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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913309/sequence-determinants-of-the-caenhorhabditis-elegansdopamine-transporter-dictating-in-vivoaxonal-export-and-synaptic-localization
#1
Sarah B Robinson, J Andrew Hardaway, Shannon L Hardie, Jane Wright, Ryan M Glynn, Daniel P Bermingham, Qiao Han, Sarah M Sturgeon, Phyllis Freeman, Randy D Blakely
The monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) acts across phylogeny to modulate both simple and complex behaviors. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of DA signaling capacity in ensuring efficient extracellular DA clearance. In humans, DAT is also a major target for prescribed and abused psychostimulants. Multiple structural determinants of DAT function and regulation have been defined, though largely these findings have arisen from heterologous expression or ex vivo cell culture studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#2
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904674/bmi1-plays-an-important-role-in-dentin-and-mandible-homeostasis-by-maintaining-redox-balance
#3
Ying Yin, Xian Xue, Qian Wang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To explore whether polycomb repressor Bmi1 plays an important role in dentin and mandible development homeostasis by maintaining redox balance, 3-week-old Bmi1 gene knockout (Bmi1(-/-)) mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 weeks in their drinking water and phenotypes of the tooth and mandibles were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1(-/-) mice and wild-type mice by radiograph, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Alterations of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell cycle-related parameters were also examined in mandibles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895400/esophagogastric-anastomosis-in-rats-improved-healing-by-bpc-157-and-l-arginine-aggravated-by-l-name
#4
Zeljko Djakovic, Ivka Djakovic, Vedran Cesarec, Goran Madzarac, Tomislav Becejac, Goran Zukanovic, Domagoj Drmic, Lovorka Batelja, Anita Zenko Sever, Danijela Kolenc, Alen Pajtak, Nikica Knez, Mladen Japjec, Kresimir Luetic, Dinko Stancic-Rokotov, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikiric
AIM: To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. METHODS: Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892483/down-regulation-of-coasy-the-gene-associated-with-nbia-vi-reduces-bmp-signaling-perturbs-dorso-ventral-patterning-and-alters-neuronal-development-in-zebrafish
#5
Deepak Khatri, Daniela Zizioli, Natascia Tiso, Nicola Facchinello, Sara Vezzoli, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Maurizio Memo, Eugenio Monti, Giuseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi
Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886151/micro-doppler-based-classification-of-human-aquatic-activities-via-transfer-learning-of-convolutional-neural-networks
#6
Jinhee Park, Rios Jesus Javier, Taesup Moon, Youngwook Kim
Accurate classification of human aquatic activities using radar has a variety of potential applications such as rescue operations and border patrols. Nevertheless, the classification of activities on water using radar has not been extensively studied, unlike the case on dry ground, due to its unique challenge. Namely, not only is the radar cross section of a human on water small, but the micro-Doppler signatures are much noisier due to water drops and waves. In this paper, we first investigate whether discriminative signatures could be obtained for activities on water through a simulation study...
November 24, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882091/exendin-4-antagonizes-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-attenuation-of-spatial-learning-and-memory-ability
#7
Xiaohui Wang, Li Wang, Ruirui Jiang, Yunyun Xu, Xueling Zhao, Yang Li
β-amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation in cerebral centers involved in cognition and memory is a pivotal pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The onset process of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a number of similarities compared with AD. Thus, it is hypothesized that the pharmacological therapy employed for the treatment of T2DM may help to prevent and ameliorate the symptoms of AD. This study demonstrated that Exendin-4, which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue which is used as a therapeutic drug for T2DM, markedly antagonized Aβ fragment-induced attenuation of spatial learning and memory ability, as indicated by a Morris water maze experiment...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874976/etidronate-rescues-cognitive-deficits-through-improving-synaptic-transmission-and-suppressing-apoptosis-in-2-vessel-occlusion-model-rats
#8
Wen Li, Huijuan Yuan, Yao Yu, Yuen-Ki Cheong, Guogang Ren, Zhuo Yang
Vascular dementia (VD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the reduction of cerebral blood flow. It shows a progressive cognitive impairment. In our previous study, we found that etidronate (ET) showed neuroprotective effects against glutamate-injured PC12 cells. Thus in this study, we aimed to observe the effects of ET on learning and memory impairment and the related mechanism in 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model rats. Rats were administered a permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce VD model...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861620/prazosin-can-prevent-glucocorticoid-mediated-capillary-rarefaction
#9
Erin R Mandel, Emily C Dunford, Anastassia Trifonova, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Trevor Teich, Michael C Riddell, Tara L Haas
Glucocorticoids (GC) elicit skeletal muscle capillary rarefaction, which can subsequently impair blood distribution and muscle function; however, the mechanisms have not been established. We hypothesized that CORT would inhibit endothelial cell survival signals but that treatment with the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor inhibitor prazosin, which leads to angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of healthy rats, would reverse these effects and induce angiogenesis within the skeletal muscle of corticosterone (CORT)-treated rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830035/seizure-induced-synaptic-plasticity-alteration-in-hippocampus-is-mediated-by-il-1%C3%AE-receptor-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#10
Tao Han, Yanyu Qin, Chenzhi Mou, Min Wang, Meng Jiang, Bin Liu
Seizures, which result from synchronized aberrant firing of neuronal populations, can cause long-term sequelae, such as epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral issues, in which the synaptic plasticity alteration may play an important role. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic strength and is essential for learning and memory. In the present study, we first examined the alteration of cognitive impairments and synaptic plasticity in mice with seizures, then explored the underlying mechanism involving pro-inflammatory factors and PI3K/Akt pathway...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809334/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-biosynthesis-promotes-liver-regeneration
#11
Sarmistha Mukherjee, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Andrea Moffitt, Joan Ndungu, Ryan W Dellinger, James G Davis, Beamon Agarwal, Joseph A Baur
: The regenerative capacity of the liver is essential for recovery from surgical resection or injuries induced by trauma or toxins. During liver regeneration, the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) falls, at least in part due to metabolic competition for precursors. To test whether NAD availability restricts the rate of liver regeneration, we supplied nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD precursor, in the drinking water of mice subjected to partial hepatectomy. NR increased DNA synthesis, mitotic index, and mass restoration in the regenerating livers...
November 3, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795733/the-effect-of-abscisic-acid-chronic-treatment-on-neuroinflammatory-markers-and-memory-in-a-rat-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-neuroinflammation
#12
Sandra Sánchez-Sarasúa, Salma Moustafa, Álvaro García-Avilés, María Fernanda López-Climent, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Western diet and lifestyle are associated with overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, which, in turn, are correlated with neuroinflammation processes. Exercise and a healthy diet are important in the prevention of these disorders. However, molecules inhibiting neuroinflammation might also be efficacious in the prevention and/or treatment of neurological disorders of inflammatory etiology. The abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in hydric-stress responses. This compound is not only found in plants but also in other organisms, including mammals...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781164/a-small-molecule-targeting-protein-translation-does-not-rescue-spatial-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-the-happ-j20-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Erik C B Johnson, Jing Kang
A small molecule named ISRIB has recently been described to enhance memory in rodents. In this study we aimed to test whether ISRIB would reverse learning and memory deficits in the J20 mouse model of human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) overexpression, a model that simulates many aspects of Alzheimer's disease in which memory deficits are a hallmark feature. We did not observe a significant rescue effect with ISRIB treatment on spatial learning and memory as assessed in the Morris water maze in J20 mice...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761867/emergency-material-allocation-and-scheduling-for-the-application-to-chemical-contingency-spills-under-multiple-scenarios
#14
Jie Liu, Liang Guo, Jiping Jiang, Dexun Jiang, Peng Wang
In the emergency management relevant to chemical contingency spills, efficiency emergency rescue can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, an emergency material scheduling model (EMSM) with time-effective and cost-effective objectives is developed to coordinate both allocation and scheduling of the emergency materials. Meanwhile, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA) which includes a revision operation for EMSM is proposed to identify the emergency material scheduling schemes...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760384/chronic-intermittent-hybobaric-hypoxia-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-modulation-of-mitokatp
#15
Shixiao Zhang, Zan Guo, Shijie Yang, Huijuan Ma, Congrui Fu, Sheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Yixian Liu, Jie Hu
OBJECTIVE: Providing adequate protection against cerebral ischemia remains an unrealized goal. The present study was aimed at testing whether chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) would have protective effects against cerebral ischemia and investigating the potential role of mitochondrial membrane ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) in this effect. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries for 8min on day 2 after bilateral vertebral arteries were permanently electrocauterized and CIHH was simulated in a hypoxic chamber...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734303/brain-injury-after-moderate-drowning-subtle-alterations-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Mariana P Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, João R Sato, Edson Amaro
To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733274/treatment-of-ear-and-bone-disease-in-the-phex-mouse-mutant-with-dietary-supplementation
#17
Cameron C Wick, Sharon J Lin, Heping Yu, Cliff A Megerian, Qing Yin Zheng
HYPOTHESIS: Phosphorus and vitamin D (calcitriol) supplementation in the Phex mouse, a murine model for endolymphatic hydrops (ELH), will improve otic capsule mineralization and secondarily ameliorate the postnatal development of ELH and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). BACKGROUND: Male Phex mice have X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), which includes osteomalacia of the otic capsule. The treatment for XLH is supplementation with phosphorus and calcitriol...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720931/cyslt1r-downregulation-reverses-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-memory-impairment-via-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-in-mice
#18
Arijit Ghosh, Fang Chen, Feng Wu, Su-Su Tang, Mei Hu, Yan Long, Hong-Bin Sun, Ling-Yi Kong, Hao Hong
Our previous studies showed that cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor 1 (CysLT1R) is upregulated in amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and that administration of CysLT1R antagonists such as pranlukast or montelukast can ameliorate memory impairment in mice. In the current study, we sought to explore the role of CysLT1R in intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (STZ-ICV)-induced mouse model of memory impairment and neuroinflammation through shRNA-mediated knockdown of CysLT1R and also its pharmacological blockade by pranlukast...
February 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693383/intranasal-insulin-exerts-beneficial-effects-by-improving-cerebral-blood-flow-nrf-2-expression-and-bdnf-in-stz-icv-induced-memory-impaired-rats
#19
N Rajasekar, Chandishwar Nath, Kashif Hanif, Rakesh Shukla
AIMS: Clinical studies have shown that intranasal insulin administration improves learning and memory functions. But, their neuroprotective mechanisms are largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of intranasal insulin in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced memory impairment in rats. MAIN METHODS: The intranasal insulin was administered for 14days and memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by laser doppler flowmetry...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649563/signaling-modification-by-gpcr-heteromer-and-its-implication-on-x-linked-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#20
Hans K H Ng, Kaleeckal G Harikumar, Laurence J Miller, Billy K C Chow
The involvement of secretin (SCT) and secretin receptor (SCTR) in regulating body water homeostasis is well established. Identified as one of the vasopressin (Vp)-independent mechanisms in fluid balance, SCT regulates aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney distal collecting duct cells through activating intracellular cAMP production. This ability to bypass Vp-mediated water reabsorption in kidney implicates SCT's potential to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Research on NDI in the past has largely been focused on the searching for mutations in vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2), while the functional relationship between SCTR, AVPR2 and NDI remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
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