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Type six secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536560/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-7-and-lineage-4-strains-reveals-differentially-abundant-proteins-linked-to-slow-growth-and-virulence
#1
Solomon A Yimer, Alemayehu G Birhanu, Shewit Kalayou, Tahira Riaz, Ephrem D Zegeye, Getachew T Beyene, Carol Holm-Hansen, Gunnstein Norheim, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa, Tone Tønjum
In order to decipher the nature of the slowly growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) lineage 7, the differentially abundant proteins in strains of M. tuberculosis lineage 7 and lineage 4 were defined. Comparative proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry was employed to identify, quantitate and compare the protein profiles of strains from the two M. tuberculosis lineages. Label-free peptide quantification of whole cells from M. tuberculosis lineage 7 and 4 yielded the identification of 2825 and 2541 proteins, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530135/prolonged-expression-of-secreted-enzymes-in-dogs-after-liver-directed-delivery-of-i-sleeping-beauty-i-transposons-implications-for-non-viral-gene-therapy-of-systemic-disease
#2
Elena L Aronovich, Kendra Anne Hyland, Bryan C Hall, Jason B Bell, Erik R Olson, Myra Urness Rusten, David W Hunter, N Matthew Ellinwood, R Scott McIvor, Perry B Hackett
The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice including hemophilias A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. We recently reported modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), we demonstrated transgenic protein in the plasma for up to six weeks post-infusion...
May 20, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513915/impact-of-a-determinant-mutations-on-detection-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-in-hbv-strains-from-chinese-patients-with-occult-hepatitis-b
#3
Xiangyan Huang, Chenyun Ma, Qiang Zhang, Qingfen Shi, Tao Huang, Chao Liu, Jie Li, F Blaine Hollinger
This study was designed to detect mutations that occur within the "a" determinant in the S gene of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with occult hepatitis B (OHB), and to analyze the influence of these mutations on expression and reactivity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Twenty-three certified OHB samples were compared to 32 HBsAg positive samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B. The median HBV DNA levels in the OHB group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473967/natural-competence-is-common-among-clinical-isolates-of-veillonella-parvula-and-is-useful-for-genetic-manipulation-of-this-key-member-of-the-oral-microbiome
#4
Steven Knapp, Clint Brodal, John Peterson, Fengxia Qi, Jens Kreth, Justin Merritt
The six Veillonella species found in the human oral cavity are among the most abundant members of the oral flora, occurring in both supra- and subgingival dental plaque as well as on the oral mucosa. Epidemiological data have also implicated these species in the development of the most common oral diseases. Despite their ubiquity, abundance, and ecological significance, surprisingly little is known about Veillonella biology, largely due to the difficulties associated with their genetic manipulation. In an effort to improve genetic analyses of Veillonella species, we isolated a collection of veillonellae from clinical plaque samples and screened for natural competence using a newly developed transformation protocol...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450852/pan-genomic-analysis-permits-differentiation-of-virulent-and-non-virulent-strains-of-xanthomonas-arboricola-that-cohabit-prunus-spp-and-elucidate-bacterial-virulence-factors
#5
Jerson Garita-Cambronero, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, María M López, Jaime Cubero
Xanthomonas arboricola is a plant-associated bacterial species that causes diseases on several plant hosts. One of the most virulent pathovars within this species is X. arboricola pv. pruni (Xap), the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit trees and almond. Recently, a non-virulent Xap-look-a-like strain isolated from Prunus was characterized and its genome compared to pathogenic strains of Xap, revealing differences in the profile of virulence factors, such as the genes related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) and type III effectors (T3Es)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441105/transcriptomic-dissection-of-the-horizontally-acquired-response-regulator-esrb-reveals-its-global-regulatory-roles-in-the-physiological-adaptation-and-activation-of-t3ss-and-the-cognate-effector-repertoire-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-during-infection-toward-turbot
#6
Yang Liu, Luyao Zhao, Minjun Yang, Kaiyu Yin, Xiaohui Zhou, Ka Yin Leung, Qin Liu, Yuanxing Zhang, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The 2-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E...
April 25, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439300/genetic-variants-of-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-components-cagl-and-cagi-and-their-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#7
Hirofumi Ogawa, Akira Iwamoto, Toshihito Tanahashi, Rina Okada, Koji Yamamoto, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with risk for chronic gastritis (CG), gastric ulcer (GU), duodenal ulcer (DU), and gastric cancer (GC). The H. pylori Cag type IV secretion system (TFSS) translocates the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A protein into host cells and plays an important role in initiating gastric carcinogenesis. The CagL and CagI proteins are components of the TFSS. The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of CagL, and the six most distal C-terminal amino acids (Ser-Lys-Ile-Ile-Val-Lys, and Ser-Lys-Val-Ile-Val-Lys) of CagL and CagI are essential for TFSS adhesion to host cells...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394313/structure-of-the-mycobacterial-esx-5-type-vii-secretion-system-membrane-complex-by-single-particle-analysis
#8
Katherine S H Beckham, Luciano Ciccarelli, Catalin M Bunduc, Haydyn D T Mertens, Roy Ummels, Wolfgang Lugmayr, Julia Mayr, Mandy Rettel, Mikhail M Savitski, Dmitri I Svergun, Wilbert Bitter, Matthias Wilmanns, Thomas C Marlovits, Annabel H A Parret, Edith N G Houben
Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids(1). To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems(2). In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs(3). However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information...
April 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366834/the-wilms-tumor-protein-wt1-stimulates-transcription-of-the-gene-encoding-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-igfbp5
#9
Miriam Müller, Anja Bondke Persson, Katharina Krueger, Karin M Kirschner, Holger Scholz
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) constitute a family of six secreted proteins that regulate the signaling of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5 is the most conserved family member in vertebrates and the major IGF binding protein in bone. IGFBP5 is required for normal development of the musculoskeletal system, and various types of cancer frequently express high levels of IGFP5. Here we identify the gene encoding IGFBP5 as a novel downstream target of the Wilms tumor protein WT1...
July 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236274/comparative-pan-genome-analysis-of-oral-prevotella-species-implicated-in-periodontitis
#10
Maziya Ibrahim, Ahalyaa Subramanian, Sharmila Anishetty
Prevotella is part of the oral bacterial community implicated in periodontitis. Pan genome analyses of eight oral Prevotella species, P. dentalis, P. enoeca, P. fusca, P. melaninogenica, P. denticola, P. intermedia 17, P. intermedia 17-2 and P. sp. oral taxon 299 are presented in this study. Analysis of the Prevotella pan genome revealed features such as secretion systems, resistance to oxidative stress and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems that enable the bacteria to adapt to the oral environment...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196779/the-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-viruses-in-atlantic-salmon
#11
Børre Robertsen
Type I IFNs (IFN-I) are cytokines, which play a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity against viruses of vertebrates. In essence, IFN-I are induced and secreted upon host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids and protect other cells against infection by inducing antiviral proteins. Atlantic salmon possesses an extraordinary repertoire of IFN-I genes encompassing at least six different classes (IFNa, IFNb, IFNc, IFNd, IFNe and IFNf) most of which are encoded by several genes. This review describes recent research on the functions of salmon IFNa, IFNb, IFNc and IFNd...
February 11, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184011/immunity-at-cauliflower-hydathodes-controls-systemic-infection-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#12
Aude Cerutti, Alain Jauneau, Marie-Christine Auriac, Emmanuelle Lauber, Yves Martinez, Serge Chiarenza, Nathalie Leonhardt, Richard Berthomé, Laurent D Noël
Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower (Brassicaoleracea) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094758/exosomes-isolated-from-serum-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-display-alterations-in-their-content-of-profibrotic-and-antifibrotic-microrna-and-induce-a-profibrotic-phenotype-in-cultured-normal-dermal-fibroblasts
#13
Peter J Wermuth, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sergio A Jimenez
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are lipid bilayer-bound microvesicles containing various macromolecules including numerous microRNA (miRNA). Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by fusing and releasing their macromolecular content into target cells. Here, we analysed the content of profibrotic and antifibrotic miRNAs in exosomes isolated from the serum of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and tested their ability to induce a profibrotic phenotype in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro...
January 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#14
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070933/secretome-analysis-of-diarrhea-inducing-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#15
Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Min-Sik Kim, Gajanan J Sathe, P T V Lakshmi, Olga N Kovbasnjuk, T S Keshava Prasad, Mary Wade, Rabih E Jabbour
Secreted proteins constitute a major part of virulence factors that are responsible for pathogenesis caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, O157:H7, is the major pathogen often causing outbreaks. However, studies have reported that the significant outbreaks caused by non-O157:H7 E. coli strains, also known as "Big-Six" serogroup strains, are increasing. There is no systematic study describing differential secreted proteins from these non-O157:H7 E. coli strains. In this study, we carried out MS-based differential secretome analysis using tandem mass tags labeling strategy of non-O157:H7 E...
March 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063169/progress-in-the-study-of-bioluminescent-earthworms
#16
REVIEW
Natalja S Rodionova, Emilia Rota, Aleksandra S Tsarkova, Valentin N Petushkov
Even though bioluminescent oligochaetes rarely catch people's eyes due to their secretive lifestyle, glowing earthworms sighting reports have come from different areas on all continents except Antarctica. A major breakthrough in the research of earthworm bioluminescence occurred in the 1960s with the studies of the North American Diplocardia longa. Comparative studies conducted on 13 earthworm species belonging to six genera showed that N-isovaleryl-3-aminopropanal (Diplocardia luciferin) is the common substrate for bioluminescence in all examined species, while luciferases appeared to be responsible for the color of bioluminescence...
March 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#17
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054967/expression-purification-and-biophysical-characterization-of-a-secreted-anthrax-decoy-fusion-protein-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#18
Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Sifti Duhra-Gill, Muchena J Kailemia, My L Phu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Abhaya M Dandekar, Raymond L Rodriguez, Somen Nandi, Karen A McDonald
Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo) protein accumulation...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036057/green-tea-and-other-tea-polyphenols-effects-on-sebum-production-and-acne-vulgaris
#19
REVIEW
Suzana Saric, Manisha Notay, Raja K Sivamani
Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris...
December 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018320/single-molecule-sequencing-pacbio-of-the-staphylococcus-capitis-nrcs-a-clone-reveals-the-basis-of-multidrug-resistance-and-adaptation-to-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-environment
#20
Patrícia Martins Simões, Hajar Lemriss, Yann Dumont, Sanâa Lemriss, Jean-Philippe Rasigade, Sophie Assant-Trouillet, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Saâd El Kabbaj, Marine Butin, Frédéric Laurent
The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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