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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918288/th9-cells-promote-antitumor-immunity-via-il-9-and-il-21-and-demonstrate-atypical-cytokine-expression-in-breast-cancer
#2
Fa-Ping You, Jian Zhang, Tao Cui, Rui Zhu, Chong-Qing Lv, Hai-Tao Tang, Di-Wen Sun
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in women. Antitumor T cell responses play critical therapeutic roles, including direct cytotoxicity mediated by CD8(+) T cells and immunomodulatory roles mediated by CD4(+) T cells. The IL-9-expressing Th9 cells are recently found to present antitumor immunity in melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found that IL-9 expression in the serum and in circulating CD4(+) T cells were significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls...
September 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915258/rapid-emergency-medicine-score-a-novel-prognostic-tool-for-predicting-the-outcomes-of-adult-patients-with-hepatic-portal-venous-gas-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Chen-June Seak, David Hung-Tsang Yen, Chip-Jin Ng, Yon-Cheong Wong, Kuang-Hung Hsu, Joanna Chen-Yeen Seak, Hsien-Yi Chen, Chen-Ken Seak
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the performance of Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS), and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in ascertaining the severity of illness and predicting the mortality of adult hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This will assist emergency physicians (EPs) in risk stratification. METHODS: Data for 66 adult HPVG patients who visited the EDs of 2 research hospitals between October 1999 and April 2016 were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915075/responding-to-patient-requests-for-hastened-death-physician-aid-in-dying-and-the-clinical-oncologist
#4
Rebecca A Spence, Charles D Blanke, Thomas J Keating, Lynne P Taylor
Physician aid in dying (PAD) or assisted suicide is becoming legal in more US jurisdictions. Meanwhile, the needs of terminally ill patients with cancer are receiving greater attention, including the integration of palliative care into oncology practice. This article highlights a case vignette of a patient with advanced cancer who requests PAD from her oncologist, as a backdrop to help the practicing oncologist examine his or her moral stance regarding participation in aid in dying. The article concludes by offering a framework within which the practicing oncologist can receive and process a patient's request for PAD...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912895/mass-spectrometry-assisted-gel-based-proteomics-in-cancer-biomarker-discovery-approaches-and-application
#5
REVIEW
Rongrong Huang, Zhongsi Chen, Lei He, Nongyue He, Zhijiang Xi, Zhiyang Li, Yan Deng, Xin Zeng
There is a critical need for the discovery of novel biomarkers for early detection and targeted therapy of cancer, a major cause of deaths worldwide. In this respect, proteomic technologies, such as mass spectrometry (MS), enable the identification of pathologically significant proteins in various types of samples. MS is capable of high-throughput profiling of complex biological samples including blood, tissues, urine, milk, and cells. MS-assisted proteomics has contributed to the development of cancer biomarkers that may form the foundation for new clinical tests...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912261/preoperative-pectoralis-muscle-quantity-and-attenuation-by-computed-tomography-are-novel-and-powerful-predictors-of-mortality-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#6
Levi M Teigen, Ranjit John, Adam J Kuchnia, Emily M Nagel, Carrie P Earthman, Jessica Kealhofer, Cindy Martin, Rebecca Cogswell
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass decreases in end-stage heart failure and is predictive of clinical outcomes in several disease states. Skeletal muscle attenuation and quantity as quantified on preoperative chest computed tomographic scans may be predictive of mortality after continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-center continuous flow-LVAD database (n=354) was used to identify patients with chest computed tomographies performed in the 3 months before LVAD implantation (n=143)...
September 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912260/decoupling-between-diastolic-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-pulmonary-capillary-wedge-pressure-as-a-prognostic-factor-after-continuous-flow-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#7
Teruhiko Imamura, Ben Chung, Ann Nguyen, Daniel Rodgers, Gabriel Sayer, Sirtaz Adatya, Nitasha Sarswat, Gene Kim, Jayant Raikhelkar, Takeyohi Ota, Tae Song, Colleen Juricek, Viktoriya Kagan, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Mandeep Mehra, Daniel Burkhoff, Nir Uriel
BACKGROUND: A cohort of heart failure (HF) patients receiving left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has decoupling of their diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. However, the clinical implications of this decoupling remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective study, patients with LVADs underwent routine invasive hemodynamic ramp testing with right heart catheterization, during which LVAD speeds were adjusted. Inappropriate decoupling was defined as a >5 mm Hg difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure...
September 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#8
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911787/pulmonary-embolism-severity-assessment-and-prognostication
#9
Deisy Barrios, Raquel Morillo, Roger D Yusen, David Jiménez
For patients who have acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), risk of short-term death and adverse outcomes should drive the initial treatment decisions. Practice guidelines recommend that patients who have a high-risk of PE-related death and adverse outcomes, determined by the presence of haemodynamic instability (i.e., shock or hypotension), should receive systemically administered thrombolytic therapy. Intermediate-high risk patients might benefit from close observation, and some should undergo escalation of therapy beyond standard anticoagulation, particularly if haemodynamic deterioration occurs...
September 8, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910992/physician-assisted-suicide-a-clean-bill-of-health
#10
Robert Preston
Background: Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) laws have been enacted in five US States and, along with physician-administered euthanasia, in Canada and the Netherlands. Sources of data: Annual reports of the Oregon Health Authority and published research papers. Areas of agreement: Not all recipients of lethal drugs use them to end their lives. Improvements in palliative care provision. Areas of controversy: Rising numbers of deaths from PAS...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906273/utilization-and-outcomes-of-temporary-mechanical-circulatory-support-for-graft-dysfunction-after-heart-transplantation
#11
Kevin Phan, Jessica G Y Luc, Joshua Xu, Simon Maltais, John M Stulak, Tristan D Yan, Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili
Graft dysfunction is the main cause of early mortality after heart transplantation. In cases of severe graft dysfunction, temporary mechanical circulatory support (TMCS) may be necessary. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the utilization and outcomes of TMCS in patients with graft dysfunction after heart transplantation. Electronic search was performed to identify all studies in the English literature assessing the use of TMCS for graft dysfunction. All identified articles were systematically assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 12, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906099/one-dimension-hydroxyapatite-nanostructures-with-tunable-length-for-efficient-stem-cell-differentiation-regulation
#12
Baojin Ma, Shan Zhang, Feng Liu, Jiazhi Duan, Shicai Wang, Jing Han, Yuanhua Sang, Xiaoqiang Yu, Dong Li, Wei Tang, Shaohua Ge, Hong Liu
It is well-accepted that most osteogenic differentiation processes do need growth factors assistance to improve efficiency. As a material cue, hydroxyapatite (HAp) can promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells only in a way. Up to now, rare work related to the relationship between HAp nanostructures and stem cells in osteogenic differentiation process without the assistance of growth factors has been reported. In this study, one dimension (1D) HAp nanostructures with tunable length were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted solvothermal method by adjusting the alcohol/water ratio (η)...
September 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905470/outcomes-of-berlin-heart-excor-%C3%A2-pediatric-ventricular-assist-device-support-in-patients-with-restrictive-and-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#13
Jennifer A Su, Jondavid Menteer
The outcomes of pediatric ventricular assist device support in patients with diastolic heart failure have not been well described. This study reviews the North American experience with Berlin Heart EXCOR(®) ventricular assist device implants in children with such physiology. The Berlin Heart clinical database was reviewed. Patients with primary diastolic dysfunction are included in this study. Twenty pediatric patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy (n = 13), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 3), or congenital heart disease with restrictive physiology (n = 4) who were supported with EXCOR(®) were identified...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904884/circulating-tumor-cells-and-cdx-models-as-a-tool-for-preclinical-drug-development
#14
REVIEW
Alice Lallo, Maximilian W Schenk, Kristopher K Frese, Fiona Blackhall, Caroline Dive
Lung cancers are the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Efforts placed to improve the survival of lung cancer patients and untangle the complexity of this disease, have resulted in the generation of hundreds of lung cancer cell lines and several genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). Although these research tools have extended our knowledge of lung cancer, improvement in the clinical care of lung cancer patients have been limited overall, with measured optimism regarding initial responses to targeted therapies in stratified subgroups of patients...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902070/contending-with-preplanned-death-questions-for-clinicians
#15
Joel Yager
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this column is to assist readers in reflecting on their attitudes and responses toward clinical and nonclinical situations involving preplanned deaths by decisionally capable individuals. Such circumstances range from encountering individuals in one's personal and professional lives who desire and intend to end their lives under their own terms, to having such individuals request assistance with predeath and postdeath arrangements. METHODS: Attending to pertinent literature, this essay uses Socratic inquiry to question conventional assumptions and attitudes, push readers' thoughts beyond typical comfort zones, and consider alternative modes of responding to challenges posed by preplanned death...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900864/ventricular-tachycardia-with-icd-shocks-when-to-medicate-and-when-to-ablate
#16
REVIEW
Amir AbdelWahab, John Sapp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventricular tachycardia occurrence in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients may result in shock delivery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, shocks may have deleterious mechanical and psychological effects. Prevention of ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence with the use of antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation may be warranted. Antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by incomplete efficacy and an unfavorable adverse effect profile...
September 13, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#17
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898403/healthcare-financing-systems-for-increasing-the-use-of-tobacco-dependence-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Floor A van den Brand, Gera E Nagelhout, Ayalu A Reda, Bjorn Winkens, Silvia M A A Evers, Daniel Kotz, Onno Cp van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, which makes it essential to stimulate smoking cessation. The financial cost of smoking cessation treatment can act as a barrier to those seeking support. We hypothesised that provision of financial assistance for people trying to quit smoking, or reimbursement of their care providers, could lead to an increased rate of successful quit attempts. This is an update of the original 2005 review. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to assess the impact of reducing the costs for tobacco smokers or healthcare providers for using or providing smoking cessation treatment through healthcare financing interventions on abstinence from smoking...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893893/physicians-support-assisted-death-for-mature-minors-but-not-mental-illness
#19
Lauren Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893450/emergency-medicine-evaluation-and-management-of-the-end-stage-renal-disease-patient
#20
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman, Courtney M Lee
BACKGROUND: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing in the U.S., and these patients demonstrate greater all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization rates when compared to those with normal renal function. These patients may experience significant complications associated with loss of renal function and dialysis. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates complications of ESRD including cardiopulmonary, neurologic, infectious disease, vascular, and access site complications, as well as medication use in this population...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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