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Brain perfusion imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430860/increased-brainstem-perfusion-but-no-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-attacks-of-migraine-with-aura
#1
Anders Hougaard, Faisal M Amin, Casper E Christensen, Samaira Younis, Frauke Wolfram, Stig P Cramer, Henrik B W Larsson, Messoud Ashina
The migraine aura is characterized by transient focal cortical disturbances causing dramatic neurological symptoms that are usually followed by migraine headache. It is currently not understood how the aura symptoms are related to the headache phase of migraine. Animal studies suggest that cortical spreading depression, the likely mechanism of migraine aura, causes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and noxious stimulation of trigeminal afferents leading to activation of brainstem nuclei and triggering of migraine headache...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428190/in-vivo-detection-of-egfrviii-in-glioblastoma-via-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-signature-consistent-with-deep-peritumoral-infiltration-the-%C3%AF-index
#2
Spyridon Bakas, Hamed Akbari, Jared Pisapia, Maria Martinez-Lage, Martin Rozycki, Saima Rathore, Nadia Dahmane, Donald M O'Rourke, Christos Davatzikos
<br />The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) mutation has been considered a driver mutation and therapeutic target in glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive brain cancer. Currently, detecting EGFRvIII requires postoperative tissue analyses, which are ex vivo and unable to capture the tumor's spatial heterogeneity. Considering the increasing evidence of in vivo imaging signatures capturing molecular characteristics of cancer, this study aims to detect EGFRvIII in primary glioblastoma non-invasively, using routine clinically-acquired imaging...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424581/cerebral-pathology-and-cognition-in-diabetes-the-merits-of-multiparametric-neuroimaging
#3
REVIEW
Frank C G van Bussel, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Martin P J van Boxtel, Frans R J Verhey, Harry W M Steinbusch, Miranda T Schram, Coen D A Stehouwer, Joachim E Wildberger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and various cerebral abnormalities visible on MRI. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive decline in diabetes still remain to be elucidated. In addition to conventional images, MRI offers a versatile set of novel contrasts, including blood perfusion, neuronal function, white matter microstructure, and metabolic function. These more-advanced multiparametric MRI contrasts and the pertaining parameters are able to reveal abnormalities in type 2 diabetes, which may be related to cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418820/case-241-hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy-spect-with-99m-tc-trodat-1-and-muscle-mr-imaging-abnormalities
#4
Thiago Cardoso Vale, Flávia Cristina de Lima Pinto, José Luiz Pedroso, Marília Alves Dos Reis, Ilza Rosa Batista, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, René Leandro Magalhães Rivero, Renato Adam Mendonça, Orlando G Barsottini
History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416842/-drainage-characteristic-of-the-brain-interstitial-fluid-detected-by-using-fluorescence-and-magnetic-tracer-method
#5
Y Zhao, Y Q Li, H Y Li, Y L Li, L X Liu, L Yuan, S J Zhang, H B Han
OBJECTIVE: Compare the results of molecular diffusion and mass flow in the interstitial space(ISS) displayed by using optical and magnetic probes and study partitioned drainage of the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). METHODS: In the study, 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into fluorescent inspection group (18), magnetic tracer group (18). Then they were divided equally into caudate nucleus (Cn), thalamus (T) and substantia nigra (Sn) subgroup, 6 rats in each subgroup...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413864/evaluation-of-intracranial-microvessel-visualization-in-mouse-and-dog-models-by-using-a-new-rotating-cerium-anode-x-ray-system
#6
Chiharu Tanaka, Toru Shizuma, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Kikue Todoroki, Yoshimori Ikeya, Naoto Fukuyama, Toshihiko Ueda, Hidezo Mori
OBJECTIVE: Lacunar stroke may be caused by infarction of small perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery. We developed a microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode to evaluate the perforating branches. METHODS: Iodine has K-edges at 33.2 kilo electron volts. Cerium yields a characteristic X-ray of 34.6 kilo electron volts, therefore, the cerium anode X-ray system could detect tiny amounts of contrast material. First, an X-ray chart was used to evaluate the resolution...
April 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412316/differentiating-stroke-and-seizure-in-acute-setting-perfusion-computed-tomography
#7
Katarzyna Kubiak-Balcerewicz, Urszula Fiszer, Ewa Nagańska, Cezary Siemianowski, Aleksander Sobieszek, Agnieszka Witak-Grzybowska, Aldona Kosińska-Szot
BACKGROUND: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) is part of acute stroke protocol in many hospitals; however, its clinical utility is still being disputed. Beyond its use in core and penumbra estimation, there is also a question about PCT role in stroke mimics diagnosis. Case series or small, retrospective studies showed equivocal results. This is the first published prospective, comparative study on PCT in differentiating stroke and seizure in acute setting. METHODS: Patients with acute focal neurologic deficits and without acute ischemic lesions on routine CT underwent PCT and electroencephalography (EEG) within 12 hours after symptom onset...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409252/pediatric-brain-mri-part-2-advanced-techniques
#8
REVIEW
Mai-Lan Ho, Norbert G Campeau, Thang D Ngo, Unni K Udayasankar, Kirk M Welker
Pediatric neuroimaging is a complex and specialized field that uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as the workhorse for diagnosis. MR protocols should be tailored to the specific indication and reviewed by the supervising radiologist in real time. Targeted advanced imaging sequences can be added to provide information regarding tissue microstructure, perfusion, metabolism and function. In part 2 of this review, we highlight the utility of advanced imaging techniques for superior evaluation of pediatric neurologic disease...
May 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387340/advances-in-neuro-oncology-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks, Elke Hattingen, Nadim Jon Shah
Despite the fact that MRI has evolved to become the standard method for diagnosis and monitoring of patients with brain tumours, conventional MRI sequences have two key limitations: the inability to show the full extent of the tumour and the inability to differentiate neoplastic tissue from nonspecific, treatment-related changes after surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In the past decade, PET involving the use of radiolabelled amino acids has developed into an important diagnostic tool to overcome some of the shortcomings of conventional MRI...
April 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380018/image-denoising-substantially-improves-accuracy-and-precision-of-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-parameter-estimates
#10
Carolin Reischauer, Andreas Gutzeit
Applicability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging in the clinical setting is hampered by the limited reliability in particular of the perfusion-related parameter estimates. To alleviate this problem, various advanced postprocessing methods have been introduced. However, the underlying algorithms are not readily available and generally suffer from an increased computational burden. Contrary, several computationally fast image denoising methods have recently been proposed which are accessible online and may improve reliability of IVIM parameter estimates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377923/dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol-of-the-normal-canine-brain
#11
Krystina L Stadler, Anthony P Pease, Elizabeth A Ballegeer
Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically dynamic susceptibility MRI (DSC-MRI) is routinely performed as a supplement to conventional MRI in human medicine for patients with intracranial neoplasia and cerebrovascular events. There is minimal data on the use of DSC-MRI in veterinary patients and a DSC-MRI protocol in the veterinary patient has not been described. Sixteen normal dogs, 6 years or older were recruited for this study. The sample population included 11 large dogs (>11 kg) and 5 small dogs (<11 kg)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370449/the-role-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-pushing-the-boundaries-forward
#12
REVIEW
Stéphane Lehericy, David E Vaillancourt, Klaus Seppi, Oury Monchi, Irena Rektorova, Angelo Antonini, Martin J McKeown, Mario Masellis, Daniela Berg, James B Rowe, Simon J G Lewis, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Alessandro Tessitore, Hartwig R Siebner
Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed little to the study of Parkinson's disease (PD), but modern MRI approaches have unveiled several complementary markers that are useful for research and clinical applications. Iron- and neuromelanin-sensitive MRI detect qualitative changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369828/raised-intracranial-pressure-and-retinal-haemorrhages-in-childhood-encephalopathies
#13
Robert A Minns, Patricia A Jones, Anamika Tandon, Brian W Fleck, Alan O Mulvihill, Fiona C Minns
AIM: To explore the relationship between raised intracranial pressure (RICP) and retinal haemorrhages in traumatic and non-traumatic childhood encephalopathies. METHOD: A prospective study of 112 children (35 females and 77 males, age range 0.01mo-17y 8.3mo; mean 5y 8.6mo, median 4y 5.6mo) included 57 accidental traumatic brain injuries (ATBIs), 21 inflicted traumatic brain injuries (ITBIs), and 34 non-traumatic encephalopathy cases. Measurements included intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure, pressure-time index of ICP, and number, zone, and layer of retinal haemorrhages on retinal imaging...
March 29, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367905/4d-flow-mr-imaging-of-ophthalmic-artery-flow-in-patients-with-internal-carotid-artery-stenosis
#14
Tetsuro Sekine, Ryo Takagi, Yasuo Amano, Yasuo Murai, Erika Orita, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Yoshio Matsumura, Shin-Ichiro Kumita
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the clinical feasibility of time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast (4D Flow) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the ophthalmic artery (OphA) flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICS were recruited. 4D Flow MRI and acetazolamide-stress brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed...
March 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360997/imaging-biomarkers-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinsonian-syndromes-current-and-emerging-concepts
#15
REVIEW
Usman Saeed, Jordana Compagnone, Richard I Aviv, Antonio P Strafella, Sandra E Black, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis
Two centuries ago in 1817, James Parkinson provided the first medical description of Parkinson's disease, later refined by Jean-Martin Charcot in the mid-to-late 19th century to include the atypical parkinsonian variants (also termed, Parkinson-plus syndromes). Today, Parkinson's disease represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated global prevalence of over 10 million. Conversely, atypical parkinsonian syndromes encompass a group of relatively heterogeneous disorders that may share some clinical features with Parkinson's disease, but are uncommon distinct clinicopathological diseases...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352965/dual-energy-ct-to-diagnose-pseudoedema-in-contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-cerebral-angiography
#16
Gabriel L Pagani-Estévez, Deena M Nasr, Waleed Brinjikji, Avital Perry, Jennifer E Fugate
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is a syndrome that may be clinically unrecognized and misdiagnosed as cerebral edema. METHODS: Case report and review. RESULTS: A 72-year-old woman was admitted for elective endovascular embolization of a 10-mm left anterior communicating artery aneurysm. One hour post-procedure, she acutely developed global aphasia. Emergent head computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography-angiography (CTA) showed high attenuation of the left hemispheric subarachnoid spaces interpreted as hemispheric edema; emergent magnetic resonance imaging revealed left hemispheric punctate infarcts...
March 28, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350253/3d-visualization-and-quantification-of-microvessels-in-the-whole-ischemic-mouse-brain-using-solvent-based-clearing-and-light-sheet-microscopy
#17
Erlen Lugo-Hernandez, Anthony Squire, Nina Hagemann, Alexandra Brenzel, Maryam Sardari, Jana Schlechter, Eduardo H Sanchez-Mendoza, Matthias Gunzer, Andreas Faissner, Dirk M Hermann
The visualization of cerebral microvessels is essential for understanding brain remodeling after stroke. Injection of dyes allows for the evaluation of perfused vessels, but has limitations related either to incomplete microvascular filling or leakage. In conventional histochemistry, the analysis of microvessels is limited to 2D structures, with apparent limitations regarding the interpretation of vascular circuits. Herein, we developed a straight-forward technique to visualize microvessels in the whole ischemic mouse brain, combining the injection of a fluorescent-labeled low viscosity hydrogel conjugate with 3D solvent clearing followed by automated light sheet microscopy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349351/advanced-mri-techniques-in-the-monitoring-of-treatment-of-gliomas
#18
REVIEW
Harpreet Hyare, Steffi Thust, Jeremy Rees
With advances in treatments and survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), it has become apparent that conventional imaging sequences have significant limitations both in terms of assessing response to treatment and monitoring disease progression. Both 'pseudoprogression' after chemoradiation for newly diagnosed GBM and 'pseudoresponse' after anti-angiogenesis treatment for relapsed GBM are well-recognised radiological entities. This in turn has led to revision of response criteria away from the standard MacDonald criteria, which depend on the two-dimensional measurement of contrast-enhancing tumour, and which have been the primary measure of radiological response for over three decades...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348393/combination-of-volume-and-perfusion-parameters-reveals-different-types-of-grey-matter-changes-in-schizophrenia
#19
Lixue Xu, Wen Qin, Chuanjun Zhuo, Huaigui Liu, Jiajia Zhu, Chunshui Yu
Diverse brain structural and functional changes have been reported in schizophrenia. Identifying different types of brain changes may help to understand the neural mechanisms and to develop reliable biomarkers in schizophrenia. We aimed to categorize different grey matter changes in schizophrenia based on grey matter volume (GMV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 100 schizophrenia patients and 95 healthy comparison subjects. Voxel-based GMV comparison was used to show structural changes, CBF analysis was used to demonstrate functional changes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347670/oral-delivery-of-d-leu-4-ob3-and-ma-d-leu-4-ob3-synthetic-peptide-leptin-mimetics-immunofluorescent-localization-in-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#20
Brian M Anderson, Lauren Jacobson, Zachary M Novakovic, Patricia Grasso
This study describes the localization of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, in the hypothalamus of Swiss Webster and C57BL/6J wild-type mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and leptin-resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The mice were given [D-Leu-4]-OB3 or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 in 0.3% dodecyl maltoside by oral gavage. Once peak serum concentrations were reached, the mice received a lethal dose of pentobarbital and were subjected to intracardiac perfusion fixation. The brains were excised, post-fixed in paraformaldehyde, and cryo-protected in sucrose...
March 24, 2017: Brain Research
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