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Limbal stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238604/novel-pax6-mutation-reported-in-an-aniridia-patient
#1
Andrew Winegarner, Yoshinori Oie, Satoshi Kawasaki, Nozomi Nishida, Kohji Nishida
An aniridia patient was found to have a novel PAX6 mutation. A genetic duplication within PAX6, which caused a frameshift mutation, ultimately created a nonsense stop codon and premature truncation of the protein. Consequently, the patient presented with a clouded cornea as a result of partial limbal stem cell deficiency, foveal hypoplasia, nystagmus and a pale, cupped optic disc caused by glaucoma.
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230251/establishment-of-novel-limbus-derived-highly-proliferative-abcg2-abcb5-limbal-epithelial-stem-cell-cultures
#2
Eung Kweon Kim, Ga-Hyun Lee, Boram Lee, Yong-Sun Maeng
Homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelia are sustained by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs); thus, an LESC deficiency is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Despite the generally promising results of cultivated LESC transplantation, it has been limited by variations in long-term success rates, the use of xenogeneic and undefined culture components, and a scarcity of donor tissues. In this study, we identified the culture conditions required to expand LESCs in vitro and established human limbus-derived highly proliferative ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive LESCs...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226476/differences-in-the-activity-of-endogenous-bmp-signalling-impact-on-the-ability-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-differentiate-to-corneal-epithelial-like-cells
#3
Taty Anna Kamarudin, Sanja Bojic, Joseph Collin, Min Yu, Sameer Alharthi, Harley Buck, Alex Shortt, Lyle Armstrong, Francisco C Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako
Cornea is a clear outermost layer of the eye which enables transmission of light onto the retina. The transparent corneal epithelium is regenerated by limbal stem cells (LSCs), whose loss/dysfunction results in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Ex vivo expansion of autologous LSCs obtained from patient's healthy eye followed by transplantation onto the LSCs damaged/deficient eye, has provided a successful treatment for unilateral LSCD. This however is not applicable to patient with total bilateral LSCD, where LSCs are lost/damaged from both eyes...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217022/focal-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-associated-with-soft-contact-lens-wear
#4
Karolien Termote, Steven Schendel, Gregory Moloney, Simon P Holland, Alex P Lange
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with contact lens-associated focal limbal stem cell deficiency (FLSCD) from a tertiary corneal referral centre. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series in a tertiary care centre. METHODS: Patients with contact lens-associated FLCSD were identified in our database. Clinical data were retrieved by chart review. A questionnaire asking for contact lens brand, type, cleaning solution, and duration of contact lens wear was sent to the patients with telephone follow-up...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210839/cataract-surgery-in-ocular-surface-diseases-clinical-challenges-and-outcomes
#5
Virender S Sangwan, Swati Gupta, Shilpa Das
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cataracts are a significant cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. With the recent advances in cataract surgery techniques, outcomes have improved significantly in uncomplicated cases. This article discusses the challenges and outcomes of cataract surgery in complex cases targeting eyes with ocular surface diseases like Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, Mooren's ulcer, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and limbal stem cell deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Ocular surface diseases are commonly associated with corneal scarring and vascularization, conjunctival inflammation, symblepharon and forniceal shortening...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208552/controlling-human-corneal-stromal-stem-cell-contraction-to-mediate-rapid-cell-and-matrix-organization-of-real-architecture-for-3-dimensional-tissue-equivalents
#6
Dev Mukhey, James Phillips, Julie T Daniels, Alvena K Kureshi
The architecture of the human corneal stroma consists of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes. Their progenitor cells; corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) are located at the periphery, in the limbal stroma. A highly organized corneal ECM is critical for effective transmission of light but this structure may be compromised during injury or disease, resulting in loss of vision. Re-creating normal organization in engineered tissue equivalents for transplantation often involves lengthy culture times that are inappropriate for clinical use or utilisation of synthetic substrates that bring complications such as corneal melting...
December 2, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204944/comparison-of-culture-media-indicates-a-role-for-autologous-serum-in-enhancing-phenotypic-preservation-of-rabbit-limbal-stem-cells-in-explant-culture
#7
Mehmet Gürdal, Özlem Barut Selver, Kemal Baysal, İsmet Durak
In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of six different cell culture media and autologous serum (AS) on the phenotypic characteristics of rabbit limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) cultivated on porous polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. Limbal explants from rabbit corneas were grown on PET membrane inserts in five different media: DMEM-F12 with fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM-F12-FBS), with pluripotin (DMEM-F12-pluripotin) and with autologous serum (DMEM-F12-AS), Epilife, Keratinocyte Serum Free Medium (KSFM) and Defined-Keratinocyte Serum Free Medium...
December 4, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198663/determination-of-the-culture-time-point-to-induce-corneal-epithelial-differentiation-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
R A Martínez García de la Torre, N Nieto-Nicolau, A Morales-Pastor, R P Casaroli-Marano
BACKGROUND: Limbal stem cells (LSC) are progenitor cells in the ocular surface that renew the corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency usually induces blindness through the loss of corneal transparency, and bilateral cases do not an accurate treatment because of the lack of an autologous source of stem cells. METHODS: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are promising for use in cell therapy because of their autologous origin and the capability to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172876/limbal-stem-cell-transplantation-and-complications
#9
Jia Yin, Ula Jurkunas
Corneal epithelial stem cells are adult somatic stem cells located at the limbus and represent the ultimate source of transparent corneal epithelium. When these limbal stem cells become dysfunctional or deficient, limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) develops. LSCD is a major cause of corneal scarring and is particularly prevalent in chemical and thermal burns of the ocular surface. LSCD leads to conjunctivalization of the corneal surface, neovascularization, recurrent or persistent epithelial defects, ocular surface inflammation, and scarring that, in turn, lead to decreased vision, pain, and impaired quality of life...
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164231/storage-of-porcine-cornea-in-an-innovative-bioreactor
#10
Damien Guindolet, Emmanuel Crouzet, Zhiguo He, Pascal Herbepin, Clotilde Jumelle, Chantal Perrache, Jean Marc Dumollard, Fabien Forest, Michel Peoc'h, Philippe Gain, Eric Gabison, Gilles Thuret
Purpose: To quantify cell survival and tissue structure preservation of porcine cornea stored in a bioreactor (BR) that recreates a transcorneal pressure gradient equivalent to intraocular pressure (IOP) and renews the medium. Methods: A BR comprising endothelial and epithelial chambers was machined in a biocompatible material. The porcine cornea, securely held, separated the chambers. Medium flow and pressure inside the endothelial chamber were maintained by a peristaltic pump...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162348/human-aniridia-limbal-epithelial-cells-lack-expression-of-keratins-k3-and-k12
#11
Lorenz Latta, Arne Viestenz, Tanja Stachon, Sarah Colanesi, Nóra Szentmáry, Berthold Seitz, Barbara Käsmann-Kellner
Patients with aniridia often develop aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), due to limbal stem cell insufficiency. This study aimed to determine the proliferative capacity and differentiation status of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) in patients with ARK. We also investigated the influences of PAX6 genotype on PAX6-transcript and protein level. Here two patients with aniridia underwent keratoplasty were examined. During the surgery, small limbal biopsies and pannus tissue were excised and processed for cell culture...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149196/easy-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-method-for-isolating-and-growing-limbal-stromal-and-epithelial-stem-cells-of-the-human-cornea
#12
Djida Ghoubay-Benallaoua, Céline de Sousa, Raphaël Martos, Gaël Latour, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Elisabeth Dupin, Vincent Borderie
Epithelial and stromal stem cells are required to maintain corneal transparency. The aim of the study was to develop a new method to isolate and grow both corneal stromal (SSC) and epithelial limbal (LSC) stem cells from small human limbal biopsies under culture conditions in accordance with safety requirements mandatory for clinical use in humans. Superficial limbal explants were retrieved from human donor corneo-scleral rims. Human limbal cells were dissociated by digestion with collagenase A, either after epithelial scraping or with no scraping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141906/keratolimbal-allograft-for-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-after-severe-corneal-chemical-injury-a-systematic-review
#13
Swapna S Shanbhag, Hajirah N Saeed, Eleftherios I Paschalis, James Chodosh
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on outcomes of keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) for the surgical treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and corneal blindness after severe corneal chemical injury. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, CINAHL, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. Standard systematic review methodology was applied. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eyes with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥20/200 at last follow-up...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135712/limbal-stem-cell-preservation-during-proton-beam-irradiation-for-diffuse-iris-melanoma
#14
Paul T Finger, Wolfgang A G Sauerwein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133636/diagnosis-of-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-based-on-corneal-epithelial-thickness-measured-on-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Amit Mehtani, Mahesh Chandra Agarwal, Sushant Sharma, Santosh Chaudhary
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the epithelial thickness in the cornea and limbus in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study. OCT images of 30 eyes of 19 patients with LSCD collected by AS-OCT were scanned. Corneal epithelial thickness was recorded at the central cornea and the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal limbus. Measurment of the same region of 30 normal eyes served as control...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133179/stage-related-central-corneal-epithelial-transformation-in-congenital-aniridia-associated-keratopathy
#16
Neil Lagali, Bogumil Wowra, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Tor Paaske Utheim, Per Fagerholm, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To relate central corneal epithelial phenotype to degree of keratopathy in a limbal stem cell deficient population. METHODS: 37 patients (67 eyes) with aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) underwent corneal examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy to determine the Grade of AAK, Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to assess morphology of the central corneal epithelium and subepithelial region. RESULTS: AAK Grade ranged from 1 (limbal involvement only) to 4 (total conjunctivalisation), with progression from Grade 1 occurring after the age of 20...
November 10, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127331/divergent-effects-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-modifiers-on-the-preservation-of-human-limbal-epithelial-progenitors-according-to-culture-condition
#17
Hyun Jung Lee, J Mario Wolosin, So-Hyang Chung
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the regulation of self-renewal in stem cells. Here we investigated the effect of CHIR99021, the primary transducer of the Wnt signaling canonical pathway, and IWP2, a wide action Wnt signal blocker, on the growth and differentiation of the limbal epithelial progenitor cells when these cells are cultured in two different, common culture approaches, outgrowth from limbal biopsy explants and isolated cell seeded in low calcium medium. Consistent with their expected effects, irrespective of the culture system, IWP2 decreased total β-catenin while CHIR99021 increased it in nuclear localization...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116027/poly-ethylene-glycol-modified-silk-fibroin-membrane-as-a-carrier-for-limbal-epithelial-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-rabbit-lscd-model
#18
Yijian Li, Yuli Yang, Lei Yang, Yuxiao Zeng, Xiaowei Gao, Haiwei Xu
BACKGROUND: Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) play important roles in corneal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration, and damage to the limbus will lead to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), with conjunctivalization and even visual impairment. Cultured LESCs have been used for ocular surface reconstruction, and silk fibroin (SF) membranes have shown potential as a substrate for LESC cultivation. Both culture methods and the carriers of LESCs affect outcomes following LESC transplantation...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113917/the-diagnosis-of-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#19
REVIEW
Qihua Le, Jianjiang Xu, Sophie X Deng
Limbal stem cells (LSCs) maintain the normal homeostasis and wound healing of corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a pathologic condition that results from the dysfunction and/or an insufficient quantity of LSCs. The diagnosis of LSCD has been made mainly based on medical history and clinical signs, which often are not specific to LSCD. Methods to stage the severity of LSCD have been lacking. With the application of newly developed ocular imaging modalities and molecular methods as diagnostic tools, standardized quantitative criteria for the staging of LSCD can be established...
November 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109898/limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-and-treatment-with-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Özlem Barut Selver, Ayşe Yağcı, Sait Eğrilmez, Mehmet Gürdal, Melis Palamar, Türker Çavuşoğlu, Utku Ateş, Ali Veral, Çağrı Güven, Jose Mario Wolosin
The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
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