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Hepatitis b in children

Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Songxu Peng, Zhihua Wan, Tingting Liu, Huiping Zhu, Yukai Du
GOALS: To identify the potential risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission and predict the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission among hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women with diverse viral load. BACKGROUND: The intrauterine transmission of HBV significantly contributes to the persistence of a high number of patients infected with HBV. However, its risk factors remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed on hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women who delivered from June 2012 to December 2016 at Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children, Wuhan, China...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Abdul Momin Kazi, Murtaza Ali, Khurram Zubair, Hussain Kalimuddin, Abdul Nafey Kazi, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Jean-Paul Collet, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Improved routine immunization (RI) coverage is recommended as the priority public health strategy to decrease vaccine-preventable diseases and eradicate polio in Pakistan and worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether customized, automated, one-way text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders delivered to caregivers via mobile phones when a child is due for an RI visit can improve vaccination uptake and timelines in Pakistan...
March 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Iraci Duarte Lima, Adila L M Lima, Carolina de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, José F V Coutinho, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José Wilton Queiroz, Selma M B Jeronimo
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum became a disease of urban areas in Brazil in the last 30 years and there has been an increase in asymptomatic L. infantum infection with these areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study of human VL was performed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, for the period of 1990-2014. The data were divided into five-time periods. For all VL cases, data on sex, age, nutritional status and childhood vaccination were collected...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arto A Palmu, Jukka Jokinen, Heta Nieminen, Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Esa Ruokokoski, Taneli Puumalainen, Marta Moreira, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys, Terhi M Kilpi
Estimation of the full disease burden caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is challenging due to the difficulties in assigning the aetiology especially in lower and upper respiratory infections. We estimated the pneumococcal disease burden by using the vaccine-preventable disease incidence (VPDI) of PHiD-CV10 vaccine (GSK) in our clinical trial setting. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial was a cluster-randomized, double-blind trial in children <19 months who received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis B/A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to 3+1 or 2+1 schedules (infants < 7 months) or catch-up schedules (children 7-18 months)...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
Elizabeth E Krans, Scott D Rothenberger, Penelope K Morrison, Seo Young Park, Leah C Klocke, Mary J Turocy, Susan Zickmund
Objectives To evaluate Hepatitis C virus (HCV) knowledge and awareness among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods From May through November 2015, a one-time survey was distributed to a convenience sample of pregnant women with OUD to assess their knowledge and awareness of (a) risk factors for HCV infection, (b) HCV transmission prevention strategies, (c) hepatotoxic risk reduction and (d) perinatal transmission and neonatal implications of HCV infection. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare demographic characteristics and HCV knowledge between participants who were HCV positive and negative...
March 3, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Saravana Kumar Kailasam Mani, Ourania Andrisani
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. Despite the availability of a HBV vaccine, current treatments for HCC are inadequate. Globally, 257 million people are chronic HBV carriers, and children born from HBV-infected mothers become chronic carriers, destined to develop liver cancer. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed to target essential pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence supports existence of hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs), which contribute to chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence after treatment or surgery...
March 2, 2018: Genes
Chengliang Zhou, Ying Yu, Qian Yang, Huihui Wang, Min Hou, Li Jin, Fanghong Zhang, Jiangzhong Sheng, Mingfang Miao, Xiaofu Yang, He-Feng Huang
Telbivudine is an orally nucleoside analog with potent and specific antihepatitis B virus (HBV) activity, and it has been reported to block mother-to-infant transmission. However, few studies have focused on the safety of prenatal exposure for offspring development.This is a prospective noninterventional study. Participants were enrolled during delivery through the Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between January 2012 and September 2013. Neonate's umbilical cord arterial blood (UCAB) was collected after delivery...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Piero Colombatto, Cristiana Barbera, Flavia Bortolotti, Anna M Maina, Francesco Moriconi, Daniela Cavallone, Pierluigi Calvo, Filippo Oliveri, Ferruccio Bonino, Maurizia R Brunetto
BACKGROUND: Selection of HBeAg defective HBV mutants (mt) during childhood might influence infection outcome in adults. Aim of this study was to correlate the dynamics of Pre-Core HBV mutant (Pre-C mt) selection with virological/clinical outcomes in children followed-up until adulthood. METHODS: Eighty subjects (50-M/30-F), 70 HBeAg-positive (87.5%) and 10 (12.5%) HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive at the admission, mostly genotype D infected (91.2%), with median age of 6...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Joseph Woodring, Naoko Ishikawa, Mari Nagai, Maya Malarski, Yoshihiro Takashima, Howard Sobel, Ying-Ru Lo
Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission. ( 1 ) These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Jessica Healy, Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Laurie D Elam-Evans, Holly A Hill, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, David Yankey
BACKGROUND: An overall increase has been reported in vaccination rates among adolescents during the past decade. Studies of vaccination coverage have shown disparities when comparing foreign-born and U.S.-born populations among children and adults; however, limited information is available concerning potential disparities in adolescents. METHODS: The National Immunization Survey-Teen is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of caregivers of adolescents aged 13-17 years, followed by a mail survey to vaccination providers that is used to estimate vaccination coverage among the U...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
Faisal Kordy, Astrid Petrich, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting. Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Lara Neves Souza, Rodrigo Bronze de Martino, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Mohamed Rela, Anil Dhawan, John O'Grady, Nigel Heaton, Alberto Quaglia
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Approximately 10-19% of liver transplant recipients develop irreversible graft failure requiring retransplantation. We reviewed the histology of failed grafts removed at retransplantation in our centre over 27 years. METHODS: 276 adults and 118 children underwent retransplantation from 1987-2014, receiving 321 and 139 liver grafts, respectively. We analysed graft histology, recipient demographics, indications for transplantation and retransplantation and time interval to retransplantation...
February 25, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Andrew T Trout, Rachel M Sheridan, Suraj D Serai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Weizhe Su, Bin Zhang, Daniel B Wallihan
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography-derived liver stiffness to detect liver fibrosis in a pediatric and young adult population with a spectrum of liver diseases. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent MR elastography and liver biopsy within 3 months of one another between January 2012 and September 2016 for indications other than liver transplantation or Fontan palliation of congenital heart disease...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
Jonathan B Wagner, Susan Abdel-Rahman, Leon Van Haandel, Andrea Gaedigk, Roger Gaedigk, Geetha Raghuveer, Ralph Kauffman, J Steven Leeder
This study investigated the impact of allelic variation in SLCO1B1, a gene encoding for the liver-specific solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 protein (SLCO1B1), on simvastatin and simvastatin acid (SVA) systemic exposure in children and adolescents. Participants (8-20 years old) with at least 1 variant SLCO1B1 c.521T>C allele (521TC, n = 15; 521CC, n = 2) and 2 wild-type alleles (521TT, n = 15) completed a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study. At equivalent doses, SVA exposure was 6...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Palittiya Sintusek, Nawarat Posuwan, Piyaporn Wanawongsawad, Suttiruk Jitraruch, Yong Poovorawan, Voranush Chongsrisawat
AIM: To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity among previously vaccinated pediatric liver transplant recipients and present a case report of de novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation. METHODS: This study focused on children with chronic liver diseases who received primary hepatitis B immunization and had a complete dataset of anti-HBs before and after liver transplantation between May 2001 and June 2017. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for potential factors relating to HBV immunity loss...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Gudrun S Freidl, Alma Tostmann, Moud Curvers, Wilhelmina L M Ruijs, Gaby Smits, Rutger Schepp, Erwin Duizer, Greet Boland, Hester de Melker, Fiona R M van der Klis, Jeannine L A Hautvast, Irene K Veldhuijzen
Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Little is known about protection against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in adult asylum seekers. In this 2016 study, we assessed the immunity of adult asylum seekers against nine VPD to identify groups that might benefit from additional vaccinations. We invited asylum seekers from Syria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Eritrea and Ethiopia to participate in a serosurvey...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
María Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Idoia Labayen
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included...
February 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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