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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759062/inhibition-of-2-ag-hydrolysis-differentially-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-after-injury
#1
Justin R Piro, Georgette L Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M O'Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D Bell, Tarek A Samad
BACKGROUND: Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral immune cells, cytotoxic proteins, and water. BBB breakdown and extravasation of these peripheral components into the brain parenchyma result in inflammation, oxidative stress, edema, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. These downstream consequences of BBB dysfunction can drive pathophysiological processes and play a substantial role in the morbidity and mortality of acute and chronic neurological insults, and contribute to long-term sequelae...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740464/the-yucca-auxin-wox11-module-controls-crown-root-development-in-rice
#2
Tao Zhang, Ruonan Li, Jialing Xing, Lang Yan, Rongchen Wang, Yunde Zhao
A well-developed root system in rice and other crops can ensure plants to efficiently absorb nutrients and water. Auxin is a key regulator for various aspect of root development, but the detailed molecular mechanisms by which auxin controls crown root development in rice are not understood. We show that overexpression of a YUC gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in auxin biosynthesis, causes massive proliferation of crown roots. On the other hand, we find that disruption of TAA1 , which functions upstream of YUC genes, greatly reduces crown root development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735720/calcineurin-regulatory-subunit-calcium-binding-domains-differentially-contribute-to-calcineurin-signaling-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Sean Connolly, Devona Quasi-Woode, Laura Waldron, Christian Eberly, Kerri Waters, Eric M Muller, Tami J Kingsbury
The protein phosphatase calcineurin is central to Ca2+ signaling pathways from yeast to humans. Full activation of calcineurin requires Ca2+ binding to the regulatory subunit CNB, comprised of four Ca2+ -binding EF hand domains, and recruitment of Ca2+ -calmodulin. Here we report the consequences of disrupting Ca2+ binding to individual Cnb1 EF hand domains on calcineurin function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Calcineurin activity was monitored via quantitation of the calcineurin-dependent reporter gene, CDRE -lacZ, and calcineurin-dependent growth under conditions of environmental stress...
May 7, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734165/long-term-moderate-exercise-rescues-age-related-decline-in-hippocampal-neuronal-complexity-and-memory
#4
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Nai-Wen Ku, Tzu-Feng Wang, Yan-Hsiang Yang, Yao-Hsiang Shih, Shih-Ying Wu, Chu-Wan Lee, Megan Yu, Ting-Ting Yang, Yu-Min Kuo
BACKGROUND: Aging impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity and hippocampus-related learning and memory. In contrast, exercise training is known to improve hippocampal neuronal function. However, whether exercise is capable of restoring memory function in old animals is less clear. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the effects of exercise on the hippocampal neuroplasticity and memory functions during aging. METHODS: Young (3 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and old (18 months) mice underwent moderate-intensity treadmill running training for 6 weeks, and their hippocampus-related learning and memory, and the plasticity of their CA1 neurons was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724724/prevention-of-severe-hypoglycemia-induced-brain-damage-and-cognitive-impairment-with-verapamil
#5
David A Jackson, Trevin Michael, Adriana Vieira de Abreu, Rahul Agrawal, Marco Bortolato, Simon J Fisher
People with insulin-treated diabetes are uniquely at risk for severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage. Since calcium influx may mediate brain damage, we tested the hypothesis that the calcium channel blocker, verapamil, would significantly reduce brain damage and cognitive impairment caused by severe hypoglycemia. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; 1) control hyperinsulinemic (200 mU.kg-1 min-1 ) euglycemic (80-100mg/dl) clamps (n=14), 2) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (10-15mg/dl) clamps (n=16), or 3) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps followed by a single treatment with verapamil (20mg/kg) (n=11)...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721587/prenatal-arsenic-exposure-and-dietary-folate-and-methylcobalamin-supplementation-alter-the-metabolic-phenotype-of-c57bl-6j-mice-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#6
Madelyn C Huang, Christelle Douillet, Ellen N Dover, Miroslav Stýblo
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an established environmental diabetogen. The link between iAs exposure and diabetes is supported by evidence from adult human cohorts and adult laboratory animals. The contribution of prenatal iAs exposure to the development of diabetes and underlying mechanisms are understudied. The role of factors that modulate iAs metabolism and toxicity in adults and their potential to influence diabetogenic effects of prenatal iAs exposure are also unclear. The goal of this study was to determine if prenatal exposure to iAs impairs glucose metabolism in mice and if maternal supplementation with folate and methylcobalamin (B12) can modify this outcome...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718928/enteral-resuscitation-with-oral-rehydration-solution-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-burn-victims-evidence-from-a-porcine-model
#7
Belinda I Gómez, Matthew K McIntyre, Jennifer M Gurney, Kevin K Chung, Leopoldo C Cancio, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Intravenous (IV) resuscitation of burn patients has greatly improved outcomes and become a cornerstone of modern burn care. However, the heavy fluids and vascular access required may not be feasible in austere environments, mass casualty, or delayed transport scenarios. Enteral resuscitation has been proposed for these situations; we sought to examine the effectiveness of this strategy on improving burn-induced kidney injury. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine sustaining 40% TBSA full-thickness contact burns were randomized to three groups (n = 6/group): fluid deprivation, ad libitum water access, or 70 mL/kg/d Oral Rehydration Salt solution (ORS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714214/active-underwater-detection-with-an-array-of-atomic-magnetometers
#8
Cameron Deans, Luca Marmugi, Ferruccio Renzoni
We report on a 2×2 array of radio-frequency atomic magnetometers in a magnetic induction tomography configuration. Active detection, localization, and real-time tracking of conductive, nonmagnetic targets are demonstrated in air and saline water. Penetration in different media and detection are achieved thanks to the sensitivity and tunability of the sensors, and to the active nature of magnetic induction probing. We obtained a 100% success rate for automatic detection and a 93% success rate for automatic localization in air and water, up to 190 mm away from the sensor plane (100 mm underwater)...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695157/the-structural-basis-of-the-molecular-switch-between-phosphatase-and-mutase-functions-of-human-phosphomannomutase-1-under-ischemic-conditions
#9
Tianyang Ji, Chunchun Zhang, Li Zheng, Debra Dunaway-Mariano, Karen N Allen
The human phosphomannomutases PMM1 and PMM2 catalyze the interconversion of hexose 6-phosphates and hexose 1-phosphates. The two isoforms share 66% sequence identity and have similar kinetic properties as mutases in vitro, but differ in their functional roles in vivo. Though the physiological role of PMM2 is catalysis of the mutase reaction that provides the mannose 1-phosphate (Man-1-P) essential for protein glycosylation, PMM1 is thought to provide a phosphohydrolase activity in the presence of inosine monophosphate (IMP), converting glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (Glu-1,6-P2 ) to glucose 6-phosphate (Glu-6-P), rescuing glycolysis during brain ischemia...
April 25, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683428/a-tension-adhesion-feedback-loop-in-plant-epidermis
#10
Stéphane Verger, Yuchen Long, Arezki Boudaoud, Olivier Hamant
Mechanical forces have emerged as coordinating signals for most cell functions. Yet, because forces are invisible, mapping tensile stress patterns in tissues remains a major challenge in all kingdoms. Here we take advantage of the adhesion defects in the Arabidopsis mutant quasimodo1 (qua1) to deduce stress patterns in tissues. By reducing the water potential and epidermal tension in planta , we rescued the adhesion defects in qua1 , formally associating gaping and tensile stress patterns in the mutant. Using suboptimal water potential conditions, we revealed the relative contributions of shape- and growth-derived stress in prescribing maximal tension directions in aerial tissues...
April 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675484/resveratrol-supplementation-rescues-pool-of-growing-follicles-and-ovarian-stroma-from-cisplatin-induced-toxicity-on-the-ovary-in-sprague-dawley-rats-an-experimental-study
#11
Gbotolorun Stella Chinwe, Okafor Izuchukwu Azuka, Ndoeche Chidinma Adaeze
Background: Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic agent for many cancers but causes several levels of gonadal damage. Ovarian toxicity is a major concern of young cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Objective: This study sought to examine the effect of Cisplatin and Resveratrol supplementation on ovarian function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 45 cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 160 gr were divided into 9 groups (n=5/group)...
January 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670513/altered-brain-excitability-and-increased-anxiety-in-mice-with-experimental-colitis-consideration-of-hyperalgesia-and-sex-differences
#12
Kewir D Nyuyki, Nina L Cluny, Mark G Swain, Keith A Sharkey, Quentin J Pittman
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are incurable lifelong inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) with a rising worldwide incidence. IBD is characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, severe cramping and weight loss. However, there is a growing evidence that IBD is also associated with anxiety- and depression-related disorders, which further increase the societal burden of these diseases. Given the limited knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) changes in IBD, we investigated CNS-related comorbidities in a mouse model of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in drinking water for 5 days...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670331/cell-penetrating-peptide-conjugates-of-gambogic-acid-enhance-the-antitumor-effect-on-human-bladder-cancer-ej-cells-through-ros-mediated-apoptosis
#13
Lei Lyu, Lu-Qi Huang, Tao Huang, Wei Xiang, Jing-Dong Yuan, Chuan-Hua Zhang
Background: Gambogic acid (GA) is the main active ingredient of resin gamboges and possesses anti-cancer activity toward various human cancer cells. However, clinical application of GA has been limited by its poor aqueous solubility and dose-limiting toxicities. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are widely used to deliver anti-cancer drugs into cancer cells and to enhance the water solubility of drugs. Purpose: The object of this study was to synthesize peptide-drug conjugates in which the cell-penetrating peptide TAT (trans-activator of transcription) was conjugated to GA and evaluated the anti-cancer activity of this GA-CPP conjugate (GA-TAT) in EJ bladder cancer cells...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669113/dehydrated-dna-in-b-form-ionic-liquids-in-rescue
#14
Debostuti Ghoshdastidar, Sanjib Senapati
The functional B-conformation of DNA succumbs to the A-form at low water activity. Methods for room temperature DNA storage that rely upon 'anhydrobiosis', thus, often encounter the loss of DNA activity due to the B→A-DNA transition. Here, we show that ionic liquids, an emerging class of green solvents, can induce conformational transitions in DNA and even rescue the dehydrated DNA in the functional B-form. CD spectroscopic analyses not only reveal rapid transition of A-DNA in 78% ethanol medium to B-conformation in presence of ILs, but also the high resistance of IL-bound B-form to transit to A-DNA under dehydration...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653153/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-drones-to-prevent-drowning
#15
Celia Seguin, Gilles Blaquière, Anderson Loundou, Pierre Michelet, Thibaut Markarian
BACKGROUND: Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention)...
April 10, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650969/akaps-pka-disruptors-increase-aqp2-activity-independently-of-vasopressin-in-a-model-of-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#16
Fumiaki Ando, Shuichi Mori, Naofumi Yui, Tetsuji Morimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Sei Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Shinichi Uchida
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. Congenital NDI is mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R), leading to impaired aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel activity. So far, treatment options of congenital NDI either by rescuing mutant V2R with chemical chaperones or by elevating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels have failed to yield effective therapies. Here we show that inhibition of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) binding to PKA increases PKA activity and activates AQP2 channels in cortical collecting duct cells...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611607/the-epidemiology-of-operations-performed-by-the-national-sea-rescue-institute-of-south-africa-over-a-5-year-period
#17
Elaine Erasmus, Cleeve Robertson, Daniel Jacobus van Hoving
BACKGROUND: Injuries remain a major contributor of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with drowning accounting for 7% of all injury-related deaths with rates of between 4 and 8 per 100,000. The African region has death rates comparable to most low-income countries. Non-fatal drowning in Africa remains unquantified but it is estimated to be ten times higher than the fatal drowning rate. Timely search and rescue, initial resuscitation and rapid transportation to definitive care play a crucial role in preventing injury- related morbidity and mortality...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611403/effect-of-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-dementia-rat-model-via-microglial-mediation-a-comparison-between-stem-cell-transplant-methods
#18
Jae Sung Cho, Jihyeon Lee, Da Un Jeong, Han Wool Kim, Won Seok Chang, Jisook Moon, Jin Woo Chang
PURPOSE: Loss of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus is a hallmark of many dementias. Administration of stem cells as a therapeutic intervention for patients is under active investigation, but the optimal stem cell type and transplantation modality has not yet been established. In this study, we studied the therapeutic effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) in dementia rat model using either intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections and analyzed their mechanisms of therapeutic action...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607689/curcumin-and-resveratrol-rescue-cortical-hippocampal-system-from-chronic-fluoride-induced-neurodegeneration-and-enhance-memory-retrieval
#19
Chhavi Sharma, Pooja Suhalka, Maheep Bhatnagar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were: (1) To evaluate neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol and Curcumin on NADPH-d (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase) activity in neuronal cell in sub regions of mice brain (2) To evaluate the effects on antioxidant status, and (3) To evaluate the protective effects of phytochemicals on learning and memory following fluoride exposure. METHOD: Young Mice (one month old, B.W. 30±5mg) were provided to 120 ppm sodium fluoride dissolved in drinking water...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600544/down-regulated-long-non-coding-rna-anril-restores-the-learning-and-memory-abilities-and-rescues-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-from-apoptosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#20
Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Yong-Jian Wang, Shan Wang, Min Shen, Zi-Feng Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan, Qun Shan, Liang Wang, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Diabetes often causes learning and memory deficits, which leads to unfavorable behavioral performance. In this study, we investigated the effects of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) ANRIL on learning, memory abilities, and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis via the NF-κB signaling pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After successful establishment of diabetic rat models, the subjects were then assigned into the DM, DM + si-ANRIL, DM + si-negative control (si-NC) groups, as well as an additional normal group...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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