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Hepatitis b in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730729/traffic-related-air-pollution-associations-with-cytokeratin-18-a-marker-of-hepatocellular-apoptosis-in-an-overweight-and-obese-paediatric-population
#1
S Hsieh, B P Leaderer, A E Feldstein, N Santoro, L A McKay, S Caprio, R McConnell
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk. METHODS: Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729316/relationship-between-receipt-of-substitutable-for-fee-vaccines-and-completion-of-the-expanded-programme-on-immunisation-a-cross-sectional-study-in-fujian-china
#2
Jiang-Nan Wu, Da-Jin Li, Yong Zhou, Mei-Rong Du, Hai-Lan Piao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between receipt of the substitutable-for-fee vaccines (SFV) and completion of the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI). DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fujian province, China. PARTICIPANTS: Children who were born from 1 September 2009 to 31 August 2011, and who had been residing in the township for at least 3 months, were randomly recruited from 34 townships...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723858/maternal-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-wuhan-china
#3
Zhihua Wan, Aifen Zhou, Huiping Zhu, Xiaofang Lin, Dan Hu, Songxu Peng, Bin Zhang, Yukai Du
GOALS: To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes. BACKGROUND: Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#4
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705230/changes-in-hepatitis-b-virus-antibody-titers-over-time-among-children-a-single-center-study-from-2012-to-2015-in-an-urban-of-south-korea
#5
Kyeong Hun Lee, Kyu Seok Shim, In Seok Lim, Soo Ahn Chae, Sin Weon Yun, Na Mi Lee, Young Bae Choi, Dae Yong Yi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of liver disease in endemic areas such as South Korea. After HBV vaccination, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers gradually decrease. Trends in HBsAb titers have not been evaluated among children in South Korea over the past decade. METHODS: We screened 6155 patients (aged 7 months to 17 years) who underwent HBV antigen/antibody testing at Chung-Ang University Hospital from May 2012 to April 2015...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#6
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693080/-the-epidemiological-characteristics-of-hbv-susceptibility-in-1-29-years-old-young-people-in-china-in-2006-and-2014-based-on-the-national-sero-survey-data-analysis
#7
H Zheng, F Z Wang, G M Zhang, N Miao, X J Sun, F Q Cui
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HBV susceptible people in 1-29 years old people in 2006 and 2014 in China. Method: Data is from the 2006 and 2014 national sero-survey, and both of them were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. We used the centralized face-to face investigation method to collect basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place, hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) history and so on, and 5 ml venous blood was collected for all subjects to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688784/improving-hepatitis-b-birth-dose-coverage-through-village-health-volunteer-training-and-pregnant-women-education
#9
Xi Li, James Heffelfinger, Eric Wiesen, Sergey Diorditsa, Jayaprakash Valiakolleri, Agnes Bauro Nikuata, Ezekial Nukuro, Beia Tabwaia, Joseph Woodring
Hepatitis B is highly endemic in the Republic of Kiribati, while the coverage of timely birth dose vaccination, the primary method shown to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, was only 66% in 2014. Children born at home are especially at high risk, as they have limited access to timely birth dose (i.e. within 24 h) vaccination. To improve birth dose coverage, a project to improve linkages between village health volunteers and health workers and educate pregnant women on hepatitis B vaccination was carried out in 16 communities with low birth dose coverage in Kiribati from November 2014 to May 2015...
July 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688027/pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-and-its-derivatives-in-children-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Janelle D Vaughns, Gilbert Koch, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in patients younger than 18 years of age. Of 372 retrieved articles, 44 eligible pharmacokinetic studies contained data of 821 patients younger than 18 years of age, including more than 46 preterm infants, 64 full-term neonates, 115 infants/toddlers, 188 children, and 28 adolescents...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685670/milk-donor-blood-screening-for-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-markers-in-a-brazilian-human-milk-bank-prevalence-time-trends-over-the-2005-2015-period
#11
Emil Kupek, Estela Olivo Savi
BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been promoted to provide donated breast milk for at-risk children whose mothers cannot breastfeed them but this effort was hindered by the advent of HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B in the blood of human milk donors registered in a major maternity hospital in the northern region of the Santa Catarina State, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study included serological tests for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B screening of milk donor candidates in the 2005-2015 period...
July 7, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677866/increased-incidence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-male-rat-offspring-exposed-to-fluoxetine-during-fetal-and-neonatal-life-involves-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-augmented-de-novo-hepatic-lipogenesis
#12
Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway
Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673589/hepatitis-b-vaccine-non-response-a-predictor-of-latent-autoimmunity
#13
M D Raffaella Mormile
Unresponsiveness to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been associated with interleukins involved with Th1 functioning including Interleukin-8 (IL-18) and Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). IL-18 and IFN-γ have also been implicated in the onset of different types of immune-mediate inflammatory conditions such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), Celiac disease (CD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), obesity and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Taking into account that HBV vaccination is provided in the 1st year of life worldwide, I propose that all babies should be tested for anti-HBs response after completion of the vaccine series...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666469/on-the-implications-of-desexualizing-vaccines-against-sexually-transmitted-diseases-health-policy-challenges-in-a-multicultural-society
#14
Baruch Velan, Yaacov Yadgar
Two vaccines against sexually transmitted infections are included in many national vaccination programs: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The trajectories of the implementation of these two programs were marked by differences in the way the sexual context of risk was communicated to the public. These trajectories fluctuated between full accounts of the sexual nature of the infection and attempts to desexualize the vaccines. Vaccine desexualization can be achieved by withholding information of sexual context, blurring information, and distancing the age of vaccination from the age of sexual debut...
July 1, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664713/predictors-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-titers-two-decades-after-vaccination-in-a-cohort-of-students-and-post-graduates-of-the-medical-school-at-the-university-of-palermo-italy
#15
M G Verso, N Lo Cascio, E Noto Laddeca, E Amodio, M Currieri, G Giammanco, D Ferraro, S De Grazia, D Picciotto
<b>Introduction and objective.</b> The introduction of a vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) for newborn babies in Italy in 1991, extended to 12-year-old children for the first 12 years of application, has been a major achievement in terms of the prevention of HBV infection. The objective of this study was to analyse the long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of HBV vaccination among healthcare students with different working seniorities. <b>Materials and method.</b> A cross-sectional observational study of undergraduate and postgraduate students attending the Medical School of the University of Palermo was conducted from January 2014 - July 2016...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660149/mechanisms-and-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1-28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3-15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658511/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-immunized-children-born-to-carrier-mothers
#17
Koji Yokoyama, Hideki Kumagai, Masaharu Takahashi, Shigeo Nagashima, Hiroaki Okamoto, Takanori Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in children who develop the infection via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) despite immunoprophylaxis remains controversial and is still unknown in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine the OBI prevalence among such children in Japan and identify the genomic mutations that might be associated with the pathogenesis of OBI in children. METHODS: The data on 158 children born to HBV carrier mothers and who received complete passive-active immunoprophylaxis after birth 2002-2014 were reviewed...
June 28, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657844/doppler-parameters-of-the-hepatic-artery-as-predictors-of-graft-status-in-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#18
Tahani Ahmad, Govind B Chavhan, Yaron Avitzur, Rahim Moineddin, Kamaldine Oudjhane
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to determine whether hepatic artery (HA) Doppler parameters can be used to predict pediatric liver graft status in the immediate postoperative (< 10 days) period and in the first year after transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the liver transplant database was performed to review operative, clinical, laboratory, histopathologic, and ultrasound findings at three time points after surgery: 3 days, 3 months, and 1 year...
June 28, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644356/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639095/knowledge-awareness-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-korean-american-parents
#20
Sarah Hyun, Seulgi Lee, William R Ventura, Joseph McMenamin
Hepatitis B (HB) affects 240 million people around the world, and children and young adults make up a large proportion of the infected population. Approximately 1 million people die from HB each year. Despite the seriousness of HB and its complications, many are poorly linked to clinical care. A lack of health literacy may be a critical barrier hindering access to HB care for adults as well as children in these populations. We, therefore, performed a survey to assess the level of knowledge of HB among Korean American parents...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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