuroprotection...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, David Lantin, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst
With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sylvia Cruchet, Yalda Lucero, Verónica Cornejo
Different dietary approaches have been attempted for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism, but only three of them have been subjected to clinical trials: education in healthy nutritional habits, supplementation and elimination diets. On the other hand, for multiple reasons, the number of people who adopt vegetarian and gluten-free diets (GFD) increases daily. More recently, a new entity, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), with a still evolving definition and clinical spectrum, has been described...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Shelly A Buffington, Gonzalo Viana Di Prisco, Thomas A Auchtung, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in offspring. Here, we report that maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) induces a shift in microbial ecology that negatively impacts offspring social behavior. Social deficits and gut microbiota dysbiosis in MHFD offspring are prevented by co-housing with offspring of mothers on a regular diet (MRD) and transferable to germ-free mice. In addition, social interaction induces synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of MRD, but not MHFD offspring...
June 16, 2016: Cell
Nagwa Meguid, Mona Anwar, Safaa Zaki, Wafaa Kandeel, Nihad Ahmed, Ihab Tewfik
AIM: In the hope to assist in tailoring individualized nutritional therapy, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 80 autistic children, divided into two groups: group 1 (aged 3- 5 years) and group 2 (aged 6-9 years). Diagnosis was performed based on the criteria for autistic disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised and Autism Rating Scale...
June 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Christine T Wong, Netta Ussyshkin, Eizaaz Ahmad, Ravneet Rai-Bhogal, Hongyan Li, Dorota A Crawford
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is an endogenous lipid molecule that regulates important physiological functions, including calcium signaling, neuronal plasticity, and immune responses. Exogenous factors such as diet, exposure to immunological agents, toxic chemicals, and drugs can influence PGE2 levels in the developing brain and have been associated with autism disorders. This study seeks to determine whether changes in PGE2 level can alter the behavior of undifferentiated and differentiating neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells and whether PGE2 signaling impinges on the Wnt/β-catenin pathways...
August 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elisa Santocchi, Letizia Guiducci, Francesca Fulceri, Lucia Billeci, Emma Buzzigoli, Fabio Apicella, Sara Calderoni, Enzo Grossi, Maria Aurora Morales, Filippo Muratori
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Carmen Puig-Alcaraz, Milagros Fuentes-Albero, Omar Cauli
Dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential physiopathological alterations in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We measured the concentration between dicarboxylic adipic and suberic acids in children with an ASD and typically-developing (TD) children and analyzed any relationships between the severity of the core symptoms of ASDs and other clinical features (drugs, supplements, drugs, or diet). The core symptoms of autism were evaluated using the DSM-IV criteria, and adipic acid and suberic acid were measured in urine samples...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Stephanie Booms, Elizabeth Hill, Leah Kulhanek, Jennifer Vredeveld, Brigid Gregg
Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed...
June 2016: Pediatrics
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