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Type six secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888247/insights-into-the-genome-sequence-of-chromobacterium-amazonense-isolated-from-a-tropical-freshwater-lake
#1
Alexandre Bueno Santos, Patrícia Silva Costa, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Larissa Lopes Silva Scholte, Jeronimo Ruiz, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Edmar Chartone-Souza, Andréa Maria Amaral Nascimento
Members of the genus Chromobacterium have been isolated from geographically diverse ecosystems and exhibit considerable metabolic flexibility, as well as biotechnological and pathogenic properties in some species. This study reports the draft assembly and detailed sequence analysis of Chromobacterium amazonense strain 56AF. The de novo-assembled genome is 4,556,707 bp in size and contains 4294 protein-coding and 95 RNA genes, including 88 tRNA, six rRNA, and one tmRNA operon. A repertoire of genes implicated in virulence, for example, hemolysin, hemolytic enterotoxins, colicin V, lytic proteins, and Nudix hydrolases, is present...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742421/modular-study-of-the-type-iii-effector-repertoire-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-reveals-a-matrix-of-effector-interplay-in-pathogenesis
#2
Hai-Lei Wei, Wei Zhang, Alan Collmer
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E) proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737367/the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-esat-6-component-essb-mediates-interaction-with-the-integral-membrane-protein-esaa-facilitating-partially-regulated-secretion-in-a-heterologous-host
#3
Manar M Ahmed, Khaled M Aboshanab, Yasser M Ragab, Dominique M Missiakas, Khaled A Aly
The ESAT-6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus plays a significant role in persistent infections. EssB is a highly conserved bitopic ESS protein comprising a cytosolic N-terminus, single transmembrane helix and a C-terminus located on the trans-side of the membrane. Six systematic truncations covering various domains of EssB were constructed, followed by bacterial two-hybrid screening of their interaction with EsaA, another conserved integral membrane component of the ESS pathway. Results show that the transmembrane domain of EssB is critical for heterodimerization with EsaA...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688429/ef24-a-curcumin-analog-and-zstk474-emphasize-the-effect-of-cabozantinib-in-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#4
Loris Bertazza, Francesca Sensi, Elisabetta Cavedon, Sara Watutantrige-Fernando, Simona Censi, Jacopo Manso, Federica Vianello, Eric Casal Ide, Maurizio Iacobone, Raffaele Pezzani, Caterina Mian, Susi Barollo
XL184 is a small-molecule kinase inhibitor recently included in first-line systemic therapy for patients with advanced, progressive medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). EF24 is a curcumin analog with a high bioavailability, and ZSTK474 is an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. We investigated the effect of these compounds, alone and in combination, in two rearranged during transfection (RET)-mutated TT and MZ-CRC-1 MTC cell lines and in six mostly RET wild-type human MTC primary cultures...
June 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651716/super-secondary-structure-consisting-of-a-polyproline-ii-helix-and-a-%C3%AE-turn-in-leucine-rich-repeats-in-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors
#5
Dashdavaa Batkhishig, Khurelbaatar Bilguun, Purevjav Enkhbayar, Hiroki Miyashita, Robert H Kretsinger, Norio Matsushima
Leucine rich repeats (LRRs) are present in over 100,000 proteins from viruses to eukaryotes. The LRRs are 20-30 residues long and occur in tandem. LRRs form parallel stacks of short β-strands and then assume a super helical arrangement called a solenoid structure. Individual LRRs are separated into highly conserved segment (HCS) with the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxL and variable segment (VS). Eight classes have been recognized. Bacterial LRRs are short and characterized by two prolines in the VS; the consensus is xxLPxLPxx with Nine residues (N-subtype) and xxLPxxLPxx with Ten residues (T-subtype)...
June 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595954/mxin-differentially-regulates-monomeric-and-oligomeric-species-of-the-shigella-type-three-secretion-system-atpase-spa47
#6
Heather B Case, Nicholas E Dickenson
Shigella rely entirely on the action of a single type three secretion system (T3SS) to support cellular invasion of colonic epithelial cells and to circumvent host immune responses. The ATPase Spa47 resides at the base of the Shigella needle-like type three secretion apparatus (T3SA), supporting protein secretion through the apparatus and providing a likely means for native virulence regulation by Shigella and a much needed target for non-antibiotic therapeutics to treat Shigella infections. Here, we show that MxiN is a differential regulator of Spa47 and that its regulatory impact is determined by the oligomeric state of the Spa47 ATPase, with which it interacts...
April 17, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592803/development-an-effective-system-to-expression-recombinant-protein-in-e-coli-via-comparison-and-optimization-of-signal-peptides-expression-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-bj-10-thermostable-lipase-as-case-study
#7
Weiqing Zhang, Jing Lu, Shuwen Zhang, Lu Liu, Xiaoyang Pang, Jiaping Lv
BACKGROUND: Thermostable lipases from microbial sources have been substantially overexpressed in E. coli, however, these enzymes are often produced with low-level enzymatic activity and mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. Several studies have reported that the secretory production of recombinant proteins fused their N-terminus to a signal peptide has been employed to resolve the problem. In general, the feasibility of this approach largely depends on the secretory pathway of signal peptide and the type of target protein to be secreted...
March 28, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556252/genomic-characterization-of-malonate-positive-cronobacter-sakazakii-serotype-o-2-sequence-type-64-strains-isolated-from-clinical-food-and-environment-samples
#8
Gopal R Gopinath, Hannah R Chase, Jayanthi Gangiredla, Athmanya Eshwar, Hyein Jang, Isha Patel, Flavia Negrete, Samantha Finkelstein, Eunbi Park, TaeJung Chung, YeonJoo Yoo, JungHa Woo, YouYoung Lee, Jihyeon Park, Hyerim Choi, Seungeun Jeong, Soyoung Jun, Mijeong Kim, Chaeyoon Lee, HyeJin Jeong, Séamus Fanning, Roger Stephan, Carol Iversen, Felix Reich, Günter Klein, Angelika Lehner, Ben D Tall
Background: Malonate utilization, an important differential trait, well recognized as being possessed by six of the seven Cronobacter species is thought to be largely absent in Cronobacter sakazakii (Csak). The current study provides experimental evidence that confirms the presence of a malonate utilization operon in 24 strains of sequence type (ST) 64, obtained from Europe, Middle East, China, and USA; it offers explanations regarding the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness among these strains, and that of other C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478122/icmf-and-dotu-are-required-for-the-virulence-of-acidovorax-oryzae-strain-rs-1
#9
Bin Li, Xiaoxuan Wang, Jie Chen, He Liu, Khattak Arif Ali, Yanli Wang, Wen Qiu, Guochang Sun
Acidovorax oryzae (Ao) cause bacterial brown stripe in rice that result in great economic loss. However, the pathogenic mechanism of this rice bacterial pathogen still remains unclear. Interestingly, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of in vivo infection indicate that the pathogenicity of Ao strain RS-1 may be associated with the type six secretion system (T6SS), which was identified by in silico comparative genomic analysis in our previous studies. This makes it necessary to further examine the role of each core component of T6SS in the pathogenicity of Ao strain RS-1 to rice plants...
February 24, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458124/tryptophan-mediated-dimerization-of-the-tssl-transmembrane-anchor-is-required-for-type-vi-secretion-system-activity
#10
Abdelrahim Zoued, Jean-Pierre Duneau, Eric Durand, Alexandre P España, Laure Journet, Françoise Guerlesquin, Eric Cascales
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein complex used by bacteria to deliver effectors into target cells. The T6SS comprises a bacteriophage-like contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane complex constituted of the TssJ outer-membrane lipoprotein and the TssL and TssM inner-membrane proteins. TssJ establishes contact with the periplasmic domain of TssM whereas the transmembrane segments of TssM and its cytoplasmic domain interact with TssL. TssL protrudes in the cytoplasm but is anchored by a C-terminal transmembrane helix (TMH)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#11
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425646/immunomodulatory-hemolytic-and-cytotoxic-activity-potentials-of-triterpenoid-saponins-from-eight-cephalaria-species
#12
Nazli Boke Sarikahya, Ayse Nalbantsoy, Hilal Top, Ramazan Suleyman Gokturk, Huseyin Sumbul, Suheyla Kirmizigul
BACKGROUND: Saponins isolated from a number of plants possess a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities by using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. The recent investigations and findings in biological activity studies of saponins have mostly focused on immunomodulatory, hemolytic and cytotoxic properties. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Considering the great potential of saponins as bioactive agents, we investigated the cytotoxic, hemolytic and immunomodulatory activities of nineteen triterpenoid saponins from the aerial parts of eight Cephalaria species from Turkey...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420060/platelets-regulate-pulmonary-inflammation-and-tissue-destruction-in-tuberculosis
#13
Katharine A Fox, Daniela E Kirwan, Ashley M Whittington, Nitya Krishnan, Brian D Robertson, Robert H Gilman, José W López, Shivani Singh, Joanna C Porter, Jon S Friedland
RATIONALE: Platelets may interact with the immune system in tuberculosis (TB) to regulate human inflammatory responses that lead to morbidity and spread of infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify a functional role of platelets in the innate inflammatory and matrix degrading response in TB. METHODS: Markers of platelet activation were examined in plasma from 50 TB patients pre-treatment, and 50 controls. 25 patients were followed longitudinally...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408937/comparison-of-secretory-signal-peptides-for-heterologous-protein-expression-in-microalgae-expanding-the-secretion-portfolio-for-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
João Vitor Dutra Molino, João Carlos Monteiro de Carvalho, Stephen Patrick Mayfield
Efficient protein secretion is a desirable trait for any recombinant protein expression system, together with simple, low-cost, and defined media, such as the typical media used for photosynthetic cultures of microalgae. However, low titers of secreted heterologous proteins are usually obtained, even with the most extensively studied microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, preventing their industrial application. In this study, we aimed to expand and evaluate secretory signal peptides (SP) for heterologous protein secretion in C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398678/evaluation-of-two-commercial-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-kits-for-the-detection-of-human-circulating-metrnl
#15
Si-Li Zheng, Zhi-Yong Li, Zheng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Wang, Jian Xu, Chao-Yu Miao
Metrnl is a newly discovered secreted protein with neurotrophic activity and metabolic effect, while in earlier studies its circulating level in human was not explored. We evaluated two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (DY7867-05, R&D Systems and SK00478-02, Aviscera Bioscience) for the detection of human circulating Metrnl. The DY7867-05 kit showed superiority over the SK00478-02 kit since it generated better curve fitting degree, smaller variation among tests, higher inter-assay reproducibility and better specificity, and could effectively detect human Metrnl in six types of blood samples...
April 1, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339460/dot-icm-translocated-proteins-important-for-biogenesis-of-the-coxiella-burnetii-containing-vacuole-identified-by-screening-of-an-effector-mutant-sublibrary
#16
Emerson Crabill, Whitman B Schofield, Hayley J Newton, Andrew L Goodman, Craig R Roy
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a lysosome-derived vacuole. A determinant necessary for C. burnetii virulence is the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4SS). The Dot/Icm system delivers more than 100 proteins, called type IV effectors (T4Es), across the vacuolar membrane into the host cell cytosol. Several T4Es have been shown to be important for vacuolar biogenesis. Here, transposon (Tn) insertion sequencing technology (INSeq) was used to identify C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II mutants in an arrayed library, which facilitated the identification and clonal isolation of mutants deficient in 70 different T4E proteins...
April 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288127/structural-characterization-of-spoiiiab-sporulation-essential-protein-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
N Zeytuni, K A Flanagan, L J Worrall, S C Massoni, A H Camp, N C J Strynadka
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells...
May 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260646/epidemiology-of-campylobacter-infections-among-children-in-egypt
#18
Rebecca Sainato, Atef ElGendy, Frédéric Poly, Janelle Kuroiwa, Patricia Guerry, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Campylobacter is a frequently isolated bacterial pathogen among children with diarrhea. Data are lacking on the distribution and spectrum of disease associated with Campylobacter species and Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types. This information is essential because current vaccine research seeks to target specific CPS types. An effective CPS-conjugate vaccine will need to cover CPS types that are both common and associated with severe disease. The US Naval Medical Research Unit-3 conducted several prospective cohort studies researching diarrheal disease in Egypt from 1995 to 2003...
February 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222345/type-vi-secretion-system-sheath-inter-subunit-interactions-modulate-its-contraction
#19
Maximilian Brackmann, Jing Wang, Marek Basler
Secretion systems are essential for bacteria to survive and manipulate their environment. The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) generates the force needed for protein translocation by the contraction of a long polymer called sheath. The sheath is a six-start helical assembly of interconnected VipA/VipB subunits. The mechanism of T6SS sheath contraction is unknown. Here, we show that elongating the N-terminal VipA linker or eliminating charge of a specific VipB residue abolishes sheath contraction and delivery of effectors into target cells...
February 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207798/does-vitamin-d-supplementation-improve-glycaemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Shreya Sharma, Niranjan Biswal, Adhisivam Bethou, Medha Rajappa, Sadish Kumar, Vickneshwaran Vinayagam
Introduction: Vitamin D endocrine system is a potential immune system modulator and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases including Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). Studies have demonstrated an inverse risk relationship between T1DM and Vitamin D levels and also, shown a reduced risk of the disease with its supplementation. Aim: To evaluate the role of Vitamin D as an adjuvant in improving glycaemic control and residual pancreatic beta-cell function...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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