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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911377/hybrid-cut-an-improved-sectioning-method-for-recalcitrant-plant-tissue-samples
#1
Tien-Kuan Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Su-Chiung Fang, Yi-Chen Lien, Ting-Ting Yang, Swee-Suak Ko
Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals (calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907856/cdna-aflp-analysis-of-transcripts-induced-in-chickpea-plants-by-tio2-nanoparticles-during-cold-stress
#2
Saeed Amini, Reza Maali-Amiri, Rahmat Mohammadi, Seyyedeh-Sanam Kazemi-Shahandashti
We evaluated the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on cold tolerance (CT) development in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold tolerant, and ILC533, cold susceptible) by using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique during the first and sixth days of cold stress (CS) at 4 °C. Selective amplification by primer combinations generated 4200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) while 100 of them (2.62%) were differentially expressed. During CS, 60 differentially expressed TDFs of TiO2 NPs-treated plants were cloned and 10 of them produced successfully readable sequences...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907027/assessment-of-soybean-flowering-and-seed-maturation-time-in-different-latitude-regions-of-kazakhstan
#3
Saule Abugalieva, Svetlana Didorenko, Shynar Anuarbek, Lubov Volkova, Yelena Gerasimova, Ivan Sidorik, Yerlan Turuspekov
Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903256/revealing-hidden-species-diversity-in-closely-related-species-using-nuclear-snps-ssrs-and-dna-sequences-a-case-study-in-the-tree-genus-milicia
#4
Kasso Daïnou, Céline Blanc-Jolivet, Bernd Degen, Priscilla Kimani, Dyana Ndiade-Bourobou, Armel S L Donkpegan, Félicien Tosso, Esra Kaymak, Nils Bourland, Jean-Louis Doucet, Olivier J Hardy
BACKGROUND: Species delimitation in closely related plant taxa can be challenging because (i) reproductive barriers are not always congruent with morphological differentiation, (ii) use of plastid sequences might lead to misinterpretation, (iii) rare species might not be sampled. We revisited molecular-based species delimitation in the African genus Milicia, currently divided into M. regia (West Africa) and M. excelsa (from West to East Africa). We used 435 samples collected in West, Central and East Africa...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902255/paraburkholderia-piptadeniae-sp-nov-and-paraburkholderia-ribeironis-sp-nov-two-root-nodulating-symbiotic-species-of-piptadenia-gonoacantha-in-brazil
#5
Caroline Bournaud, Lionel Moulin, Margo Cnockaert, Sergio Miana de Faria, Yves Prin, Dany Severac, Peter Vandamme
During a survey of root-nodulating symbionts of Mimosoid species in South-east region of Brazil, eight Paraburkholderia isolates were obtained from nodules of the legume species Piptadenia gonoacantha, either from the field or following a soil trapping method with the same plant host. 16S rRNA as well as recA and gyrB phylogenetic markers placed these strains in two new clades within the genus Burkholderia sensu lato. DNA-DNA hybridization values and analyses of the whole genome sequence of selected strains in each clade showed that the two clades represented novel Paraburkholderia species...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901124/analysis-of-chikungunya-virus-proteins-reveals-that-non-structural-proteins-nsp2-and-nsp3-exhibit-rna-interference-rnai-suppressor-activity
#6
Kalika Mathur, Abhishek Anand, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Raj K Bhatnagar, Sujatha Sunil
RNAi pathway is an antiviral defence mechanism employed by insects that result in degradation of viral RNA thereby curbing infection. Several viruses including flaviviruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract the antiviral RNAi pathway. Till date, no VSR has been reported in alphaviruses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chikungunya virus (CHIKV) proteins for RNAi suppressor activity. We systematically analyzed all nine CHIKV proteins for RNAi suppressor activity using Sf21 RNAi sensor cell line based assay...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#7
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899246/pilot-scale-evaluation-of-a-novel-tio2-supported-v2o5-catalyst-for-denox-at-low-temperatures-at-a-waste-incinerator
#8
Hyounduk Jung, Eunseuk Park, Minsu Kim, Jongsoo Jurng
The removal of NOx by catalytic technology at low temperatures is significant for treatment of flue gas in waste incineration plants, especially at temperatures below 200°C. A novel highly active TiO2-supported vanadium oxide catalyst at low temperatures (200-250°C) has been developed for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) de-NOx process with ammonia. The catalyst was evaluated in a pilot-scale equipment, and the results were compared with those obtained in our previous work using laboratory scale (small volume test) equipment as well as bench-scale laboratory equipment...
November 26, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899137/ethnobotanical-survey-of-cosmetic-plants-used-in-marquesas-islands-french-polynesia
#9
Xénia Jost, Jean-Luc Ansel, Gaël Lecellier, Phila Raharivelomanana, Jean-François Butaud
BACKGROUND: Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896995/muse-a-multi-locus-sampling-based-epistasis-algorithm-for-quantitative-genetic-trait-prediction
#10
Dan He, Laxmi Parida
Quantitative genetic trait prediction based on high-density genotyping arrays plays an important role for plant and animal breeding, as well as genetic epidemiology such as complex diseases. The prediction can be very helpful to develop breeding strategies and is crucial to translate the findings in genetics to precision medicine. Epistasis, the phenomena where the SNPs interact with each other, has been studied extensively in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) but received relatively less attention for quantitative genetic trait prediction...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#11
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896487/natural-compounds-as-occult-ototoxins-ginkgo-biloba-flavonoids-moderately-damage-lateral-line-hair-cells
#12
Sarah Neveux, Nicole K Smith, Anna Roche, Bruce E Blough, Wimal Pathmasiri, Allison B Coffin
Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895652/rapid-evolution-of-manifold-crispr-systems-for-plant-genome-editing
#13
REVIEW
Levi Lowder, Aimee Malzahn, Yiping Qi
Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9's utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities, and specialized applications...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892855/application-of-ethnobotanical-repellents-and-acaricides-in-prevention-control-and-management-of-livestock-ticks-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Roman Pavela, Angelo Canale, Heinz Mehlhorn, Giovanni Benelli
Ticks transmit at least the same number or even more pathogens than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods worldwide affecting humans and animals. The eco-friendly control and management of tick vectors in a constantly changing environment is a crucial challenge. Besides the development of vaccines against ticks, IPM practices aimed at reducing tick interactions with livestock, emerging pheromone-based control tools, and few biological control agents, the extensive employment of acaricides and tick repellents still remain the most effective and ready-to-use strategies...
September 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890695/nitric-oxide-polyamines-cross-talk-during-dormancy-release-and-germination-of-apple-embryos
#15
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890637/antiplasmodial-activity-of-heinsia-crinita-rubiaceae-and-identification-of-new-iridoids
#16
P Tshisekedi Tshibangu, P Mutwale Kapepula, M J Kabongo Kapinga, A Tujibikila Mukuta, Dibungi T Kalenda, Alembert T Tchinda, Ange A Mouithys-Mickalad, O Jansen, E Cieckiewicz, M Tits, L Angenot, M Frédérich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Heinsia crinita is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of febrile illness and erectile dysfunction. Its stem bark powder is found in some peripheral markets in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a remedy against malaria. Investigations were conducted on crude extracts of leaves, fruits and stem barks in view to validate their use and to determine which plant part possesses the best antiplasmodial properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different plant parts were extracted with methanol, ethanol and dichloromethane...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890087/molecular-phylogeny-diversity-community-structure-and-plant-growth-promoting-properties-of-fungal-endophytes-associated-with-the-corms-of-saffron-plant-an-insight-into-the-microbiome-of-crocus-sativus-linn
#17
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Dania Nazir Mirza, Palak Arora, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs)...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#18
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886586/nitrous-oxide-from-moving-bed-based-integrated-fixed-film-activated-sludge-membrane-bioreactors
#19
Giorgio Mannina, Marco Capodici, Alida Cosenza, Daniele Di Trapani, Vito Armando Laudicina, Hallvard Ødegaard
The present paper reports the results of a nitrous oxide (N2O) production investigation in a moving bed based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant designed in accordance with the University of Cape Town layout for biological phosphorous removal. Gaseous and liquid samples were collected in order to measure the gaseous as well as the dissolved concentration of N2O. Furthermore, the gas flow rate from each reactor was measured and the gas flux was estimated. The results confirmed that the anoxic reactor represents the main source of nitrous oxide production...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886346/simultaneous-selection-in-beans-for-stability-and-high-agronomic-performance
#20
N D Ribeiro, C R Casagrande, H C Mezzomo, M T D F Possobom, S de M Steckling, G R Kläsener
The objective of this study was to select common bean cultivars based on their stability for flowering, cycle, insertion of the first pod, grain yield, and high agronomic performance. Twenty experiments were carried out between 2000 and 2014, during two growing seasons, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Eberhart and Russel, and Lin and Binns methods, as well as the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) method, were used to evaluate the stability of flowering, cycle, insertion of the first pod, and grain yield of 10 common cultivars in all experiments...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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