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genexpert in childrens

Melissa Davidsen Jørstad, Msafiri Marijani, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Lisbet Sviland, Tehmina Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge. An immunochemistry-based MPT64 antigen detection test (MPT64 test) has reported higher sensitivity in the diagnosis of EPTB compared with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the MPT64 test in routine diagnostics in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Patients with presumptive EPTB were prospectively enrolled at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, and followed to the end of treatment...
2018: PloS One
Miti A Shah, Ira Shah
SETTING: B.J.Wadia Hospital,Mumbai OBJECTIVE:: The prevalence and type of DR-TB was evaluated pre and post-2013 and outcome was studied. DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective study. Children were defined as having DR-TB on the basis of GeneXpert or LPA and/or drug susceptibility testing(DST) of MTB grown on culture or from contact's DST. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR-TB was 110 out of 1145 cases (9.6%) which showed an increase, compared to 5...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Colleen Scott, Simon Walusimbi, Bruce Kirenga, Moses Joloba, Muttamba Winters, Nyombi Abdunoor, Rommel Bain, Heather Alexander, Tom Shinnick, Sean Toney, Rosemary Odeke, Christine Mwangi, Estella Birabwa, Seyoum Dejene, Frank Mugabe, Mukadi YaDiul, J Sean Cavanaugh
In 2012, Uganda introduced the use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA), a sensitive, automated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based platform for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, for programmatic use among children, adults with presumptive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB, and symptomatic persons at risk for rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB. The effect of using the platform's Xpert MTB/RIF assay on TB care and control was assessed using routinely collected programmatic data; in addition, a retrospective review of district quarterly summaries using abstracted TB register data from purposively selected facilities in the capital city of Kampala was conducted...
March 31, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Christopher M Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is a devastating infection that is hard to diagnose and treat. We have reviewed tuberculous meningitis original research published within the past 18 months, selecting studies which we consider have most advanced knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: We review advances in diagnostic methods, anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, and the common complications of tuberculous meningitis. New commercial molecular diagnostic tests, such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, have an important role in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis, but as with all other available tests, they lack sensitivity and cannot rule out the disease...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Rakesh Bhatia, Rajeshwar Dayal, Shishir Jindal, Dipti Agarwal, Ankur Goyal
Diagnosis of tubercular meningitis (TBM) is difficult in children. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay has been recommended by WHO in 2013 to be used in children and in extra pulmonary clinical specimens. The present study was designed to assess the diagnostic utility of GeneXpert in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in TBM cases and to compare the results with liquid culture BACTEC 460. Thirty four subjects <15 y were diagnosed as TBM based on clinical, CSF and imaging details. Sensitivity of GeneXpert in CSF was 38...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
S Ben Ameur, S Smaoui, F Kamoun, I Chabchoub, T Kamoun, F Messaadi, H Aloulou, M Hachicha
Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance...
April 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Do Chau Giang, Tran Ngoc Duong, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Ho Thi Nhan, Marcel Wolbers, Nguyen Thi Quynh Nhu, Dorothee Heemskerk, Nguyen Dang Quang, Doan Thanh Phuong, Pham Thu Hang, Tran Huu Loc, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Huy Dung, Jeremy Farrar, Maxine Caws
BACKGROUND: The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is now recommended by WHO for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children but evaluation data is limited. METHODS: One hundred and fifty consecutive HIV negative children (<15 years of age) presenting with suspected TB were enrolled at a TB referral hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 302 samples including sputum (n = 79), gastric fluid (n = 215), CSF (n = 3), pleural fluid (n = 4) and cervical lymphadenopathic pus (n = 1) were tested by smear, automated liquid culture (Bactec MGIT) and Xpert...
February 18, 2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
JiYoung Hong, Ahyoun Kim, Seoyeon Hwang, Doo-Sung Cheon, Jong-Hyen Kim, June-Woo Lee, Jae-Hak Park, Byunghak Kang
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses (EVs) are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens has been demonstrated to improve the management of patient care, especially that of neonates and young children. FINDINGS: To establish a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay (GXEA) with that of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based assay referred to as real-time one step RT-PCR (RTo-PCR)...
2015: Virology Journal
Yu Pang, Yufeng Wang, Shunying Zhao, Jinrong Liu, Yanlin Zhao, Huimin Li
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children presents problems worldwide. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay serves as a useful alternative for the rapid diagnosis of childhood TB, with various clinical specimens. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the Xpert for diagnosis of smear-negative childhood pulmonary TB using gastric lavage aspirates (GLA). A total of 211 eligible children with suspected TB were consecutively recruited and had GLA obtained for analysis between October 2012 and October 2013 in Beijing Children's Hospital...
October 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
N S Planting, G L Visser, M P Nicol, L Workman, W Isaacs, H J Zar
BACKGROUND: Induced sputum (IS) is increasingly used to provide specimens for microbiological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of and yield from IS in children hospitalised with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: In a prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected PTB in Cape Town, South Africa, between February 2009 and February 2012, two IS specimens were obtained on consecutive days or at intervals of at least 4 hours...
January 2014: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Elisabetta Walters, Pierre Goussard, Corne Bosch, Anneke C Hesseling, Robert P Gie
BACKGROUND: Children with complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) require rapid confirmation of TB diagnosis and of drug susceptibility to institute appropriate therapy. In a pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility and potential utility of GeneXpert (Xpert) on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in children undergoing routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. METHODS: We included children <13 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected complicated intrathoracic TB at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, October 1, 2012-May 15, 2013...
November 2014: Pediatric Pulmonology
Alexander Jenson, Laura Dize, Harran Mkocha, Beatriz Munoz, Jennifer Lee, Charlotte Gaydos, Thomas Quinn, Sheila K West
PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and field utility of the Cepheid GeneXpert Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) Assay (GeneXpert) for ocular chlamydia infection compared to Roche Amplicor CT assay (Amplicor). METHODS: In a trachoma-endemic community in Kongwa Tanzania, 144 children ages 0 to 9 were surveyed to assess clinical trachoma and had two ocular swabs taken. One swab was processed at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD, using Amplicor, (Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and the other swab was processed at a field station in Kongwa using the GeneXpert Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae assay (Cepheid)...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Heather J Zar, Brian Eley, Mark P Nicol, Anthony Figaji, Anthony Hawkridge
UNLABELLED: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is common in high TB burden countries, contributing a substantial proportion to the TB caseload. The HIV epidemic has had a large impact on the incidence, diagnosis and management of childhood TB. AIM: To review the contributions from researchers at the University of Cape Town to the field of childhood TB over the past decades. METHODS: Review of published literature on studies of childhood TB done by investigators from the University of Cape Town...
March 2, 2012: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Nathan Taylor, Rajiv L Gaur, Ellen J Baron, Niaz Banaei
The rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children and extrapulmonary TB in adults continues to be a challenge. In this study, we determined the lower limit of detection (LOD) of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with nonrespiratory specimens and investigated the utility of flotation procedures for concentrating the bacilli. Clinical specimens (9 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], 13 gastric aspirate, 8 tissue, and 17 stool) were spiked with single-celled Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the LOD of the GeneXpert assay was determined...
July 2012: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Gladys Guadalupe López Ávalos, Ernesto Prado Montes de Oca
Tuberculosis in childhood differs from the adult clinical form and even has been suggested that it is a different disease due to its differential signs. However, prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutic efforts have been biased toward adult clinical care. Sensibility and specificity of new diagnostic approaches as GeneXpert, electronic nose (E-nose), infrared spectroscopy, accelerated mycobacterial growth induced by magnetism, and flow lateral devices in children populations are needed. Adequate and timely assessment of tuberculosis infection in childhood could diminish epidemiological burden because underdiagnosed pediatric patients can evolve to an active state and have the potential to disseminate the etiological agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, notably increasing this worldwide public health problem...
2012: Journal of Tropical Medicine
L Ninove, A Nougairede, C Gazin, C Zandotti, M Drancourt, X de Lamballerie, R N Charrel
Enteroviruses (EVs) constitute the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in both children and adults. Molecular techniques have now been recognized as the reference standard for the diagnosis of EV infections, and the rapidity of the molecular diagnosis of EV meningitis has been shown to be a determining factor in the management of patients. The rapid documentation of EV RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is key to adapting patient management and the therapeutic regimen. To shorten the time needed for virological documentation, we implemented EV RNA detection in two point-of-care (POC) laboratories...
December 2011: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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