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cryptococcus in childrens

Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Thais Louvain de Souza, Regina C de Souza Campos Fernandes, Juliana Azevedo da Silva, Vladimir Gomes Alves Júnior, Adelia Gomes Coelho, Afonso C Souza Faria, Nabia M Moreira Salomão Simão, João T Souto Filho, Caroline Deswarte, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Dara Torgerson, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, Enrique Medina-Acosta
Patients with Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) exhibit variable vulnerability to infections by mycobacteria and other intramacrophagic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella and Klebsiella) and fungi (e.g., Histoplasma, Candida, Paracoccidioides, Coccidioides, and Cryptococcus). The hallmark of MSMD is the inherited impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or the lack of response to it. Mutations in the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor subunit beta 1 (IL12RB1) gene accounts for 38% of cases of MSMD...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angela R Lemons, Mary Beth Hogan, Ruth A Gault, Kathleen Holland, Edward Sobek, Kimberly A Olsen-Wilson, Yeonmi Park, Ju-Hyeong Park, Ja Kook Gu, Michael L Kashon, Brett J Green
Recent studies conducted in the Great Basin Desert region of the United States have shown that skin test reactivity to fungal and dust mite allergens are increased in children with asthma or allergy living in homes with evaporative coolers (EC). The objective of this study was to determine if the increased humidity previously reported in EC homes leads to varying microbial populations compared to homes with air conditioners (AC). Children with physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis living in EC or AC environments were recruited into the study...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Piotr Kurnatowski, Katarzyna Góralska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Fungi belonging to various physiological and morphological groups present in the environment are potential human pathogens. Some of them are considered as emerging pathogens. Therefore, their presence in children's playgrounds should be regarded as health risk factor. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty-eight samples of sand collected from 17 sandpits of different localities in Łódź, Poland, in autumn 2010 and 2011, and in spring 2011 and 2012 were evaluated...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Wei-Ran Li, Si-Yan Deng, Min Shu, Yu Zhu, Yang Wen, Qin Guo, Qiong Liao, Chao-Min Wan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children without underlying diseases. METHODS: The clinical data of 49 children without underlying diseases who were diagnosed with IFD were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Fungal pathogens were detected in 37 (76%) out of 49 patients, including Cryptococcus neoformans (17 children, 46%), Candida albicans (10 children, 27%), Aspergillus (3 children, 8%), and Candida parapsilosis (3 children, 8%)...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Carol Kao, David L Goldman
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that is remarkable for its tendency to cause meningoencephalitis, especially in patients with AIDS. While disease is less common in children than adults, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children without access to anti-retroviral therapy. This review highlights recent insights into both the biology and treatment of cryptococcosis with a special emphasis on the pediatric literature.
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Blake Hanson, Yanjiao Zhou, Eddy J Bautista, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Frances Silverman, Michael Muilenberg, Wanda Phipatanakul, George Weinstock, Erica Sodergren, Diane R Gold, Joanne E Sordillo
Environmental microbes have been associated with both protective and adverse health effects in children and adults. Epidemiological studies often rely on broad biomarkers of microbial exposure (i.e. endotoxin, 1 → 3-beta-d-glucan), but fail to identify the taxonomic composition of the microbial community. Our aim was to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiome in different types of environmental samples collected in studies of human health effects. We determined the composition of microbial communities present in home, school and outdoor air samples by amplifying and sequencing regions of rRNA genes from bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S and ITS)...
June 15, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Karen C Dannemiller, Janneane F Gent, Brian P Leaderer, Jordan Peccia
BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic asthma severity in children can be affected by microbial exposures. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations between exposures to household microbes and childhood asthma severity stratified by atopic status. METHODS: Participants (n = 196) were selected from a cohort of asthmatic children in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Children were grouped according to asthma severity (mild with no or minimal symptoms and medication or moderate to severe persistent) and atopic status (determined by serum IgE levels)...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Eunice Wachira, Kayla Tran, Sara Taylor, Sally Hoger, James Dunn
Most cases of osteomyelitis in children are caused by Staphylococcus aureus, although Kingella kingae, various streptococci, and Salmonella species also underlie this condition. Organisms such as Mycobacterium, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are much less commonly identified as etiologic agents in osteomyelitis. This case report describes a 16-month-old boy of Hispanic/African American ethnicity who had extensive inflammation of and discharge from his right ankle. Imaging studies supported a diagnosis of osteomyelitis...
February 2016: Laboratory Medicine
F-L Luo, Y-H Tao, Y-M Wang, H Li
OBJECTIVE: Cryptococcus neoformans is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, limited data exist for pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis in pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University. Data on risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated...
October 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
R Parkes-Ratanshi, B Achan, R Kwizera, A Kambugu, D Meya, D W Denning
The HIV epidemic in Uganda has highlighted Cryptococcus and Candida infections as important opportunistic fungal infections. However, the burden of other fungal diseases is not well described. We aimed to estimate the burden of fungal infections in Uganda. All epidemiological papers of fungal diseases in Uganda were reviewed. Where there is no Ugandan data, global or East African data were used. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is estimated to occur in 375 540 Uganda women per year; Candida in pregnant women affects up to 651,600 women per year...
October 2015: Mycoses
Nina M Clark, Shellee A Grim, Joseph P Lynch
Posaconazole, a fluorinated triazole antifungal drug, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for (1) prophylaxis against Aspergillus and Candida infections in immunocompromised patients at high risk for these infections and (2) oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), including cases refractory to fluconazole and/or itraconazole. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved posaconazole for (1) treatment of aspergillosis, fusariosis, chromoblastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other azoles or amphotericin B; (2) first-line therapy for OPC for severe disease or in those unlikely to respond to topical therapy; and (3) prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk hematologic patients and stem cell transplant recipients...
October 2015: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Djin-Ye Oh, P Pallavi Madhusoodhan, Deborah J Springer, Kenneth Inglima, Ali A Chaudhri, Joseph Heitman, Elizabeth A Raetz, Alka Khaitan, Mona Rigaud
Cryptococcosis is infrequent in children, and isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is rarely encountered. Here, we describe a 14-year-old patient in remission from T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with osteomyelitis because of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. The patient was effectively treated with antifungal therapy.
June 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jairo Lizarazo, Patricia Escandón, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0...
September 2014: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Cheng-song Zhao, Shun-ying Zhao, Gang Liu, Xu Xi-Wei
OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors of invasive fungal infections (IFI) in patients admitted to non-hematological oncology department and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), in order to improve diagnostic level of invasive fungal infections. METHOD: We retrospectively assessed 85 hospitalized pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections in Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from Jan.2007 to Nov.2012. All the cases were either from non-hematological oncology department or the PICU...
August 2013: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Anna Wójcik, Piotr Kurnatowski, Joanna Błaszkowska
OBJECTIVES: Yeasts may become potential human and animal pathogens, particularly for individuals with a depressed immune system. Their presence in the environment, especially in soil, may favour their spread into human ontocenoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four soil samples obtained from 21 children's recreational sites in Łódź in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 were evaluated. The yeasts were isolated by classical microbiological methods and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical features...
June 2013: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Chi Zhang, Lei Du, Wei Cai, Yeming Wu, Fan Lv
The majority of patients with symptomatic cryptococcosis have an underlying immunocompromising condition. In the absence of coexisting immunocompromising condition, Cryptococcus neoformans is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice that occurs in children with hilar masslike lesion. Here, we report a 5-year-old boy without immunoglobulin or lymphocyte abnormalities who developed a hepatobiliary infection with C. neoformans. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed dilatation of the bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts and a low-attenuated mass in the hepatic hilum...
December 2014: European Journal of Pediatrics
Maryam Soltani, Mansour Bayat, Seyed J Hashemi, Mohammadali Zia, Nader Pestechian
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured...
January 2013: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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