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plant based wellness

Todd Blevins
Cells have evolved intricate RNA-directed mechanisms that destroy viruses, silence transposons, and regulate gene expression. These nucleic acid surveillance and gene silencing mechanisms rely upon the selective base-pairing of ~19-25 nt small RNAs to complementary RNA targets. This chapter describes northern blot hybridization techniques for the detection of such small RNAs. Blots spiked with synthetic standards are used to illustrate the detection specificity and sensitivity of DNA oligonucleotide probes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Chandrashekhar Patil, Rahul Suryawanshi, Sunil Koli, Satish Patil
Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) producing microorganisms support plant growth under a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions such as drought, soil salinity, flooding, heavy metal pollution and phyto-pathogen attack. Available screening methods for ACCD give idea only about its primary microbial ACCD activity than the actual potential. In the present investigation, we have simply improved screening method by incorporating pH indicator dyes (phenol red and bromothymol blue) in ACC containing medium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
Ling-Feng Zeng, Ye Cao, Lu Wang, Yun-Kai Dai, Ling Hu, Qi Wang, Li-Ting Zhu, Wen-Hu Bao, Yuan-Ping Zou, Yun-Bo Chen, Wei-Hua Xu, Wei-Xiong Liang, Ning-Sheng Wang
Current evidence demonstrated certain beneficial effects of medicinal herbs as an adjuvant therapy for post-stroke depression (PSD) in China; Chai-hu (Chinese Thorowax Root, Radix Bupleuri) is an example of a medicinal plant for Liver-Qi regulation (MPLR) in the treatment of PSD. Despite several narrative reports on the antidepressant properties of MPLR, it appears that there are no systematic reviews to summarize its outcome effects. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of MPLR adjuvant therapy in patients with PSD...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kuba Marciniak, Mirosław Kiedrowski, Danuta Gajewska, Andrzej Deptała, Dariusz Włodarek
The development of colorectal carcinoma is a multistep process of accumulation of mutations and epigenetic changes associated with DNA repair, proliferation, apoptosis, intra- and extracellular signaling, adhesion and other physiological functions of cells and tissues. A long period of development, high colorectal carcinoma-related mortality as well as significant social and economic costs due to this condition are prerequisites for seeking efficient methods of cancer prevention, including nutritional approach...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ahu Gümrah Dumanlı
Cellulose is a natural linear biopolymer, which constitutes through the assembly of cellulose nanofibrils in a hierarchical order. Nanocelluloses in particular show great promise as a cost-effective advanced material for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, with their chemical functionality they can be easily modified to yield useful products. While nature uses the hierarchical nanostructure of the cellulose as the load-bearing constituent in plants, a significant amount of research has been directed toward the fabrication of advanced cellulosic materials with various nanostructures and functional properties...
October 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Wei Tong, Tae-Sung Kim, Yong-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Chloroplast genome variations have been detected, despite its overall conserved structure, which has been valuable for plant population genetics and evolutionary studies. Here, we described chloroplast variation architecture of 383 rice accessions from diverse regions and different ecotypes, in order to mine the rice chloroplast genome variation architecture and phylogenetic. RESULTS: A total of 3677 variations across the chloroplast genome were identified with an average density of 27...
December 2016: Rice
Victoria N Deycard, Jörg Schäfer, Jérôme C J Petit, Alexandra Coynel, Laurent Lanceleur, Lionel Dutruch, Cécile Bossy, Alexandre Ventura, Gérard Blanc
Although silver (Ag) has been listed as a priority pollutant for the aquatic environment by the European Union (Directive 2006/11/EC), the use of Ag-based products with antimicrobial effects is increasing in Europe, as well as North America and Asia. This study investigates personal care products (PCP) as a potential source of Ag in wastewater, as well as the dynamics and fate of Ag in the influent and effluent of a major urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located on the fluvial part of the Gironde Estuary...
October 15, 2016: Chemosphere
Ayesha I T Tulloch, Jean-Baptiste Pichancourt, Carl R Gosper, Angela Sanders, Iadine Chadès
Changed fire regimes have led to declines of fire-regime-adapted species and loss of biodiversity globally. Fire affects population processes of growth, reproduction, and dispersal in different ways, but there is little guidance about the best fire regime(s) to maintain species population processes in fire-prone ecosystems. We use a process-based approach to determine the best range of fire intervals for keystone plant species in a highly modified Mediterranean ecosystem in southwestern Australia where current fire regimes vary...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Elpida K Karadimou, Athanasios S Kallimanis, Ioannis Tsiripidis, Panayotis Dimopoulos
The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1-128 m(2)), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ren-Yu Qu, Jing-Fang Yang, Yu-Chao Liu, Qiong Chen, Ge-Fei Hao, Cong-Wei Niu, Zhen Xi, Guang-Fu Yang
BACKGOUND: Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the branched-chain amino acids in plants and a wide range of microorganisms. With the long-term and wide application of AHAS inhibitors, weed resistance is becoming a global problem, which leads to an urgent demand for novel inhibitors to antagonize both wild-type and resistant AHAS. RESULTS: Pyrimidinyl-Salicylic acid derivatives, as one of the main classes of commercial AHAS herbicides, show potential anti-resistant bioactivity to wild-type and P197L mutant...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Zhe Meng, Cristina Ruberti, Zhizhong Gong, Federica Brandizzi
Completion of a plant's life cycle depends on successful prioritization of signaling favoring either growth or defense. Although hormones are pivotal regulators of growth-defense tradeoffs, the underlying signaling mechanisms remain obscure. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for physiological growth as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress management in unfavorable growth conditions. The plant UPR transducers are the kinase and ribonuclease IRE1 and the transcription factors bZIP28 and bZIP60...
October 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Qing Fang, Zhengqiu Fan, Yujing Xie, Xiangrong Wang, Kun Li, Yafeng Liu
The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings) to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Helen A Hamilton, Eva Brod, Ola Hanserud, Daniel B Müller, Helge Brattebø, Trond K Haraldsen
The plant-availability of phosphorus (P) plays a central role in the ability of secondary P resources to replace mineral fertilizer. This is because secondary P plant-availability varies, often with large fractions of residual P that has no immediate fertilization effect. Therefore, if low quality secondary P fertilizers are applied, they will accumulate in soils that, in the long run, may increase the risk of P runoff and eutrophication. Substance flow analyses (SFA), used to identify potentials for improved P management, have not considered this well-known quality barrier...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Martina I Gocke, Arnaud Huguet, Sylvie Derenne, Steffen Kolb, Michaela A Dippold, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Soils, paleosols and terrestrial sediments serve as archives for studying climate change, and represent important terrestrial carbon pools. Archive functioning relies on the chronological integrity of the respective units. Incorporation of younger organic matter (OM) e.g. by plant roots and associated microorganisms into deep subsoil and underlying soil parent material may reduce reliability of paleoenvironmental records and stability of buried OM. Long-term effects of sedimentary characteristics and deep rooting on deep subsoil microbial communities remain largely unknown...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Stjepan Krešimir Kračun, Jonatan Ulrik Fangel, Maja Gro Rydahl, Henriette Lodberg Pedersen, Silvia Vidal-Melgosa, William George Tycho Willats
Cell walls are an important feature of plant cells and a major component of the plant glycome. They have both structural and physiological functions and are critical for plant growth and development. The diversity and complexity of these structures demand advanced high-throughput techniques to answer questions about their structure, functions and roles in both fundamental and applied scientific fields. Microarray technology provides both the high-throughput and the feasibility aspects required to meet that demand...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Z Wilhelm de Beer, Seonju Marincowitz, Tuan A Duong, Jae-Jin Kim, Andre Rodrigues, Michael J Wingfield
There have been many recent studies using environmental nucleic acid sequences (ENAS) to assess fungal diversity. As a result, more than a third of all fungal sequences in GenBank are of environmental origin. But inconsistent annotation of the thousands of undescribed taxa represented by these sequences limits access to these data. Consequently, these ENAS and the taxa they represent are rarely considered in other studies, and especially not in taxonomic treatments. This problem is confounded by the fact that the current version of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code) prohibits the description of novel taxa known only from ENAS...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Eitaro Matsumura, Akira Nakagawa, Yusuke Tomabechi, Takashi Koyanagi, Hidehiko Kumagai, Kenji Yamamoto, Takane Katayama, Fumihiko Sato, Hiromichi Minami
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of plant secondary metabolites that have been identified as targets for drug discovery because of their diverse pharmaceutical activities. Well-known BIAs are relatively abundant in plants and have therefore been extensively studied. However, although unknown BIAs are also thought to have valuable activities, they are difficult to obtain because the raw materials are present at low abundance in nature. We have previously reported the fermentative production of an important intermediate (S)-reticuline from dopamine using Escherichia coli...
October 14, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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