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Hepatitis c in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#1
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688118/a-pair-of-dicer1-positive-monozygotic-twins-one-with-pleuropulmonary-blastoma-another-with-acute-transient-hepatitis
#3
Sihui Li, Siyu Cai, Xisi Wang, Dawei Zhang, Libing Fu, Qi Zeng, Xiaoxia Peng, Xiaoli Ma
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the lung in children that is associated with a germline mutation in DICER1. In this report, we share an interesting case of a pair of monozygotic twins: one of them developed PPB when she was 4-year old, while the other developed acute transient hepatitis when she was 5-year old. Next-Gen sequencing for DICER1 mutations of their family revealed that both twins and their mother had c.C3675A mutation. The mother also had a history of multinodular goiter...
July 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688027/pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-and-its-derivatives-in-children-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Janelle D Vaughns, Gilbert Koch, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in patients younger than 18 years of age. Of 372 retrieved articles, 44 eligible pharmacokinetic studies contained data of 821 patients younger than 18 years of age, including more than 46 preterm infants, 64 full-term neonates, 115 infants/toddlers, 188 children, and 28 adolescents...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685316/-liver-biopsy-in-children-and-adolescents-preliminary-morphological-examinations-in-diffuse-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
C Lackner, A S Knisely
BACKGROUND: Frequencies of types of liver disease differ between adults and nonadults (NA). OBJECTIVES: The particular problems encountered in interpreting liver-biopsy findings in NA often require referral in consultation.  To permit this efficiently, we recommend specific approaches to light microscopy, with special stains and immunohistochemistry, as well as to ultrastructural study. METHODS: Prosection and the choice of special stains are described, and are discussed in relation to clinical questions...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677866/increased-incidence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-male-rat-offspring-exposed-to-fluoxetine-during-fetal-and-neonatal-life-involves-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-augmented-de-novo-hepatic-lipogenesis
#6
Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway
Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662284/estimate-of-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-pakistan-in-2007-and-2012-birth-cohorts
#7
Lenka Benova, Susanne Faissal Awad, Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad
Despite a combination of high Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, a large adult population and high fertility, no published estimates of the scale and contribution of vertical transmission to HCV incidence in Pakistan exist. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of new HCV infections occurring in Pakistan as a result vertical transmission. We adapted a published mathematical model based on HCV antibody and viremia prevalence, fertility rates, risk of HCV vertical transmission and children mortality rates to estimate the number of infections in the 2007 and 2012 birth cohorts nationally and in four sub-national regions...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660149/mechanisms-and-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#8
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1-28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3-15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619360/further-delineation-of-cog8-cdg-a-case-with-novel-compound-heterozygous-mutations-diagnosed-by-targeted-exome-sequencing
#9
Aram Yang, Sung Yoon Cho, Ja-Hyun Jang, Jinsup Kim, Sook Za Kim, Beom Hee Lee, Han-Wook Yoo, Dong-Kyu Jin
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly expanding group of inherited metabolic disorders with highly variable clinical presentations caused by deficient glycosylation of proteins and/or lipids. CDG-IIh is a very rare subgroup of CDG caused by mutations in the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex gene, COG8, and so far, only two cases have been reported in the medical literature. Here, we describe an 8-year-old Korean boy with psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, failure to thrive, elevated serum liver enzymes, microcephaly, and talipes equinovarus...
June 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611271/expression-of-natural-killer-cell-inhibitory-receptors-is-associated-with-significant-liver-injury-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-children
#10
Anna Mania, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Pawel Kemnitz, Magdalena Figlerowicz, Jan Sikora, Wojciech Sluzewski, Jan Zeromski
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Natural Killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune response to viral infections and their high proportion is situated in the liver. The aim of this study was to analyze possible relation between the expression of NK cell receptors and varied intensity of liver lesions in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study included 105 children with CHC - 54 boys and 51 girls, age 13.62 ± 3.48 years. Blood specimens were taken at the day of the liver biopsy...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592092/-early-physical-growth-and-disease-analysis-among-children-born-delivered-by-hbsag-positive-mothers
#11
X H Zhang, Q Wang, W Zheng, X H Li, Q Q Jiang, C F Zhou, L Q Qiu
Objective: To estimate the early physical growth and disease in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Three areas as Xihu in Hangzhou, Lanxi in Jinhua, and Haiyan in Jiaxing in Zhejiang province were selected by cluster sampling. The growth outcomes of children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (exposure group) and matched 1∶1 women uninfected with HBV (control group) in 2014 were investigated and compared at birth, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, respectively. There were totally 342 children in each group...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567493/epidemiologic-features-of-348-children-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-over-a-30-year-period-a-nationwide-survey-in-japan
#12
Tatsuki Mizuochi, Tomoko Takano, Tadahiro Yanagi, Kosuke Ushijima, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Yoko Miyoshi, Yoshinori Ito, Ayano Inui, Hitoshi Tajiri
BACKGROUND: Although the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among children may be rapidly changing, few reports have characterized large nationwide cohorts of children with HCV infection. We, therefore, sought to clarify the epidemiology and natural history of HCV infection in Japanese children born over the last three decades. METHODS: Sixty-five pediatric centers retrospectively and prospectively recruited consecutive, otherwise-healthy HCV-infected children born during 1986 to 2015...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543915/cross-sectional-correlation-between-hepatic-r2-and-proton-density-fat-fraction-pdff-in-children-with-hepatic-steatosis
#13
Adrija Mamidipalli, Gavin Hamilton, Paul Manning, Cheng William Hong, Charlie C Park, Tanya Wolfson, Jonathan Hooker, Elhamy Heba, Alexandra Schlein, Anthony Gamst, Janis Durelle, Melissa Paiz, Michael S Middleton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Claude B Sirlin
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2* in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant, Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, cross-sectional study, we conducted a secondary analysis of 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed as part of prospective research studies in children in whom conditions associated with iron overload were excluded clinically...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543053/sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-in-adolescents-12-to-17-years-old-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-or-3-infection
#14
Stefan Wirth, Philip Rosenthal, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, William F Balistreri, Lin Chuan-Hao, Winita Hardikar, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Bittoo Kanwar, Diana M Brainard, Jiang Shao, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Brian Kirby, Ronen Arnon, Karen F Murray, Kathleen B Schwarz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have limited treatment options. We evaluated the all-oral combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin in adolescents aged 12-17 with HCV genotype 2 or 3. METHODS: Fifty-two patients received sofosbuvir 400mg once daily and weight-based ribavirin twice daily for 12 (genotype 2) or 24 (genotype 3) weeks. The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir and its metabolite GS-331007 were evaluated by intensive plasma sampling at day 7 in the first 10 patients enrolled, and by sparse sampling in all patients throughout treatment...
May 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539847/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-children
#15
Karen F Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535787/novel-serum-biomarkers-modified-by-the-body-mass-index-z-score-for-the-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-and-steatosis-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#16
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Pluta, Magdalena Marczyńska
BACKGROUND: There is a need for validation of noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy for the evaluation of fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers modified by the body mass index z-score (BMI z-score) for the detection of fibrosis and steatosis in children with CHC. METHODS: Thirty children aged 9.4 ± 3.7 years (14 males, 16 females) with CHC underwent liver biopsy...
May 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512555/assessment-of-obesity-and-hepatic-late-adverse-effects-in-the-egyptian-survivors-of-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-single-center-study
#17
Farida H El-Rashedy, Mahmoud A El-Hawy, Sally M El Hefnawy, Mona M Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with current cure rates reaching 80% emphasizes the necessity to determine treatment-related long-term effects. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hepatic late adverse effects in a cohort of ALL survivors treated at the Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatrics Department, Menoufia University, Egypt. METHODS: In this case-control study, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed for 35 pediatric ALL survivors and 35 healthy children...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507928/the-role-of-direct-acting-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
REVIEW
Christine Hong Ting Yang, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed
In the United States, chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 0.1-2% of the pediatric population, who are consequently at risk for major complications, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The current standard of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children is pegylated-interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin. PEG-IFN/ribavirin therapy is approved for children ages 3 and older; however, it is often held from use until adulthood because of its extensive list of potential side effects and high likelihood of causing adverse symptoms...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504962/association-of-stat4-and-ptpn22-polymorphisms-and-their-interactions-with-type-1-autoimmune-hepatitis-susceptibility-in-chinese-han-children
#19
Xiaofeng Li, Huiqin Chen, Yun Cai, Pingping Zhang, Zhuanggui Chen
AIMS: To investigate the impact of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene- gene interactions and haplotype on type-1 Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) risk. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that type 1 AIH was significantly higher in carriers of T allele of rs7574865 than those with GG genotype (P- value less than 0.001), higher in carriers of C allele of rs7582694 than those with GG genotype (P- value < 0...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502515/lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-in-all-siblings-of-the-same-parents
#20
James J Maciejko, Premchand Anne, Saleem Raza, Hernando J Lyons
We present 4 normal-weight sibling children with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D). LAL-D was considered in the differential diagnosis based on the absence of secondary causes and primary inherited traits for their marked hyperlipidemia, together with unexplained hepatic transaminase elevation. Residual lysosomal acid lipase activity confirmed the diagnosis. DNA sequencing of LIPA indicated that the siblings were compound heterozygotes (c.894G>A and c.428+1G>A). This case describes the unusual occurrence of all offspring from the same nonconsanguineous mother and father inheriting compound heterozygosity of a recessive trait and the identification of an apparently unique LIPA mutation (c...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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