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Yi-Min Ding, Jun-Jie Shi, Congxin Xia, Min Zhang, Juan Du, Pu Huang, Meng Wu, Hui Wang, Yu-Lang Cen, Shu-Hang Pan
To enhance the low hole mobility (∼40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) of InSe monolayer, a novel two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructure made of InSe and black phosphorus (BP) monolayers with high hole mobility (∼10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) has been constructed and its structural and electronic properties are investigated using first-principles calculations. We find that the InSe/BP heterostructure exhibits a direct band gap of 1.39 eV and type-II band alignment with electrons (holes) located in the InSe (BP) layer...
September 25, 2017: Nanoscale
Irena Šímová, Marta Rueda, Bradford A Hawkins
Understanding how environmental change alters the composition of plant assemblages, and how this in turn affects ecosystem functioning is a major challenge in the face of global climate change. Assuming that values of plant traits express species adaptations to the environment, the trait-based approach is a promising way to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, how functional traits are related to species' environmental tolerances and how trait spectra respond to broad-scale environmental gradients remains largely unexplored...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Zhe Wang, Maaike Y Bader, Xin Liu, Zhangming Zhu, Weikai Bao
Bryophyte communities can exhibit similar structural and taxonomic diversity as vascular plant communities, just at a smaller scale. Whether the physiological diversity can be similarly diverse, and whether it can explain local abundance patterns is unknown, due to a lack of community-wide studies of physiological traits. This study re-analyzed data on photosynthesis-related traits (including the nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic capacities, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies) of 27 bryophyte species in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Kristin Palmqvist, Oskar Franklin, Torgny Näsholm
Symbioses such as lichens are potentially threatened by drastic environmental changes. We used the lichen Peltigera aphthosa-a symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont), a green alga (Coccomyxa sp.), and N2-fixing cyanobacteria (Nostoc sp.)-as a model organism to assess the effects of environmental perturbations in nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Growth, carbon (C) and N stable isotopes, CNP concentrations, and specific markers were analyzed in whole thalli and the partners after 4 months of daily nutrient additions in the field...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Guangshuai Zhao, Peili Shi, Jianshuang Wu, Dingpeng Xiong, Ning Zong, Xianzhou Zhang
Nutrient resorption from senesced leaves as a nutrient conservation strategy is important for plants to adapt to nutrient deficiency, particularly in alpine and arid environment. However, the leaf nutrient resorption patterns of different functional plants across environmental gradient remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a transect survey of 12 communities to address foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption strategies of four functional groups along an eastward increasing precipitation gradient in northern Tibetan Changtang Plateau...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Katherine N Phillips, Casey M Godwin, James B Cotner
Two contemporary effects of humans on aquatic ecosystems are increasing temperatures and increasing nutrient concentrations from fertilizers. The response of organisms to these perturbations has important implications for ecosystem processes. We examined the effects of phosphorus (P) supply and temperature on organismal carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) content, cell size and allocation into internal P pools in three strains of recently isolated bacteria (Agrobacterium sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Arthrobacter sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiacong Huang, Junfeng Gao, Yong Jiang, Hongbin Yin, Bahman Jabbarian Amiri
Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Evangelia Vogiatzaki, Célia Baroux, Ji-Yul Jung, Yves Poirier
Seed production requires the transfer of nutrients from the maternal seed coat to the filial endosperm and embryo. Because seed coat and filial tissues are symplasmically isolated, nutrients arriving in the seed coat via the phloem must be exported to the apoplast before reaching the embryo. Proteins implicated in the transfer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the seed coat to the embryo are unknown despite seed P content being an important agronomic trait. Here we show that the Arabidopsis Pi exporters PHO1 and PHOH1 are expressed in the chalazal seed coat (CZSC) of developing seeds...
September 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Li-Hsin Chuang, Yi-Ching Tung, Shih-Yao Liu, Cheng-Ting Lee, Huey-Ling Chen, Wen-Yu Tsai
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The number of children with nutritional rickets in Taiwan has increased over the last decade. The aim of this study was to present our experiences in the management of patients with this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, 10 children (3 boys and 7 girls) with nutritional rickets were enrolled in this study. Their clinical and biochemical data were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of the 10 patients was 21 months (range, 12-25 months)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Liu Yang, Yuqian Liu, Xiuyun Cao, Zijun Zhou, Siyang Wang, Jian Xiao, Chunlei Song, Yiyong Zhou
The abundance, phosphorus solubilizing ability and community composition of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) attached on two bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Microcystis and Anabeana, were investigated in Guanqiao ponds in 2014 and Lake Chaohu in 2015 and 2016. Thirty organic phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (OPB) and eighteen inorganic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (IPB) isolated from Guanqiao ponds and Lake Chaohu were identified. The community compositions of PSB attached on Microcystis and Anabeana were found to be entirely different...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Fatima Liaquat, Rabia Abdur Rehman, Mehreen Gul, Muhammad Zafar Ul Hye, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehaman
In the present study, the effects of co-composts of biochar (BC) and farm manure (FM) on the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and carbon mineralization in an alkaline soil were investigated. The co-composts of FM and BC were prepared at various ratios (FM100:BC0, FM75:BC25, FM50:BC50, FM25:BC75, FM0:BC100) using aboveground piles and were used in two separate experiments conducted simultaneously. In the plant growth trial, prepared co-composts were applied at a rate of 2% w/w and wheat was grown at two fertilizer levels (half and full) until maturity...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nicolai Cramer, Yun-Suk Jang, Michael Dieckmann
An enantioselective C-H amidation of phosphine oxides by using an iridium(III) catalyst bearing an atropchiral cyclopentadienyl (Cpx) ligand is reported. A very strong cooperative effect between the chiral Cpx ligand and a phthaloyl tert-leucine enabled the transformation. Matched-mismatched cases of the different acid enantiomers are shown. The amidated P-chiral arylphosphine oxides are formed in yields of up to 95 % and with excellent enantioselectivities of up to 99:1 er. Enantiospecific reduction provides access to valuable P-chiral phosphorus(III) compounds...
September 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Hao Li, Tianyu Jiao, Liang Chen, Dong Yang, Xin Li, Guangcheng Wu, Pingmei Zeng, Ankun Zhou, Qi Yin, Yuanjiang Pan, Biao Wu, Xin Hong, Xueqian Kong, Vincent M Lynch, Jonathan L Sessler
Three tetrahedral organic cages have been obtained by condensing a triamino linker with a set of three ostensibly analogous triformyl precursors. In spite of the large number of imine bonds formed, the corresponding cages were obtained in exceptionally high yields. Both theory and experimental results demonstrate that, the presence of intramolecular CH***π interactions within all of the cage frameworks plays an important role in abeting the condensations and contributes to the near-quantitative synthetic yields...
September 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Matteo Ceppatelli, Demetrio Scelta, Roberto Bini, Maurizio Peruzzini, Kamil Dziubek, Adhara Baldassarre, Manuel Serrano-Ruiz, Andrew Cairns
Black Phosphorus was compressed at room T across the A17, A7 and simple-cubic phases up to 30 GPa, using a diamond anvil cell and He as pressure transmitting medium. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed the persistence of two previously unreported peaks related to the A7 structure in the pressure range of the simple-cubic one. The Rietveld refinement of the data demonstrates the occurrence of a two-step mechanism for the A7 to simple-cubic phase transition, indicating the existence of an intermediate pseudo simple-cubic structure...
September 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Giuseppe Sansone, Lorenzo Maschio, Antti J Karttunen
Phosphorus nanorings and nanohelices - which were speculated to exist over 20 years ago - have been systematically derived from one parent structure and studied with quantum chemical methods. The (P8P2)n nanorings have been recently synthetized inside carbon nanotube templates, and our comprehensive analysis of possible structural arrangements strongly supports the possibility to experimentally realize the closely-related (P8P2)n nanohelices. The nanohelices possess very low stiffness, suggesting interesting mechanical properties with nano-spring -like behavior...
September 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Eric M Lind, Kimberly J La Pierre, Eric W Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Oscar Iribarne, Jennifer Firn, Daniel S Gruner, Adam D Kay, Jesus Pascal, Justin P Wright, Louie Yang, Elizabeth T Borer
Increases in nutrient availability and alterations to mammalian herbivore communities are a hallmark of the Anthropocene, with consequences for the primary producer communities in many ecosystems. While progress has advanced understanding of plant community responses to these perturbations, the consequences for energy flow to higher trophic levels in the form of secondary production are less well understood. We quantified arthropod biomass after manipulating soil nutrient availability and wild mammalian herbivory, using identical methods across 13 temperate grasslands...
September 21, 2017: Ecology
Imen Jaballi, Hajer Ben Saad, Intidhar Bkhairia, Boutheina Cherif, Choumous Kallel, Ons Boudawara, Michael Droguet, Christian Magné, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
The current study aimed at evaluating the ability of a mineral and antioxidant-rich extract from Chondrus canaliculatus to improve maneb (MB)-induced toxicity in adult rat. The animals were divided into four groups: group 1 used as a control group, group 2 received MB, group 3 received MB + C. canaliculatus extract, and group 4 received only the algal extract. MB, a Mn-containing ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide, induced oxidative stress damages, mineral perturbations in the plasma, urine, and bone, and genotoxicity in rats...
September 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Gema L Batanero, Elizabeth León-Palmero, Linlin Li, Andy J Green, Manuel Rendón-Martos, Curtis A Suttle, Isabel Reche
Waterbird aggregations and droughts affect nutrient and microbial dynamics in wetlands. We analysed the effects of high densities of flamingos on nutrients and microbial dynamics in a saline lake during a wet and a dry hydrological year, and explored the effects of guano on prokaryotic growth. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus and total nitrogen in the surface waters were 2-3 fold higher during the drought and were correlated with salinity. Flamingos stimulated prokaryotic heterotrophic production and triggered cascading effects on prokaryotic abundance, viruses and dissolved nitrogen...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
D Farhadi, A Karimi, Gh Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
W Li, R Angel, S-W Kim, K Brady, S Yu, P W Plumstead
A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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