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Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Joshua D Sackett, Desiree C Huerta, Brittany R Kruger, Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Duane P Moser
Devils Hole is the sole natural habitat of the critically endangered Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis). To establish a backup population, the Ash Meadows Fish Conservation Facility (AMFCF), a full-scale replica of the uppermost 6.7 m of Devils Hole, was constructed by management agencies in the mid-2010s. Despite rigorous efforts to mimic the bathymetric and physical details of the Devils Hole environment, the biogeochemistry and microbiology of the AMFCF refuge tank remain largely unaddressed. We evaluated water physicochemistry and employed Illumina DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries to evaluate planktonic and benthic bacterial and archaeal community composition within their respective physicochemical contexts in Devils Hole and AMFCF on the same day...
2018: PloS One
Wanfu Shen, Chunguang Hu, Shuchun Huo, Zhaoyang Sun, Shuangqing Fan, Jing Liu, Xiaotang Hu
We report on both the theoretical and experimental design of a black phosphorus (BP)-based reflective linear polarizer on Si/SiO2 substrate in visible range using the Fabry-Perot cavities method. Thanks to the optical anisotropy of BP, polarization wavelength regulation and a high extinction ratio are achievable via optimizing the thickness of BP. Using azimuth-dependent reflectance difference microscopy, we directly measured a huge optical anisotropy of 1.58, corresponding to an extinction ratio of ∼9  dB, from a 96 nm BP on a silicon substrate capped by 260 nm thermally oxidized silicon at a wavelength of 690 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Seong Gi Jeon, Hosun Shin, Yun Hwan Jaung, Jinho Ahn, Jae Yong Song
Thickness effects on thermal conductivities of black phosphorus nanosheets, which are anisotropic in the zigzag and armchair planar directions, are experimentally and theoretically investigated in the thickness range of 13 to 48 nm. The thermal conductivities decrease with the thickness, decreasing from 13 to 8 W m-1 K-1 in the zigzag direction and from 10 to 6 W m-1 K-1 in the armchair direction at 300 K, respectively. The anisotropic thermal conductivities, regardless of the thickness, might result from the anisotropic phonon velocity arising from the hinge-like structure...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Haiguo Hu, Hong Gao, Lili Gao, Feng Li, Na Xu, Xuefeng Long, Yiping Hu, Jun Jin, Jiantai Ma
This work developed a simple and efficient method to covalently functionalize black phosphorus nanoflakes (BPNFs) with carbon free radicals from azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) molecules. BPNFs after successful modification (BPNFs-AIBN) not only had good stability in air and aqueous solution, but also still maintained good optical properties.
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Youfa Luo, Yonggui Wu, Hu Wang, Rongrong Xing, Zhilin Zheng, Jing Qiu, Lian Yang
This comparative field study examined the responses of bacterial community structure and diversity to the revegetation of zinc (Zn) smelting waste slag with eight plant species after 5 years. The microbial community structure of waste slag with and without vegetation was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. The physiochemical properties of Zn smelting slag after revegetation with eight plant rhizospheres for 5 years were improved compared to those of bulk slag. Revegetation significantly increased the microbial community diversity in plant rhizospheres, and at the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were notably more abundant in rhizosphere slags than those in bulk waste slag...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xin-Li An, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Jian-Qiang Su
Struvite recovered from wastewater is promising for recycling phosphorus into soil as fertilizers. However, struvite application may prompt the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant. This study examined the impacts of struvite application and biochar amendment on integrons abundance and gene cassette contexts in rhizosphere soil and phyllosphere using quantitative PCR and clone library analysis. Microcosm experiments revealed that class 1 integron was the most prevalent in all samples, with higher concentration and higher relative abundance in rhizosphere than those in phyllosphere...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yue Cao, Dan Sun, Jun-Xiu Chen, Hanyi Mei, Hao Ai, Guohua Xu, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phosphorus is an important nutrient for plant growth and is acquired by plants mainly as phosphate (P). Phosphate transporters (Phts) are responsible for P and arsenate (AsV) uptake in plants including arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. It is efficient in AsV uptake and P utilization, but P uptake in P. vittata is largely unknown. In this study, a P. vittata Pht, PvPht1;2, was identified and cloned. After transforming it into tobacco (N. tabacum), three independent transgenic lines (Ox1, Ox10, and Ox21) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
J W Kim, B Koo, I H Kim, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effects of extrusion and microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in hemp hulls (HH). Thirty-six pigs (30.3 ± 2.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a complete randomized design with 6 replicates per diet. A corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based basal diet was formulated. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 40% of corn and SBM (on a 100% of total diet basis) with HH or extruded HH (EHH)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kai Lv, Chu-Ting Yang, Yi Liu, Sheng Hu, Xiao-Lin Wang
To aid the design of a hierarchically porous unconventional metal-phosphonate framework (HP-UMPF) for practical radioanalytical separation, a systematic investigation of the hydrolytic stability of bulk phase against acidic corrosion has been carried out for an archetypical HP-UMPF. Bulk dissolution results suggest that aqueous acidity has a more paramount effect on incongruent leaching than the temperature, and the kinetic stability reaches equilibrium by way of an accumulation of a partial leached species on the corrosion conduits...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hasan Yuksekkaya, Meltem Gumus, Aylin Yucel, Meltem Energin, Serafettin Demirci
BACKGROUND: Mistaken ingestion of all manner of toxic matter is common in childhood, but poisoning with fireworks and matchsticks is rare. Fireworks usually contain 10% yellow phosphorus and 50% potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is an extremely reactive and toxic agent that is used in fireworks and matchstick heads. METHODS: Eleven cases (7 females and 5 males; median age, 36 months [ranging from 24 to 48 months]) of poisoning after ingestion of fireworks and matchstick(s), between February 2008 and June 2014, were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
J K Pinnegar
The damselfish Chromis chromis is typically the most abundant fish species in the rocky littoral environment of the Mediterranean Sea, where it feeds in huge shoals on incoming zooplankton and rests near the seabed each night. Research has shown that large populations of C. chromis play a fundamental role by transferring carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus directly from the pelagic system to the littoral in the form of solid and liquid wastes and therefore that this species acts as a vital conduit for nutrients...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Pamela Oetting-Neumann, Karl Rohn, Martina Hoedemaker
OBJECTIVE: Determination of the frequency of subclinical hypocalcaemia, increased lipomobilisation and subclinical ketosis as problems in dairy herds and identification of possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 51 dairy farms on husbandry, feeding, management of the cows and heifers, animal health and prophylactic treatments using a questionnaire. Blood samples from 20% of the cows and 30% of the heifers of each farm (= herd sample) were collected in the week ante partum (a...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
M I Gladyshev
For the first time, the quantity of protectors of cardiovascular deceases-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA), obtained through fish (Eurasian perch) catch in water bodies of different trophic status was determined. A formula was drawn to calculate the quantity of obtained EPA + DHA (kg km-2 year-1 ) depending on the concentration of total phosphorus in water. It is found that the maximum quantity of EPA + DHA can be obtained by humans from fish caught in mesotrophic water bodies...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Lucie Sauzéat, Anne Laurençon, Vincent Balter
Ageing is accompanied by important chemical deregulations resulting in bodily metal imbalances. The way and extent to which these deregulations are associated with ageing processes are however poorly understood and their use as potential biomarkers of ageing has not been investigated. In this study, we report whole-body elementary concentrations and copper and zinc isotopic compositions of Caenorhabditis elegans in ageing wild type (i.e. 'normal'-lived) and mutant (i.e. short and long-lived) strains. We show that the strains are characterized by different levels of mutation-related variations such as in phosphorus and magnesium as well as in zinc isotopic composition...
March 14, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Shuping Peng, Lihua Cao, Shiwei He, Yancheng Zhong, Haotian Ma, Yanru Zhang, Cijun Shuai
Bone regeneration is very important for the recovery of some diseases including osteoporosis and bone fracture trauma. It is a multiple-step- and multiple-gene-involved complex process, including the matrix secretion and calcium mineralization by osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the absorption of calcium and phosphorus by osteoclasts differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a family of transcripts longer than 200 nt without or with very low protein-coding potential...
2018: Stem Cells International
Ralph J M Temmink, Sarah F Harpenslager, Alfons J P Smolders, Gijs van Dijk, Roy C J H Peters, Leon P M Lamers, Monique M L van Kempen
Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Hui Xu, Yinghui Guo, Hongwei Sun, Fan Li, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu
Transgenic maize hybrids that express the Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene could significantly improve phosphorus bioavailability to poultry and livestock. However, little information has been reported about the effects of phytase transgenic maize on the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). This study provides valuable information about the physiological, biochemical and gut microflora functional diversity changes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize. The weights, survival rates, in vivo protein contents, activities of two detoxification enzymes and three antioxidant enzymes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize exhibited no significant differences to those fed non-transgenic maize...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen Liddle, Erli Lu, Josef Boronski, Matthew Gregson, Ashley Wooles
We report unprecedented silyl-phosphino-carbene complexes of uranium(IV), where before all covalent actinide-carbon double bonds were stabilised by phosphorus(V) substituents or restricted to matrix isolation experiments. Conversion of [U(BIPMTMS)(Cl)(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (1, BIPMTMS = C(PPh2NSiMe3)2) to [U(BIPMTMS)(Cl){CH(Ph)(SiMe3)}] (2), and addition of [Li{CH(SiMe3)(PPh2)}(THF)] and Me2NCH2CH2NMe2 (TMEDA) gave [U{C(SiMe3)(PPh2)}(BIPMTMS)(μ-Cl)Li(TMEDA)(μ-TMEDA)0.5]2 (3) by α-hydrogen abstraction. Addition of 2,2,2-cryptand or two equivalents of 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) to 3 gave [U{C(SiMe3)(PPh2)}(BIPMTMS)(Cl)][Li(2,2,2-cryptand)] (4) or [U{C(SiMe3)(PPh2)}(BIPMTMS)(DMAP)2] (5)...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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