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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#1
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339743/application-of-bacteriophages-to-reduce-salmonella-attachment-and-biofilms-on-hard-surfaces
#2
Chao Gong, Xiuping Jiang
This study evaluated the effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment for reducing Salmonella attachment and biofilms on hard surfaces. Bacteriophages (n = 6) were selected for bacteriophage treatment based on host ranges against Salmonella isolates (n = 10) obtained from rendering plants. The effectiveness of bacteriophage treatment (104-108 PFU/mL) was initially evaluated against strong Salmonella biofilm formers in 96-well microplate. Then, the bacteriophage treatment (109 PFU/mL) was applied for 7 d to reduce Salmonella attached to the stainless steel surfaces under laboratory and greenhouse conditions...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337744/tknockdown-of-an-inflorescence-meristem-specific-cytokinin-oxidase-osckx2-in-rice-reduces-yield-penalty-under-salinity-stress-condition
#3
Rohit Joshi, Khirod Kumar Sahoo, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Ritesh Kumar, Brijesh Kumar Gupta, Ashwani Pareek, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek
Cytokinins play a significant role in determining grain yield in plants. Cytokinin oxidases catalyze irreversible degradation of cytokinins and hence modulate cellular cytokinin levels. Here, we studied the role of an inflorescence meristem-specific rice cytokinin oxidase - OsCKX2, in reducing yield penalty under salinity stress conditions. We utilized an RNAi-based approach to study the function of OsCKX2 in maintaining grain yield under salinity stress condition. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-based estimation revealed a significant increase in cytokinins in the inflorescence meristem of OsCKX2-knockdown plants...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337628/study-of-plasma-off-gas-treatment-from-spent-ion-exchange-resin-pyrolysis
#4
Hernán Ariel Castro, Vittorio Luca, Hugo Luis Banchi
Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including (14)C, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (129)I, and (137)Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336855/behavior-and-potential-impacts-of-metal-based-engineered-nanoparticles-in-aquatic-environments
#5
REVIEW
Cheng Peng, Wen Zhang, Haiping Gao, Yang Li, Xin Tong, Kungang Li, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yixiang Wang, Yongsheng Chen
The specific properties of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) have not only led to rapidly increasing applications in various industrial and commercial products, but also caused environmental concerns due to the inevitable release of NPs and their unpredictable biological/ecological impacts. This review discusses the environmental behavior of metal-based NPs with an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms and kinetics. The focus is on knowledge gaps in the interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms, which can influence the fate, transport and toxicity of NPs in the aquatic environment...
January 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334304/livestock-grazing-shapes-the-vegetation-structure-and-subsequent-habitat-use-by-the-endangered-skipper-pyrgus-ruralis-lagunae-lepidoptera-hesperiidae
#6
Daniel A Marschalek, David K Faulkner, Douglas H Deutschman
Many species adapted to alpine and montane meadow ecosystems are at risk of extinction. The skipper Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott is a mountaintop butterfly restricted to San Diego County, CA, a federally listed endangered species, and is in imminent risk of extinction. Historically, P. r. lagunae was found in the Laguna and Palomar mountains. We did not detect the skipper in the Laguna Mountains, and the species has likely been extirpated from this area, which represents half of its historical range and is the type locality...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334275/identification-of-a-novel-bzip-transcription-factor-in-camellia-sinensis-as-a-negative-regulator-of-freezing-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#7
Lu Wang, Hongli Cao, Wenjun Qian, Lina Yao, Xinyuan Hao, Nana Li, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Background and Aims: Basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play vital roles in the abiotic stress response of plants. However, little is known about the function of bZIP genes in Camellia sinensis . Methods: CsbZIP6 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana . Effects of CsbZIP6 overexpression on abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, freezing tolerance and the expression of cold-responsive genes in arabidopsis were studied. Key Results: CsbZIP6 was induced during cold acclimation in tea plant...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333111/solanesol-biosynthesis-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Ning Yan, Yanhua Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Yongmei Du, Xinmin Liu, Zhongfeng Zhang
Solanesol is a non-cyclic terpene alcohol composed of nine isoprene units that mainly accumulates in solanaceous plants. Solanesol plays an important role in the interactions between plants and environmental factors such as pathogen infections and moderate-to-high temperatures. Additionally, it is a key intermediate for the pharmaceutical synthesis of ubiquinone-based drugs such as coenzyme Q10 and vitamin K2, and anti-cancer agent synergizers such as N-solanesyl-N,N'-bis(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) ethylenediamine (SDB)...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333109/angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-inhibitory-peptides-from-plants
#9
REVIEW
Ceren Daskaya-Dikmen, Aysun Yucetepe, Funda Karbancioglu-Guler, Hayrettin Daskaya, Beraat Ozcelik
Hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors like synthetic drugs are widely used to control hypertension. ACE-inhibitory peptides from food origins could be a good alternative to synthetic drugs. A number of plant-based peptides have been investigated for their potential ACE inhibitor activities by using in vitro and in vivo assays. These plant-based peptides can be obtained by solvent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis with or without novel food processing methods, and fermentation...
March 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331096/comprehensive-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-that-potato-spindle-tuber-viroid-triggers-genome-wide-changes-in-alternative-splicing-inducible-trans-acting-activity-of-phasirnas-and-immune-responses
#10
Yi Zheng, Ying Wang, Biao Ding, Zhangjun Fei
Many pathogens express non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) during infection processes. In the most extreme case, pathogenic ncRNAs alone (such as viroids) can infect eukaryotic organisms leading to diseases. While a few of pathogenic ncRNAs have been implicated in regulating gene expression, functions of most pathogenic ncRNAs in host-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Here we employ potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)-infecting tomato as a system to dissect host interactions with pathogenic ncRNAs, using comprehensive transcriptome analyses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331089/diversity-distribution-and-evolution-of-tomato-viruses-in-china-uncovered-by-small-rna-sequencing
#11
Chenxi Xu, Xuepeng Sun, Angela Taylor, Chen Jiao, Yimin Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Chenhui Ge, Guanghui Pan, Quanxi Wang, Zhangjun Fei, Quanhua Wang
Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with coldspots and hotspots. Most samples were co-infected by multiple viruses and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330304/elicitation-of-gymnemic-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-gymnema-sylvestre-r-br-through-endophytic-fungi
#12
Vasudeva Reddy Netala, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, Susmila Aparna Gaddam, Sukhendu Bikash Ghosh, Vijaya Tartte
The enhancement of plant secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures through biotic or abiotic elicitation has become a potential biotechnological approach for commercialization or large-scale production of bioactive compounds. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. is an important medicinal plant, rich in a group of oleanane triterpenoid saponins called gymnemic acid, well known for its anti-diabetic activity. Two endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the leaves of G. sylvestre and identified as Polyancora globosa and Xylaria sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#13
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330073/cladosporium-cladosporioides-from-the-perspectives-of-medical-and-biotechnological-approaches
#14
REVIEW
Manaf AlMatar, Essam A Makky
Fungi are important natural product sources that have enormous potential for the production of novel compounds for use in pharmacology, agricultural applications and industry. Compared with other natural sources such as plants, fungi are highly diverse but understudied. However, research on Cladosporium cladosporioides revealed the existence of bioactive products such as p-methylbenzoic acid, ergosterol peroxide (EP) and calphostin C as well as enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and chlorpyrifos hydrolase...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329733/comparison-of-transcriptional-expression-patterns-of-carotenoid-metabolism-in-cabernet-sauvignon-grapes-from-two-regions-with-distinct-climate
#15
Wei-Kai Chen, Ke-Ji Yu, Bin Liu, Yi-Bin Lan, Run-Ze Sun, Qiang Li, Fei He, Qiu-Hong Pan, Chang-Qing Duan, Jun Wang
The downstream flux of carotenoid metabolism in grape berries includes the biosynthesis of norisoprenoids, a group of important aroma compounds, and the production of ABA, a well-known plant hormone. This study focused on the transcriptional profiling comparison of genes participating in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, norisoprenoids, and ABA in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes at pea size, veraison, and ripening stages. The grapes were obtained from Changli (CL, eastern China) and Gaotai (GT, western China) regions and analyzed using RNA-sequencing technology...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327966/de-novo-transcriptome-assemblies-of-four-xylem-sap-feeding-insects
#16
Erica E Tassone, Charles C Cowden, S J Castle
Background: Spittle bugs and sharpshooters are well-known xylem sap-feeding insects and vectors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells), a causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and other crop diseases. Specialized feeding on nutrient-deficient xylem sap is relatively rare among insect herbivores, and only limited genomic and transcriptomic information has been generated for xylem-sap feeders. To develop a more comprehensive understanding of biochemical adaptations and symbiotic relationships that support survival on a nutritionally austere dietary source, transcriptome assemblies for three sharpshooter species and one spittlebug species were produced...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324279/soil-organic-matter-as-sole-indicator-of-soil-degradation
#17
S E Obalum, G U Chibuike, S Peth, Y Ouyang
Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323242/investigation-of-the-indigenous-fungal-community-populating-barley-grains-secretomes-and-xylanolytic-potential
#18
Abida Sultan, Jens C Frisvad, Birgit Andersen, Birte Svensson, Christine Finnie
The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320487/the-application-of-contrast-media-for-in-vivo-feature-enhancement-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-of-soil-grown-plant-roots
#19
Samuel D Keyes, Neil J Gostling, Jessica H Cheung, Tiina Roose, Ian Sinclair, Alan Marchant
The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum)...
March 21, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317545/phylogeny-and-pathogenicity-of-lasiodiplodia-species-associated-with-dieback-of-mango-in-peru
#20
Edgar Rodríguez-Gálvez, Pakita Guerrero, Carla Barradas, Pedro W Crous, Artur Alves
Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α)...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
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