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Divyen K Shah, Vennila Ponnusamy, Jane Evanson, Olga Kapellou, Georgia Ekitzidou, Neelam Gupta, Paul Clarke, Adina T Michael-Titus, Ping K Yip
Aims and hypothesis: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains an important cause of death and disability in newborns. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is safe and effective; however, there are no tissue biomarkers available at the bedside to select babies for treatment. The aim of this study was to show that it is feasible to study plasma neurofilament light (NfL) levels from newborns and to evaluate their temporal course. Hypothesis: Raised plasma NFL protein levels from newborns who undergo TH after HIE are associated with abnormal MRI outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Maanasi S Mistry, Sara M Trucco, Timothy Maul, Mahesh S Sharma, Li Wang, Shawn West
BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) provides respiratory and hemodynamic support to pediatric patients in severe cardiac failure. We aim to identify risk factors associated with poorer outcomes in this population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients requiring VA-ECMO support for cardiac indications at our institution from 2004 to 2015. Data were collected on demographics, indication, markers of cardiac output, ventricular assist device (VAD) insertion, heart transplantation, or left atrial (LA) decompression...
January 1, 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Alfred Mitema, Sheila Okoth, Mohamed S Rafudeen
Toxigenic Aspergillus species produce mycotoxins that are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and teratogenic immunosuppressing agents in both human and animals. Kenya frequently experiences outbreaks of aflatoxicosis with the worst occurring in 2010, which resulted in 215 deaths. We examined the possible reasons for these frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Kenya by studying Aspergillus flavus diversity, phenotypes and mycotoxin profiles across various agricultural regions. Using diagonal transect random sampling, maize kernels were collected from Makueni, Homa Bay, Nandi, and Kisumu counties...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
Naoki Komine, Shigeru Satoh, Mitsuru Saito, Kazuyuki Numakura, Takamitsu Inoue, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Shintaro Narita, Atsushi Komatsuda, Hiroshi Nanjo, Hideaki Kagaya, Takenori Niioka, Masatomo Miura, Yoko Mitobe, Tomonori Habuchi
The impact of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on clinical outcomes is controversial. The present study investigated the impact of CYP3A5 genetic differences on the development of interstitial fibrosis (IF) from 0 h to 1 year post-transplantation in biopsy sections from 96 living kidney recipients under the same target trough regimen of tacrolimus. The relationships between CYP3A5 polymorphisms and long-term graft function and death-censored graft survival were also examined. A quantitative analysis of IF was performed using computer-assisted imaging on virtual slides...
March 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Simone Frea, Paolo Centofanti, Stefano Pidello, Francesca Giordana, Virginia Bovolo, Andrea Baronetto, Beatrice Franco, Marco Matteo Cingolani, Matteo Attisani, Mara Morello, Serena Bergerone, Mauro Rinaldi, Fiorenzo Gaita
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to validate an echocardiographic protocol derived from 5 HeartWare left ventricular assist device (HVAD) patients for the noninvasive evaluation of right atrial pressure (RAP) and left atrial pressure (LAP) in HVAD patients. BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is an invaluable tool to optimize medical treatment and pump settings and also for troubleshooting residual heart failure. Little is known about the echocardiographic evaluation of hemodynamic status in HVAD patients...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Long Jiang, Jun Liu, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Yaron Shargall, Martin Kolb, Wenlong Shao, Qinglong Dong, Lixia Liang, Jianxing He
OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess the techniques of spontaneous-ventilation video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SV-VATS) for tracheal/carinal resections and compare the outcomes with the conventional thoracoscopic intubated method. METHODS: From May 2015 to November 2016, some 18 consecutive patients with malignant or benign diseases invading distal trachea and carina who met the criteria for SV were treated by SV-VATS resection. To evaluate the feasibility of this novel technique, they were compared with a control group consisting of 14 consecutive patients with the same diseases who underwent VATS resection using intubated general anesthesia from October 2014 to April 2015...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Meng Liu, Shiyang Shen, Di Wen, Mengru Li, Teng Li, Xiaojie Chen, Zhen Gu, Ran Mo
Protein therapeutics hold increasing interest with promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment by virtue of potent specific activity and reduced adverse effect. Nonetheless, the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer proteins is highly compromised by multiple successive physiological barriers to protein delivery. Concurrent elimination of bulk tumor cells and highly-tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been evidenced as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapy. Here we show that a hierarchically-assembled nanocomposite can self-adaptively transform its particulate property in response to endogenous tumor-associated signals to overcome the sequential barriers and achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by killing CSCs and bulk tumor cells synchronously...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Philip Gc Chan, Gerard S Goh
PURPOSE: The AngioJet Hemolytic Thrombectomy Device "AngioJet" (Boston Scientific, Malborough, MA, USA) is a rheolytic thrombectomy device that can be used in the treatment of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula and graft thrombosis. We aim to appraise the current evidence on AngioJet thrombectomy in hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis, and to determine its safety, including complications and efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed on the MEDLINE and Embase databases...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Biomaterials can be utilized to assist in the transplantation of Schwann cells to the central and peripheral nervous system. The biomaterials can be natural or man-made, and can have preformed shapes or injectable formats. Biomaterials can play multiple roles in cellular transplantation; for example, they can assist with cellular integration and protect Schwann cells from cell death initiated by the lack of a substrate, an occurrence known as "anoikis." In addition, biomaterials can be engineered to increase cell proliferation and differentiation by the addition of ligands bound to the substrate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Napatt Kanjanahattakij, Benjamin Horn, Basma Abdulhadi, Nicha Wongjarupong, Kenechukwu Mezue, Pattara Rattanawong
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is one of the major complications and a leading cause of death in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Multiple studies of have shown that patients with blood stream infection (BSI) are more likely to develop CVA compared to patients without BSI. However, there is no meta-analysis to confirm this association. Studies were systematically acquired from MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases. Included studies assessed patients with heart failure requiring LVAD and reported the number of patients who had BSI post LVAD, incidence of ischemic CVA, hemorrhagic CVA, or any CVA...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Aixa E Soyano, Keith L Knutson, Saranya Chumsri, Yanyan Lou
Immune checkpoints consist of inhibitory and stimulatory pathways that maintain self-tolerance and assist with immune response. In cancer, immune checkpoint pathways are often activated to inhibit the nascent anti-tumor immune response. Immune checkpoint therapies act by blocking or stimulating these pathways and enhance the body's immunological activity against tumors. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1(PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized inhibitory checkpoint pathways...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim A Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Somali Mukherjee, Sumi Ganguly, Krishnendu Manna, Sanchaita Mondal, Supratim Mahapatra, Debasis Das
Five new coordination polymers (CPs) namely, [{Zn(μ2 -H2 O)0.5 (5N3 -IPA)(2,2'-bpe)}]∞ (1), [{Zn(μ2 -H2 O)0.5 (5N3 -IPA)(1,10-phen)}]∞ (2), [{Zn(5N3 -IPA)(1,2-bpe)}]∞ (3), [{Zn(5N3 -IPA)(1,2-bpey)}]∞ (4), and [{Zn(H2 O)(5N3 -IPA)(4,4'-tme)}(H2 O)0.5 ]∞ (5) (5N3 -H2 IPA = 5-azidoisophthalic acid, 2,2'-bpe= 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 1,2-bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, 1,2-bpey = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, 4,4'-tme = 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine), have been synthesized based on a mixed ligand approach adopting a solvothermal technique...
March 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Akhil Kumar, Ashish Tiwari, Ashok Sharma
Alzheimer disease (AD) is now considered as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder and rapidly increasing to an alarming situation and causing higher death rate. One target one ligand hypothesis is not able to provide complete solution of AD due to multifactorial nature of disease and one target one drug seems to fail to provide better treatment against AD. Moreover, current available treatments are limited and most of the upcoming treatments under clinical trials are based on modulating single target...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Ken Sasaki, Yasuto Uchikado, Itaru Omoto, Masahiko Amatatsu, Koichi Megumi, Hiroshi Okumura, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
Standard treatment strategies have not yet been established for primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME), and far much less for recurrent disease. There are no reports of anti-programmed death-1 antibody treatment of recurrent PMME. A 60-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a primary malignant melanoma in the lower esophagus. The patient underwent mediastinoscope-assisted subtotal esophagectomy, and two nodal involvements were detected in the lymph nodes (LN)s along the left gastric artery. Paclitaxel and oral fluoropyrimidine were administered for 2 months as adjuvant treatment based on results of a histoculture drug response assay...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
D Marshall Brinkley, David DeNofrio, Robin Ruthazer, Amanda R Vest, Navin K Kapur, Gregory S Couper, Michael S Kiernan
BACKGROUND: Since Food and Drug Administration's approval of the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy, the number of hospitals offering LVAD therapy has grown rapidly. A rising number are performed at centers without internal transplant programs. We sought to determine whether outcomes after destination therapy LVAD implantation are similar at transplant and nontransplant centers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult recipients of a primary, continuous-flow LVAD as destination therapy between January 2012 and March 2014 from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support were included...
March 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Saroj Neupane, Sushruth Edla, Eesha Maidona, Matthew C Sweet, Susan Szpunar, Thomas Davis, Thomas A LaLonde, Rajendra H Mehta, Howard S Rosman, Hiroshi Yamasaki
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with clinical and angiographic characteristics and outcomes of patients with popliteal and infrapopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing peripheral vascular intervention (PVI). BACKGROUND: Clinical features and outcomes in patients with DM and popliteal or infrapopliteal PAD undergoing PVI are not well described. METHODS: Using the data from the laser in popliteal and infrapopliteal stenosis study, we retrospectively examined the association of diabetes with clinical and angiographic characteristics and risk adjusted short- and intermediate term outcomes (all cause death, major adverse events (MAE) [composite of death, ipsilateral major amputation, or repeat revascularization]) in patients with popliteal and infrapopliteal PAD undergoing PVI for critical limb ischemia treated either with laser-assisted balloon angioplasty or balloon angioplasty alone...
March 14, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Mary Wang, David J Birnkrant, Dennis M Super, Irwin B Jacobs, Robert C Bahler
Objective: To describe the natural history of cardiomyopathy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are receiving contemporary therapies. Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective cohort study of 57 patients aged >15 years with DMD. Serial digital echocardiograms were performed over a median follow-up of 8 years. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) was defined as shortening fraction (SF) <29% plus focal wall motion abnormalities...
2018: Open Heart
Heng Zhao, Ke-Zhong Chen, Ben-Gang Hui, Kai Zhang, Fan Yang, Jun Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and the predominant cause of cancer-related death in the world. The low accuracy of early detection techniques and high risk of relapse greatly contribute to poor prognosis. An accurate clinical tool that can assist in diagnosis and surveillance is urgently needed. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is free DNA shed from tumor cells and isolated from peripheral blood. The genomic profiles of ctDNA have been shown to closely match those of the corresponding tumors. With the development of approaches with high sensitivity and specificity, ctDNA plays a vital role in the management of lung cancer as a result of its reproducible, non-invasive, and easy-to-obtain characteristics...
March 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
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