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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#1
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080221/molecular-mechanisms-of-antisense-oligonucleotides
#2
Stanley T Crooke
In 1987, when I became interested in the notion of antisense technology, I returned to my roots in RNA biochemistry and began work to understand how oligonucleotides behave in biological systems. Since 1989, my research has focused primarily on this topic, although I have been involved in most areas of research in antisense technology. I believe that the art of excellent science is to frame large important questions that are perhaps not immediately answerable with existing knowledge and methods, and then conceive a long-term (multiyear) research strategy that begins by answering the most pressing answerable questions on the path to the long-term goals...
January 12, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079725/new-medicine-for-the-u-s-health-care-system-training-physicians-for-structural-interventions
#3
Helena Hansen, Jonathan M Metzl
Structural competency provides a language and theoretical framework to promote institutional-level interventions by clinical practitioners working with community organizations, non-health-sector institutions, and policy makers. The special collection of articles on structural competency in this issue of Academic Medicine addresses the need to move from theory to an appraisal of core educational interventions that operationalize the goals of and foster structural competency. In this Commentary, the authors review the role of clinical practitioners in enhancing population-level health outcomes through collaborations with professionals in fields outside medicine, including the social sciences and law...
January 10, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079592/implementation-science-the-laboratory-as-a-command-centre
#4
Debrah I Boeras, John N Nkengasong, Rosanna W Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077935/development-of-a-microarray-based-method-for-allergen-specific-ige-and-igg4-detection
#5
Guzel Feyzkhanova, Sergei Voloshin, Olga Smoldovskaya, Alla Arefieva, Marina Filippova, Viktor Barsky, Ludmila Pavlushkina, Veronika Butvilovskaya, Alexei Tikhonov, Yuri Reznikov, Alla Rubina
BACKGROUND: sIgE and sIgG4 detection is necessary for more accurate and effective type I hypersensitivity diagnostics and the estimation of disease development. Typically, the analyses of these antibodies are performed separately with the help of various specialized systems. The aim of this study was to develop a microarray-based method for the simultaneous quantitative detection of sIgE and sIgG4 to the most common allergens in a single sample. METHODS: A quantitative method for the simultaneous detection of sIgE and sIgG4 was developed based on the technology of hydrogel microchips previously designed at Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (EIMB RAS)...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077900/prevalence-of-oral-lichen-planus-in-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis-study
#6
Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Roohollah Sharifi, Masoud Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is associated with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluated the prevalence of OLP in DM patients compared with non-diabetic control subjects in a meta-analysis study. METHODS: In this study from January 1973 to August 2016, we searched the studies in Web of Science, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, SID (Scientific Information Database), Cochrane and Embase databases...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077473/a-joint-ers-ats-policy-statement-what-constitutes-an-adverse-health-effect-of-air-pollution-an-analytical-framework
#7
George D Thurston, Howard Kipen, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, John Balmes, Robert D Brook, Kevin Cromar, Sara De Matteis, Francesco Forastiere, Bertil Forsberg, Mark W Frampton, Jonathan Grigg, Dick Heederik, Frank J Kelly, Nino Kuenzli, Robert Laumbach, Annette Peters, Sanjay T Rajagopalan, David Rich, Beate Ritz, Jonathan M Samet, Thomas Sandstrom, Torben Sigsgaard, Jordi Sunyer, Bert Brunekreef
The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076633/statins-for-aortic-valve-stenosis
#8
Luciana Thiago, Selma Rumiko Tsuji, Jonathan Nyong, Maria Eduarda Dos Santos Puga, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de Góis, Cristiane Rufino Macedo, Orsine Valente, Álvaro Nagib Atallah
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#9
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075059/photochemically-driven-polymeric-network-formation-synthesis-and-applications
#10
Eva Blasco, Martin Wegener, Christopher Barner-Kowollik
Polymeric networks have been intensely investigated and a large number of applications have been found in areas ranging from biomedicine to materials science. Network fabrication via light-induced reactions is a particularly powerful tool, since light provides ready access to temporal and spatial control, opening an array of synthetic access routes for structuring the network geometry as well as functionality. Herein, the most recent light-induced modular reactions and their use in the formation of precision polymeric networks are collated...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075002/-why-do-we-call-the-brain-brain
#11
REVIEW
A Garcia-Molina, A Ensenat
INTRODUCTION: Every day millions of professionals use a countless number of technical words to refer to the different structures inside the skull. But few of them would know how to explain their origin. In this study we take an in-depth look into the etymological origins of some of these neuroanatomical terms. DEVELOPMENT: The study takes an etymological tour of the central nervous system. It is in no way meant to be an exhaustive, detailed review of the terms currently in use, but instead a means to familiarise the reader with the linguistic past of words like brain, hippocampus, thalamus, claustrum, fornix, corpus callosum or limbic system...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070249/prevalence-of-postoperative-pressure-ulcer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Vida Shafipour, Ensieh Ramezanpour, Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Mahmood Moosazadeh
INTRODUCTION: A pressure ulcer is a serious safety issue in healthcare systems. The patient's rate of infection with an ulcer, especially a postoperative ulcer, is critical, as it is dictated by factors such as being in a fixed position during surgery, the type of anesthesia used, the duration of surgery, and patient-related factors. The present study was conducted to carry out a systematic assessment of the prevalence of a postoperative pressure ulcer and to find its general prevalence using a meta-analysis...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070123/a-meta-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
X-Y Qin, H-T Wu, C Cao, Y P Loh, Y Cheng
Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069485/alternative-approaches-for-identifying-acute-systemic-toxicity-moving-from-research-to-regulatory-testing
#14
REVIEW
Jon Hamm, Kristie Sullivan, Amy J Clippinger, Judy Strickland, Shannon Bell, Barun Bhhatarai, Bas Blaauboer, Warren Casey, David Dorman, Anna Forsby, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Sean Gehen, Rabea Graepel, Jon Hotchkiss, Anna Lowit, Joanna Matheson, Elissa Reaves, Louis Scarano, Catherine Sprankle, Jay Tunkel, Dan Wilson, Menghang Xia, Hao Zhu, David Allen
Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives...
January 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069279/masitinib-for-treatment-of-severely-symptomatic-indolent-systemic-mastocytosis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#15
Olivier Lortholary, Marie Olivia Chandesris, Cristina Bulai Livideanu, Carle Paul, Gérard Guillet, Ewa Jassem, Marek Niedoszytko, Stéphane Barete, Srdan Verstovsek, Clive Grattan, Gandhi Damaj, Danielle Canioni, Sylvie Fraitag, Ludovic Lhermitte, Sophie Georgin Lavialle, Laurent Frenzel, Lawrence B Afrin, Katia Hanssens, Julie Agopian, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Kinet, Christian Auclair, Colin Mansfield, Alain Moussy, Patrice Dubreuil, Olivier Hermine
BACKGROUND: Indolent systemic mastocytosis, including the subvariant of smouldering systemic mastocytosis, is a lifelong condition associated with reduced quality of life. Masitinib inhibits KIT and LYN kinases that are involved in indolent systemic mastocytosis pathogenesis. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of masitinib versus placebo in severely symptomatic patients who were unresponsive to optimal symptomatic treatments. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we enrolled adults (aged 18-75 years) with indolent or smouldering systemic mastocytosis, according to WHO classification or documented mastocytosis based on histological criteria, at 50 centres in 15 countries...
January 6, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068491/bioavailabilty-of-nutrients-and-micronutrients-advances-in-modeling-and-in-vitro-approaches
#16
Sébastien Marze
The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions.Onone hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068489/legumes-as-functional-ingredients-in-gluten-free-bakery-and-pasta-products
#17
Martina Foschia, Stefan W Horstmann, Elke K Arendt, Emanuele Zannini
The increasing demand of gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068135/the-pediatric-patient-centered-medical-home-innovative-models-for-improving-behavioral-health
#18
Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow, David J Kolko, Jeanne Miranda, Anne E Kazak
This article examines the concept of the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) as it applies to children and adolescents, emphasizing care for behavioral health conditions, the role of psychology and psychological science, and next steps for developing evidence-informed models for the Pediatric-PCMH. The PCMH concept for pediatric populations offers unique opportunities for psychological science to inform and enhance the transformation of the United States health care system and improve health in our nation...
January 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068134/psychologists-in-patient-centered-medical-homes-pcmhs-roles-evidence-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
Anne E Kazak, Justin M Nash, Kimberly Hiroto, Nadine J Kaslow
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an increasingly common model of health care delivery with many exciting opportunities for psychologists. The PCMH reflects a philosophy and model of care that is highly consistent with psychological science and practice. It strives to provide patient-centered, comprehensive, team-based, coordinated, accessible, and quality and safety-oriented health care delivery to individuals and families. Moreoever, in keeping with changes in the health care system more broadly, the PCMH model prioritizes the integration of behavioral and physical health care, and this emphasis lays the foundation for active and full engagement of psychologists in this context...
January 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068098/coherent-phonon-rabi-oscillations-with-a-high-frequency-carbon-nanotube-phonon-cavity
#20
Dong Zhu, Xin-He Wang, Wei-Cheng Kong, Guang-Wei Deng, Jiang-Tao Wang, Hai-Ou Li, Gang Cao, Ming Xiao, Kai-Li Jiang, Xing-Can Dai, Guang-Can Guo, Franco Nori, Guo-Ping Guo
Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
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