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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437556/inheritance-of-bacterial-spot-resistance-in-capsicum-annuum-var-annuum
#1
L R A Silva, R Rodrigues, S Pimenta, J W S Correa, M S B Araújo, C S Bento, C P Sudré
Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435190/prevalence-of-salmonella-in-poultry-processing-environments-in-wet-markets-in-penang-and-perlis-malaysia
#2
Hafiz Nidaullah, Nadarajan Abirami, Ahamed Kamal Shamila-Syuhada, Li-Oon Chuah, Huda Nurul, Teik Pei Tan, Farah Wahida Zainal Abidin, Gulam Rusul
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433145/influence-of-the-radial-stem-composition-on-the-thermal-behaviour-of-miscanthus-and-sorghum-genotypes
#3
Lucie Chupin, Dieter de Ridder, Anne Clément-Vidal, Armelle Soutiras, Emilie Gineau, Grégory Mouille, Stéphanie Arnoult, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel, Catherine Lapierre, David Pot, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija, Patrick Navard
The hypothesis made is that thermal resistance of sorghum and miscanthus stem pieces taken at well-defined positions of the stem is simply related to their biochemical composition. For miscanthus, two different genotypes and two internode levels were selected. For each region, the stem was divided into three radial layers. For sorghum, two different genotypes were selected and the stem was divided into the same three radial layers. The results show that the thermal analysis is only sensitive to very large variations of compositions...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432509/assessment-of-cadmium-content-of-potato-grown-in-weining-county-guizhou-province-china
#4
Yuping Zhang, Yu E Wu, Anming Yang, Jun Wang, Kankan Zhang, Deyu Hu
A total of 54 soil and 54 potato samples have been collected from Weining County to evaluate the accumulation of cadmium in potatoes. The concentrations of the total Cd and the available Cd in the soil samples have been detected. The total concentrations of Cd were from 0.41 to 10.0 mg/kg with an average value of 2.60 mg/kg in soil. The concentrations of available Cd in the soil were 0.07 to 3.47 mg/kg with an average value of 0.59 mg/kg. The concentration of the available Cd showed a good linear positive correlation with the total Cd content in the soil...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#5
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431570/a-relative-quantitative-methylation-sensitive-amplified-polymorphism-msap-method-for-the-analysis-of-abiotic-stress
#6
Piotr T Bednarek, Renata Orłowska, Agnieszka Niedziela
BACKGROUND: We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting HpaII and MspI restriction sites in control and stressed samples, and takes advantage of molecular marker profiles generated by EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI MSAP platforms...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431513/functional-characterization-of-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-clade-v-mlo-genes
#7
Jeroen A Berg, Michela Appiano, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Richard G F Visser, Henk J Schouten, Yuling Bai
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited broad-spectrum resistance to PM in several species. In cucumber, one clade V MLO homolog (CsaMLO8) was previously identified as being a susceptibility factor to PM. Two other closely related homologs (CsaMLO1 and CsaMLO11) were found, but their function was not yet unravelled...
April 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#8
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430157/development-of-user-friendly-method-to-distinguish-subspecies-of-the-korean-medicinal-herb-perilla-frutescens-using-multiplex-pcr
#9
Yonguk Kim, Ah-Young Kim, Ara Jo, Hakjoon Choi, Seung-Sik Cho, Chulyung Choi
Perilla (Perilla frutescens) is an economically and culturally important plant in East Asia. Plant breeding between cultivars has enhanced the genetic diversity of perilla overall, but means that functionally diverse subspecies are more difficult to identify and distinguish. In this study, we developed gene-based DNA markers to distinguish between the Korean herbal medicinal perilla varieties. We identified informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions on the promoter regions of the Myb-P1 and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes, as well as a large insertion-deletion (indel) region in the limonene synthase (LS) gene, and developed markers to characterize the distinct subspecies differences (PfMyb-P1pro, PfDFRpro, and PfLS, respectively)...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#10
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429593/model-amphiphilic-block-copolymers-with-tailored-molecular-weight-and-composition-in-pdms-based-films-to-limit-soft-biofouling
#11
Brandon M Wenning, Elisa Martinelli, Sophie Mieszkin, John A Finlay, Daniel A Fischer, James A Callow, Maureen E Callow, Amanda Leonardi, Christopher K Ober, Giancarlo Galli
A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic surface-active block copolymers dispersed in a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry as well as antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) performance. AF and FR properties were assessed by carrying out settlement and removal assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to non-polar surfaces)...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#12
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#13
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#14
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425874/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessments-of-rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-as-an-alternative-anti-streptococcal-agent-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-l
#15
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Sasitorn Chusri, Naraid Suanyuk, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
PURPOSE: Rhodomyrtustomentosa is a Thai medicinal plant that has been attracting attention for its remarkable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of R. tomentosa leaf extract against Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae isolated from infected tilapia. METHODOLOGY: The anti-streptococcal activity of R. tomentosa was determined using broth microdilution assays...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422996/overexpression-of-an-eazip-gene-devoid-of-transit-peptide-sequence-induced-leaf-variegation-in-tobacco
#16
Xiayu Guan, Zhijian Li, Zhiliang Zhang, Xiangying Wei, Jiahua Xie, Jianjun Chen, Qingxi Chen
Leaf variegation is an ornamental trait that is not only biologically but also economically important. In our previous study, a Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase homologue, EaZIP (Epipremnum aureum leucine zipper) was found to be associated with leaf variegation in Epipremnum aureum (Linden & Andre) G.S. Bunting. The protein product of this nuclear-encoded gene is targeted back to chloroplast involving in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Based on a web-based homology analysis, the EaZIP was found to lack a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421098/fine-mapping-the-branching-habit-trait-in-cultivated-peanut-by-combining-bulked-segregant-analysis-and-high-throughput-sequencing
#17
Galya Kayam, Yael Brand, Adi Faigenboim-Doron, Abhinandan Patil, Ilan Hedvat, Ran Hovav
The growth habit of lateral shoots (also termed "branching habit") is an important descriptive and agronomic character of peanut. Yet, both the inheritance of branching habit and the genetic mechanism that controls it in this crop remain unclear. In addition, the low degree of polymorphism among cultivated peanut varieties hinders fine-mapping of this and other traits in non-homozygous genetic structures. Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing with a well-defined genetic system to study these issues in peanut...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421029/a-historical-view-of-motion-sickness-a-plague-at-sea-and-on-land-also-with-military-impact
#18
Doreen Huppert, Judy Benson, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419855/a-randomized-trial-of-silymarin-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#19
Wah-Kheong Chan, Nik Raihan Nik Mustapha, Sanjiv Mahadeva
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Silymarin is a complex mixture of 6 major flavonolignans and other minor polyphenolic compounds derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum; it has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, and may be useful in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to study the efficacy of silymarin in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-the more severe form of NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of consecutive adults with biopsy-proven NASH and a NAFLD activity score (NAS) of 4 or more at a tertiary care hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from November 2012 through August 2014...
April 15, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419363/applying-drought-to-potted-plants-by-maintaining-suboptimal-soil-moisture-improves-plant-water-relations
#20
Jaime Puértolas, Elisabeth K Larsen, William J Davies, Ian C Dodd
Pot-based phenotyping of drought response sometimes maintains suboptimal soil water content by applying high-frequency deficit irrigation (HFDI). We examined the effect of this treatment on water and abscisic acid (ABA) relations of two species (Helianthus annuus and Populus nigra). Suboptimal soil water content was maintained by frequent irrigation, and compared with the effects of withholding water and with adequate irrigation. At the same average whole-pot soil moisture, frequent irrigation resulted in larger soil water content gradients, lower root and xylem ABA concentrations ([X-ABA]), along with higher transpiration rates or stomatal conductance, compared with plants from which water was withheld...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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