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Hepatitis b in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#1
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342498/patient-reminder-and-recall-interventions-to-improve-immunization-rates
#2
REVIEW
Julie C Jacobson Vann, Robert M Jacobson, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Josephine K Asafu-Adjei, Peter G Szilagyi
BACKGROUND: Immunization rates for children and adults are rising, but coverage levels have not reached optimal goals. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. In an era of increasing complexity of immunization schedules, rising expectations about the performance of primary care, and large demands on primary care providers, it is important to understand and promote interventions that work in primary care settings to increase immunization coverage. One common theme across immunization programs in many nations involves the challenge of implementing a population-based approach and identifying all eligible recipients, for example the children who should receive the measles vaccine...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337653/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-meningococcal-b-recombinant-vaccine-when-administered-with-routine-vaccines-to-healthy-infants-in-taiwan-a-phase-3-open-label-randomized-study
#3
Nan-Chang Chiu, Li-Min Huang, Arnold Willemsen, Chiranjiwi Bhusal, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Zenaida Reynoso Mojares, Daniela Toneatto
Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2:1) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Routine vaccines were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b, 13-valent pneumococcal, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337651/the-effects-of-booster-vaccination-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-on-children-5-15-years-after-primary-immunization-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#4
Zikang Wu, Jun Yao, Hongdan Bao, Yongdi Chen, Shunshun Lu, Jing Li, Linna Yang, Zhenggang Jiang, Jingjing Ren, Kai-Jin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shi-Gui Yang, Tian-Sheng Xie, Qian Li
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hepatitis B surface antibody titers (anti-HBs) after booster vaccinations in children aged 5-15 y and to provide suitable immunization strategies. A total of 2208 children were initially enrolled in screening, and 559 children were finally included. The participants were divided into 2 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs levels: Group I, <10 mIU/ml and Group II, ≥10 mIU/ml. Group I was administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 months, 10 μg), and Group II was administered 1 dose of booster hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg)...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337457/-pharmacovigilance-update
#5
Françoise Livio
The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2017 are reviewed. Denosumab : rebound-associated multiple vertebral fractures after discontinuation. Canagliflozine: increased risk of foot/leg amputations. Biologic and targeted cancer therapies, direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C: risk of hepatitis B reactivation. Checkpoint inhibitors : immune-related adverse events and graft rejection. Fingolimod : rebound-associated reactivation of MS following withdrawal. Daclizumab: risk of severe liver injury leading to restricted use in MS patients...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334960/arsenic-exposure-and-risk-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-among-u-s-adolescents-and-adults-an-association-modified-by-race-ethnicity-nhanes-2005-2014
#6
Jennifer K Frediani, Eric A Naioti, Miriam B Vos, Janet Figueroa, Carmen J Marsit, Jean A Welsh
BACKGROUND: While associated with obesity, the cause of the rapid rise in prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children, which is highest among Hispanics, is not well understood. Animal experiments have demonstrated that arsenic exposure contributes to liver injury. Our objective was to examine the association between arsenic exposure and NAFLD in humans and to determine if race/ethnicity modifies the association. METHODS: Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations among those ≥12 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2014 were used to assess the cross-sectional association with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver dysfunction...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333947/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immune-memory-until-9-10%C3%A2-years-of-age-following-hepatitis-b-vaccination-at-birth-and-dtap-ipv-hb-prp%C3%A2-t-vaccination-at-2-4-and-6-months
#7
Pope Kosalaraksa, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Sunate Chuenkitmongkol, Siham B'Chir, Xavier Da Costa, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). METHODS: Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330965/intra-hepatic-bile-duct-primary-cilia-in-biliary-atresia
#8
Roberta Frassetto, Filippo Parolini, Salvatore Marceddu, Giulia Satta, Valeria Papacciuoli, Maria Antonia Pinna, Alessandra Mela, Giannina Secchi, Grazia Galleri, Roberto Manetti, Luisa Bercich, Vincenzo Villanacci, Antonio Dessanti, Roberto Antonucci, Francesco Tanda, Daniele Alberti, Kathleen B Schwarz, Maria Grazia Clemente
AIM: The etiopathogenesis of non-syndromic biliary atresia (BA) is obscure. The primary aim was to investigate intra-hepatic bile duct cilia (IHBC) in BA at the diagnosis and correlation with clinical outcome. The secondary aim was to analyze IHBC in routine paraffin-embedded liver biopsies using conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). METHODS: Surgical liver biopsies taken at the diagnosis from 22 BA infants (age range: 39 - 116 days) and from 8 children with non-BA chronic cholestasis (age range: 162 days -16,8 years) were evaluated for IHBC, both by immunofluorescence (IF) and by SEM...
January 13, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329213/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-association-between-infant-hepatitis-b-vaccine-exposure-in-boys-and-the-risk-of-adverse-effects-as-measured-by-receipt-of-special-education-services
#9
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990-2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES) rose significantly, and then, from 2004-2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#10
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325483/characterization-of-vaccination-policies-for-attendance-and-employment-at-day-summer-camps-in-new-york-state
#11
William A Prescott, Kelsey C Violanti, Nicholas M Fusco
INTRODUCTION: New York state requires day/summer camps to keep immunization records for all enrolled campers and strongly recommends requiring vaccination for all campers and staff. The objective of this study was to characterize immunization requirements/recommendations for children/adolescents enrolled in and staff employed at day/summer camps in New York state. METHODS: An electronic hyperlink to a 9-question survey instrument was distributed via e-mail to 178 day/summer camps located in New York state cities with a population size greater than 100 000 people...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322328/vaccination-titres-pre-and-post-transplant-in-paediatric-renal-transplant-recipients-and-the-impact-of-immunosuppressive-therapy
#12
Britta Höcker, Martin Aguilar, Paul Schnitzler, Lars Pape, Martin Bald, Jens König, Stephen D Marks, Gurkan Genc, Anja Büscher, Markus J Kemper, Heiko Billing, Martin Pohl, Luca Dello Strologo, Nicholas J A Webb, Susanne Rieger, Annette Mankertz, Kai Krupka, Thomas Bruckner, Alexander Fichtner, Burkhard Tönshoff
BACKGROUND: Avoidance of vaccine-preventable infections in paediatric renal allograft recipients is of utmost importance. However, the development and maintenance of protective vaccination titres may be impaired in this patient population owing to their need for immunosuppressive medication. METHODS: In the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national study and analysed vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in 155 patients with serial titre measurements in comparison with published data in healthy children...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318526/evaluation-of-the-protection-provided-by-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-india
#13
Jacob Puliyel, Pathik Naik, Ashish Puliyel, Kishore Agarwal, Vandana Lal, Nimmi Kansal, Devki Nandan, Vikas Tripathi, Prashant Tyagi, Saroj K Singh, Rajeev Srivastava, Utkarsh Sharma, V Sreenivas
OBJECTIVE: In India, Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended at 6 wk except for hospital-deliveries. The authors examined protection afforded by the birth dose. METHODS: A case-control study was done. HBsAg and HBcAb were tested in 2671 children, 1 to 5 y and HBsAb was evaluated in a subset of 1413 children. Vaccination history was recorded. Cases were HBsAg carriers. In another analysis, children who got infected (HBsAg and/or HBcAb positive) were considered as cases...
January 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317556/hepatitis-b-vaccination-strategy-in-hiv-infected-children
#14
Pooja Dewan, Piyush Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316006/extubation-in-the-operating-room-after-pediatric-liver-transplant-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Harshad G Gurnaney, Scott D Cook-Sather, Abraham Shaked, Kim M Olthoff, Elizabeth B Rand, Arul M Lingappan, Mohamed A Rehman
BACKGROUND: Early extubation immediately following liver transplantation is increasingly common in adult practice. Some pediatric institutions have begun to adopt this strategy. Careful patient selection is essential in minimizing risk. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated infants and children who underwent liver transplantation between July 2011 and December 2014. Our primary objective was to determine early extubation rate. Secondary objectives were to identify clinical factors associated with successful early extubation compared with delayed extubation and to examine significant postoperative complications, intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital length of stay...
January 8, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315536/a-decision-analytic-model-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-using-birth-dose-vaccination
#16
Sarah Anderson, Lorie M Harper, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Gregory Halle-Ekane, Alan T N Tita
OBJECTIVE: To compare prenatal maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and infant vaccination strategies to inform policy on HBV prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A decision analytic model was created using previously published data to assess the ability of three intervention strategies to prevent HBV infection by age 10 years. Strategy 1 comprised of universal vaccination with a pentavalent vaccine (HBV, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae) at age 6 weeks...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290748/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-prolonged-infusion-aztreonam-for-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-case-report
#17
Jeffrey J Cies, Richard J LaCoursiere, Wayne S Moore, Arun Chopra
Aztreonam, a broad-spectrum monobactam, is typically reserved for multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or nonintensive care unit (ICU) patients. Impaired antibiotic delivery into tissue remains a major concern and may explain the high morbidity and mortality associated with MDR infections. Therefore, evaluating the PK changes in pediatric ICU patients is necessary to elucidate the most appropriate antimicrobial regimen...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287017/seroimmunity-to-hepatitis-b-virus-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-effects-of-booster-vaccination
#18
Uma Padhye Phatak, Danilo Rojas-Velasquez, Dinesh S Pashankar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286012/hepatitis-a-b-c-and-hiv-seroprevalence-among-syrian-refugee-children-admitted-to-outpatient-clinics
#19
Şükran Köse, Ilker Ödemiş, Didem Çelik, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Ilkay Akbulut, Dilek Yilmaz Çiftdoğan
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. In our study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV among Syrian refugee children who were admitted to outpatient clinics...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276157/vaccination-coverage-among-school-children-aged-14-15%C3%A2-years-in-the-french-department-of-sarthe
#20
D Huart, S Blanchi
OBJECTIVES: Vaccinations are the main pillar of primary prevention for infectious diseases. To guide and prioritize public health interventions, the Regional Health Agency has asked the Prevention, Vaccination, and Screening Center of the Sarthe department to assess vaccination coverage (VC) at the sub-departmental level. The main objective was to measure the VC among school children aged 14-15 years in Sarthe at the sub-departmental level. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a VC evaluation survey at the administrative district level among school children aged 14-15 years in the Sarthe department during the first quarter of the 2015-2016 school year...
December 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
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