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Hepatitis b in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446492/hepatic-fibrosis-is-universal-following-fontan-operation-and-severity-is-associated-with-time-from-surgery-a-liver-biopsy-and-hemodynamic-study
#1
David J Goldberg, Lea F Surrey, Andrew C Glatz, Kathryn Dodds, Michael L O'Byrne, Henry C Lin, Mark Fogel, Jonathan J Rome, Elizabeth B Rand, Pierre Russo, Jack Rychik
BACKGROUND: Congestive hepatopathy is a recognized complication of Fontan physiology. Data regarding the incidence of hepatopathy and risk factors are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Liver biopsies and cardiac catherizations were performed as part of an evaluation offered to all patients ≥10 years after Fontan. Quantitative determination of hepatic fibrosis was performed using Sirius red staining with automated calculation of collagen deposition per slide (%CD)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446162/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-in-children-and-youth-with-obesity
#2
Carolina Jimenez-Rivera, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Jorge Davila, Julie Hurteau, Mary Aglipay, Nick Barrowman, Kristi B Adamo
BACKGROUND: Non- Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL) is a spectrum of liver diseases (LD) that ranges from benign fatty infiltration of the liver to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. Hepatic ultrasound (US) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are often used as markers of NAFL. Our aim is to describe prevalence of NAFL and associated findings on ultrasound (US) and biochemical parameters in a population of children and adolescents with obesity at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. METHODS: Children with Obesity (BMI >95th percentile) ages 8-17 years presenting to the Endocrinology and Gastroenterology clinics, without underlying LD were prospectively recruited from 2009 to 2012...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444819/antenatal-maternal-hepatitis-b-care-is-a-predictor-of-timely-perinatal-administration-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin
#3
Suong Tt Le, Lukas Sahhar, Stephanie Spring, William Sievert, Anouk T Dev
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus continues to occur despite universal recommendations for neonatal immune prophylaxis therapy (IPT) and infant vaccination. AIM: To characterise the risk factors for failure to provide timely IPT and completion of the infant hepatitis B vaccination schedule for children born to mothers with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess compliance with universal guidelines for neonatal IPT for children born to CHB mothers at Monash Health, Australia from 2008 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439708/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-assessed-3-to-18%C3%A2-years-after-vaccination-in-cuban-children-and-adolescents-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#4
Licel de Los Angeles Rodríguez Lay, Marité Bello Corredor, Maria Caridad Montalvo Villalba, Annia Gertrudis Chibás Ojeda, Susel Sariego Frómeta, Manuel Diaz González, Yoandra Abad Lamoth, Meilin Sánchez Wong, Aurélie Sausy, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
Thirty-two participants, aged between 3-18 years, born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and vaccinated at birth were analyzed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Overall, 56% had anti-HB titers ≥10 IU/L; five were positive for antibodies to the core antigen (anti-HBc), and two of these were also positive for HBsAg/DNA. One of the HBsAg/anti-HBc double-negative children presented with an unusual occult infection (HBV DNA-positive). No known vaccine escape mutations were detectable...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437324/noncirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#5
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant B Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari, Seema Alam
OBJECTIVES: Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset, or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age <18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431814/evaluation-of-storing-hepatitis-b-vaccine-outside-the-cold-chain-in-the-solomon-islands-identifying-opportunities-and-barriers-to-implementation
#6
Lucy Breakwell, Jenniffer Anga, Ibrahim Dadari, Nahad Sadr-Azodi, Divinal Ogaoga, Minal Patel
Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is heat stable, making it suitable for storage outside cold chain (OCC) at 37°C for 1month. We conducted an OCC project in the Solomon Islands to determine the feasibility of and barriers to national implementation and to evaluate impact on coverage. Healthcare workers at 13 facilities maintained monovalent HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) OCC for up to 28days over 7months. Vaccination data were recorded for children born during the project and those born during 7months before the project...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418296/prevention-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-after-3-decades-of-escalating-vaccination-policy-china
#7
Fuqiang Cui, Lipin Shen, Li Li, Huaqing Wang, Fuzhen Wang, Shengli Bi, Jianhua Liu, Guomin Zhang, Feng Wang, Hui Zheng, Xiaojin Sun, Ning Miao, Zundong Yin, Zijian Feng, Xiaofeng Liang, Yu Wang
China's hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention policy has been evaluated through nationally representative serologic surveys conducted in 1992 and 2006. We report results of a 2014 serologic survey and reanalysis of the 1992 and 2006 surveys in the context of program policy. The 2014 survey used a 2-stage sample strategy in which townships were selected from 160 longstanding, nationally representative, county-level disease surveillance points, and persons 1-29 years of age were invited to participate. The 2014 sample size was 31,713; the response rate was 83...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417347/-serological-markers-of-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-monitored-in-the-pediatrics-department-at-the-university-hospital-of-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#8
S A Kissou, M Koura, A Sawadogo, A-S Ouédraogo, H Traoré, E Kamboulé, W W F Zogona, B Nacro
Viral hepatitis B and C are universal public health problems. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area for hepatitis B. Patients with sickle cell disease are at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the serological markers of viral hepatitis B and C among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which took place from July to November 2014 at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Bobo- Dioulasso. The study included 44 SS and 26 SC sickle cell patients...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412679/epidemic-characteristics-of-main-infectious-diseases-in-yantai-city-between-2010-and-2012-and-prevention-strategy-research
#9
Huimin Gao, Wenbo Luan, Maobo Wang, Yanjie Dong
To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,376. The morbidity was the highest in 2012 and the lowest in 2011. The accumulated death toll was 101 with the highest death rate in 2011 and the lowest in 2012. Major class A and B infectious diseases included viral hepatitis, phthisis, syphilis, clap and dysentery. The major class C infectious disease was hand-foot-and-mouth disease every year...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412150/epidemiological-features-of-and-changes-in-incidence-of-infectious-diseases-in-china-in-the-first-decade-after-the-sars-outbreak-an-observational-trend-study
#10
Shigui Yang, Jie Wu, Cheng Ding, Yuanxia Cui, Yuqing Zhou, Yiping Li, Min Deng, Chencheng Wang, Kaijin Xu, Jingjing Ren, Bing Ruan, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: The model of infectious disease prevention and control changed significantly in China after the outbreak in 2003 of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but trends and epidemiological features of infectious diseases are rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to assess specific incidence and mortality trends of 45 notifiable infectious diseases from 2004 to 2013 in China and to investigate the overall effectiveness of current prevention and control strategies. METHODS: Incidence and mortality data for 45 notifiable infectious diseases were extracted from a WChinese public health science data centre from 2004 to 2013, which covers 31 provinces in mainland China...
April 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408118/a-novel-combined-vaccine-based-on-monochimeric-vlp-co-displaying-multiple-conserved-epitopes-against-enterovirus-71-and-varicella-zoster-virus
#11
Yangtao Wu, Rui Zhu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Shuxuan Li, Hai Yu, Shaowei Li, Hua Zhu, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Chicken pox and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) are two major infectious diseases that mainly affect infants and children, causing significant morbidity annually. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), respectively, are the principal epidemic pathogens causing these two diseases. To investigate the possibility of developing a novel combined vaccine to prevent chicken pox and HFMD, we constructed three chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) (termed HBc-V/1/2, HBc-2/V/1 and HBc-1/2/V) based on the hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) carrier that display epitopes derived from VZV-gE, EV71-VP1, and EV71-VP2 in a varied tandem manner...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406739/survey-of-contraindications-in-children-routine-vaccination-in-hangzhou-china
#12
Shijun Liu, Jun Wang, Yan Liu, Yuyang Xu, Xinren Che, Wenwen Gu, Jian Du, Xiaoping Zhang, Erping Xu
Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics of contraindications in children routine vaccination, to evaluate vaccination doctors' ability to determine contraindications. Method Using cross-section study, 34 urban and 15 suburb units were selected from 206 Community Health Center (CHC) in Hangzhou, China. Subjects were all children coming to CHCs for routine vaccination. All situations considered to be unsuitable for vaccination were recorded as contraindications. 3 experts were employed to classify these abnormal records as true or false contraindications...
April 13, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390159/the-natural-history-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-781-children-a-multicenter-international-collaboration
#13
Mark R Deneau, Wael El-Matary, Pamela L Valentino, Reham Abdou, Khaled Alqoaer, Mansi Amin, Achiya Z Amir, Marcus Auth, Fateh Bazerbachi, Annemarie Broderick, Albert Chan, Jillian Cotter, Sylvia Doan, Mounif El-Youssef, Federica Ferrari, Katryn N Furuya, Madeleine Gottrand, Frederic Gottrand, Nitika Gupta, Matjaz Homan, M K Jensen, Binita M Kamath, Kyung Mo Kim, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Anastasia Konidari, Bart Koot, Raffaele Iorio, Oren Ledder, Cara Mack, Mercedes Martinez, Tamir Miloh, Parvathi Mohan, Niamh O'Cathain, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Amanda Ricciuto, Lawrence Saubermann, Pushpa Sathya, Eyal Shteyer, Vratislav Smolka, Atushi Tanaka, Raghu Varier, Veena Venkat, Bernadette Vitola, Miriam B Vos, Marek Woynarowski, Jason Yap
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in children. We aimed to describe the disease characteristics and long-term outcomes of pediatric PSC. METHODS: We retrospectively collected all pediatric PSC cases from 36 participating institutions and conducted a survival analysis from the date of PSC diagnosis to dates of diagnosis of portal hypertensive or biliary complications, cholangiocarcinoma, liver transplantation, or death...
April 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379785/voluntarily-reported-immunization-registry-data-reliability-and-feasibility-to-predict-immunization-rates-san-diego-california-2013
#14
Zachary J Madewell, Robert B Wester, Wendy W Wang, Tyler C Smith, K Michael Peddecord, Jessica Morris, Heidi DeGuzman, Mark H Sawyer, Eric C McDonald
OBJECTIVES: Accurate data on immunization coverage levels are essential to public health program planning. Reliability of coverage estimates derived from immunization information systems (IISs) in states where immunization reporting by medical providers is not mandated by the state may be compromised by low rates of participation. To overcome this problem, data on coverage rates are often acquired through random-digit-dial telephone surveys, which require substantial time and resources...
May 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377449/acute-infectious-hepatitis-in-hospitalised-children-a-british-paediatric-surveillance-unit-study
#15
Serena Braccio, Adam Irwin, Andrew Riordan, Delane Shingadia, Deirdre A Kelly, Sanjay Bansal, Mary Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis remains a key public health priority globally. Most childhood cases are caused by viruses, especially hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aimed to estimate the burden of acute infectious hepatitis in hospitalised children and to describe their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Paediatricians in the UK and Ireland reported cases in children aged 1 month to 14 years diagnosed between January 2014 and January 2015 (inclusive) through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) and completed a detailed questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367327/assessment-of-immunization-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-among-children-under-five-years-in-rural-areas-of-taiz-yemen
#16
Fuad A A Alssamei, Najla A Al-Sonboli, Fawzi A Alkumaim, Nader S Alsayaad, Mohammed S Al-Ahdal, Tarig B Higazi, Atif A Elagib
Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a major health problem worldwide. approximately 1 million deaths annually due to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives. This study was conducted to determine the coverage rate of HBV vaccine and assess the vaccine protective response among children under five years old in rural areas of Yemen. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2015 in four districts of countryside Yemen. The target population was children aged from 6 to 59 months...
2017: Hepatitis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365193/danger-in-the-streets-exposures-to-bloodborne-pathogens-after-community-sharp-injuries-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#17
Marcellus Dias Costa, Cristiane Rapparini, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Mari Tuyama, Lilian de Mello Lauria, Valeria Saraceni, Paulo Feijó Barroso
OBJECTIVE: Exposures to sharps injuries occurring in the community are relatively frequent. We describe characteristics of community sharp exposures reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of exposure reports to sharps in the community reported to a surveillance system, designed for health care workers, of the Municipal Health Department of Rio de Janeiro. The characteristics of exposed individuals analyzed included types of exposure, the circumstances of the accident, and the prophylaxis offered...
March 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357974/immunisation-status-and-determinants-of-left-behind-children-aged-12-72-months-in-central-china
#18
Z L Ni, X D Tan, H Y Shao, Y Wang
Many parents move from rural China to urban areas in search of job opportunities, and leave their children behind to be raised by relatives. We aimed to assess the immunisation coverage, including the 1:3:3:3:1 vaccine series (one dose of Bacilli Chalmette-Guérin vaccine; three doses of live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine; three doses of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combined; three doses of hepatitis B vaccine; and one dose of measles-containing vaccine), in children aged 12-72 months and identify the determinants of immunisation uptake among left-behind children in Hubei Province, Central China, in 2014...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357379/hepatitis-b-virus-and-its-sexually-transmitted-infection-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Takako Inoue, Yasuhito Tanaka
incidence and prevalence: About 5% of the world's population has chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and nearly 25% of carriers develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is 5%-15%; HIV/HBV coinfected individuals have a higher level of HBV replication, with higher rates of chronicity, reactivation, occult infection, and HCC than individuals with HBV only. The prevalence of HBV genotype A is significantly higher among men who have sex with men (MSM), compared with the rest of the population...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352303/paediatric-virology-a-rapidly-increasing-educational-challenge
#20
Ioannis N Mammas, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Prakash Thiagarajan, Sharryn Gardner, Georgia Papaioannou, Angeliki Melidou, Maria Koutsaki, Georgia Kostagianni, Vassilis Achtsidis, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Marcos Calachanis, Apostolos Zaravinos, Anne Greenough, Demetrios A Spandidos
The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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