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cryptococcus in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530787/-a-clinical-study-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children-without-underlying-diseases
#1
Wei-Ran Li, Si-Yan Deng, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chao-Min Wan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children without underlying diseases. METHODS: The clinical data of 49 children without underlying diseases who were diagnosed with IFD were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Fungal pathogens were detected in 37 (76%) out of 49 patients, including Cryptococcus neoformans (17 children, 46%), Candida albicans (10 children, 27%), Aspergillus (3 children, 8%), and Candida parapsilosis (3 children, 8%)...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443557/cryptococcal-disease-in-hiv-infected-children
#2
REVIEW
Carol Kao, David L Goldman
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that is remarkable for its tendency to cause meningoencephalitis, especially in patients with AIDS. While disease is less common in children than adults, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children without access to anti-retroviral therapy. This review highlights recent insights into both the biology and treatment of cryptococcosis with a special emphasis on the pediatric literature.
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213188/characterization-of-the-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiome-in-indoor-dust-and-outdoor-air-samples-a-pilot-study
#3
Blake Hanson, Yanjiao Zhou, Eddy J Bautista, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Frances Silverman, Michael Muilenberg, Wanda Phipatanakul, George Weinstock, Erica Sodergren, Diane R Gold, Joanne E Sordillo
Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS)...
June 15, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851966/indoor-microbial-communities-influence-on-asthma-severity-in-atopic-and-nonatopic-children
#4
Karen C Dannemiller, Janneane F Gent, Brian P Leaderer, Jordan Peccia
BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic asthma severity in children can be affected by microbial exposures. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations between exposures to household microbes and childhood asthma severity stratified by atopic status. METHODS: Participants (n = 196) were selected from a cohort of asthmatic children in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Children were grouped according to asthma severity (mild with no or minimal symptoms and medication or moderate to severe persistent) and atopic status (determined by serum IgE levels)...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715611/genotyping-and-resolution-of-a-case-of-osteomyelitis-in-a-16-month-old-boy-of-hispanic-african-american-ethnicity
#5
Eunice Wachira, Kayla Tran, Sara Taylor, Sally Hoger, James Dunn
Most cases of osteomyelitis in children are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, although Kingella kingae, various streptococci, and Salmonella species also underlie this condition. Organisms such as Mycobacterium, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are much less commonly identified as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis. This case report describes a 16-month-old boy of Hispanic/African American ethnicity who had extensive inflammation of and discharge from his right ankle. Imaging studies supported a diagnosis of osteomyelitis...
February 2016: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26531262/clinical-study-of-23-pediatric-patients-with-cryptococcosis
#6
F-L Luo, Y-H Tao, Y-M Wang, H Li
OBJECTIVE: Cryptococcus neoformans is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, limited data exist for pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis in pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University. Data on risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated...
October 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449512/cryptococcal-disease-and-the-burden-of-other-fungal-diseases-in-uganda-where-are-the-knowledge-gaps-and-how-can-we-fill-them
#7
REVIEW
R Parkes-Ratanshi, B Achan, R Kwizera, A Kambugu, D Meya, D W Denning
The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year...
October 2015: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26398542/posaconazole-use-in-the-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-fungal-infections
#8
REVIEW
Nina M Clark, Shellee A Grim, Joseph P Lynch
Posaconazole, a fluorinated triazole antifungal drug, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for (1) prophylaxis against Aspergillus and Candida infections in immunocompromised patients at high risk for these infections and (2) oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), including cases refractory to fluconazole and/or itraconazole. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved posaconazole for (1) treatment of aspergillosis, fusariosis, chromoblastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other azoles or amphotericin B; (2) first-line therapy for OPC for severe disease or in those unlikely to respond to topical therapy; and (3) prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk hematologic patients and stem cell transplant recipients...
October 2015: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25806844/cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-in-an-adolescent-survivor-of-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Djin-Ye Oh, P Pallavi Madhusoodhan, Deborah J Springer, Kenneth Inglima, Ali A Chaudhri, Joseph Heitman, Elizabeth A Raetz, Alka Khaitan, Mona Rigaud
Cryptococcosis is infrequent in children, and isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is rarely encountered. Here, we describe a 14-year-old patient in remission from T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with osteomyelitis because of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. The patient was effectively treated with antifungal therapy.
June 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25317708/cryptococcosis-in-colombian-children-and-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Jairo Lizarazo, Patricia Escandón, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0...
September 2014: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24225291/-risk-factors-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-admitted-to-non-hematological-oncology-department-and-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#11
Cheng-song Zhao, Shun-ying Zhao, Gang Liu, Xu Xi-Wei
OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients admitted to non-hematological oncology department and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), in order to improve diagnostic level of invasive fungal infections. METHOD: We retrospectively assessed 85 hospitalized pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from Jan.2007 to Nov.2012. All the cases were either from non-hematological oncology department or the PICU...
August 2013: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24018998/potentially-pathogenic-yeasts-from-soil-of-children-s-recreational-areas-in-the-city-of-%C3%A5-%C3%A3-d%C3%A5%C2%BA-poland
#12
Anna Wójcik, Piotr Kurnatowski, Joanna Błaszkowska
OBJECTIVES: Yeasts may become potential human and animal pathogens, particularly for individuals with a depressed immune system. Their presence in the environment, especially in soil, may favour their spread into human ontocenoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four soil samples obtained from 21 children's recreational sites in Łódź in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 were evaluated. The yeasts were isolated by classical microbiological methods and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical features...
June 2013: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23942746/isolated-hepatobiliary-cryptococcosis-manifesting-as-obstructive-jaundice-in-an-immunocompetent-child-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Chi Zhang, Lei Du, Wei Cai, Yeming Wu, Fan Lv
The majority of patients with symptomatic cryptococcosis have an underlying immunocompromising condition. In the absence of coexisting immunocompromising condition, Cryptococcus neoformans is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice that occurs in children with hilar masslike lesion. Here, we report a 5-year-old boy without immunoglobulin or lymphocyte abnormalities who developed a hepatobiliary infection with C. neoformans. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed dilatation of the bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts and a low-attenuated mass in the hepatic hilum...
December 2014: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23901339/isolation-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-other-opportunistic-fungi-from-pigeon-droppings
#14
Maryam Soltani, Mansour Bayat, Seyed J Hashemi, Mohammadali Zia, Nader Pestechian
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured...
January 2013: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23850953/%C3%AE-d-glucan-testing-is-important-for-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#15
Elitza S Theel, Christopher D Doern
Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who receive immunosuppressive therapy, such as solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Many of the fungi associated with these infections are angioinvasive and are best diagnosed by visualizing the organism in or culturing the organism from deep tissue. However, obtaining such tissue often requires an invasive procedure. Many HSCT recipients are thrombocytopenic, making such procedure too risky because of potential bleeding complications...
November 2013: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23809268/chest-radiography-for-predicting-the-cause-of-febrile-illness-among-inpatients-in-moshi-tanzania
#16
S P Fiorillo, H C Diefenthal, P C Goodman, H O Ramadhani, B N Njau, A B Morrissey, V P Maro, W Saganda, G D Kinabo, M S Mwako, J A Bartlett, J A Crump
AIM: To describe chest radiographic abnormalities and assess their usefulness for predicting causes of fever in a resource-limited setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Febrile patients were enrolled in Moshi, Tanzania, and chest radiographs were evaluated by radiologists in Tanzania and the United States. Radiologists were blinded to the results of extensive laboratory evaluations to determine the cause of fever. RESULTS: Of 870 febrile patients, 515 (59...
October 2013: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23775204/cryptococcal-meningitis-description-of-3-cases-and-estimation-of-t-cell-subsets
#17
Lei Zhu, Rui Huang, Huimin Guo, Jinli Zhang, Chen Dong, Hong Han
OBJECTIVES: To describe three cases of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis and evaluate their cellular immunity. METHODS: This study involved three cases of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis admitted to Children's Hospital of Shanxi Province between July 2010 and July 2011. Clinical presentations, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome in these cases has been discussed. RESULTS: Staining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with India ink showed Cryptococcus neoformans...
June 2014: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23627858/combination-antifungal-therapy-for-invasive-fungal-infections-in-children-and-adults
#18
REVIEW
Nevin Hatipoglu, Husem Hatipoglu
Although therapeutic first-line approaches have been established in severely immunosuppressed patients with a high risk of invasive fungal infections, treatment modalities for cases with unsatisfactory outcome have not been well defined, especially for the pediatric age gap. Therapy with coadministration of two or three antifungals has been applied by clinicians in difficult-to-treat infections, which still have no support from randomized, controlled clinical trials. The most prevailing reason for a combination regimen is to broaden the antimycotic spectrum, which may even result in antagonistic interaction...
May 2013: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23607947/-frequency-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-pathogens-from-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-116-children-with-bacterial-meningitis
#19
Hong-Chao Jiang, Li-Yue Kui, Hai-Lin Huang, Min Su, Bo-Ping Wen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency distribution and antibiotic resistance of pathogens isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of children with bacterial meningitis (BM) and to provide a basis for the timely and effective treatment of childhood BM. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on pathogens isolated from 5097 cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from children in Kunming Children's Hospital between January 2008 and June 2012, as well as drug sensitivity test results...
April 2013: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23409400/bacterial-and-fungal-meningitis-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-tikur-anbessa-university-hospital-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#20
Mebratenesh Mengistu, Daniel Asrat, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Getahun Mengistu
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is usually caused by viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and if untreated has a high mortality rate. Even among those who survive the infection, some may develop permanent neurological disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to isolate and identify the bacterial and fungal etiologic agents of meningitis and to access the susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates. METHODS: During the period of November 2007 to June 2008, 340 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained from suspected cases of meningitis admitted to Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
October 2011: Ethiopian Medical Journal
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