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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454113/identification-of-two-novel-cress-dna-viruses-associated-with-an-avipoxvirus-lesion-of-a-blue-and-gray-tanager-thraupis-episcopus
#1
Michaël A J Moens, Javier Pérez-Tris, Martí Cortey, Laura Benítez
The discovery of circular rep-encoding single stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses has increased spectacularly over the past decade. They represent the smallest animal viruses known worldwide infecting a wide variety of invertebrates and vertebrates in different natural and human-made environments. The extremely low similarity of nucleotide and protein sequences among different CRESS DNA genomes has challenged their classification. Moreover, the existence of capsid proteins (Cp) remains difficult to demonstrate which is crucial to understand the structural properties of these viruses...
February 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454070/association-of-polymorphic-variants-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-1rn-genes-in-the-development-of-graves-disease-in-kashmiri-population-north-india
#2
Faheem Shehjar, Dil Afroze, Raiz A Misgar, Sajad A Malik, Bashir A Laway
PURPOSE: Graves' disease (GD) is a multigenic, organ specific autoimmune disorder with a strong genetic predisposition and IL-1β has been shown to be involved in its pathogenesis. The present study was aimed to determine the genetic associations between polymorphisms of IL-1β gene promoter region (-511T>C) (rs16944), exon 5 (+3954C>T) (rs1143634) and IL-1RN gene VNTR (rs2234663) polymorphism in patients with GD in ethnic Kashmiri population. METHODS: A total of 135 Graves' disease patients and 150 healthy individuals were included in the study...
February 14, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453961/repeat-associated-non-aug-ran-translation-and-other-molecular-mechanisms-in-fragile-x-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#3
M Rebecca Glineburg, Peter K Todd, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Chantal Sellier
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive intention tremor, gait ataxia and dementia associated with mild brain atrophy. The cause of FXTAS is a premutation expansion, of 55 to 200 CGG repeats localized within the 5'UTR of FMR1. These repeats are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions into mutants RNAs, which have increased expression in FXTAS. Furthermore, CGG sense and CCG antisense expanded repeats are translated into novel proteins despite their localization in putatively non-coding regions of the transcript...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453601/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-pituitary-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Pituitary pathology is one area of endocrine pathology that is highly dependent on immunohistochemistry. There is a wide range of disorders that occur in and around the sella turcica, and the distinction of tumor-like lesions from neoplasms requires careful evaluation. The diagnosis, prognosis, and predictive features of neoplasms in the sellar region are all dependent on the application and interpretation of biomarkers of cell differentiation, hormonal activity, subcellular morphology, and proliferation. As in hematopathology, the number of biomarkers has increased dramatically and continues to increase...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453447/embryonic-stem-cell-transplants-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-a-rodent-model-of-autism
#5
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#6
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453110/genetics-of-type-1-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Catherine C Robertson, Stephen S Rich
Type 1 diabetes is the most common autoimmune disorder in childhood, characterized by the development of autoimmunity through unknown environmental insults in genetically susceptible individuals. There are now over 50 regions of the genome that harbor type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes, with much of the genetic risk now well-defined in youth of Northern European ancestry. The impact of these genetic variants on initiation and progression of the autoimmune process (islet autoimmunity) is now being understood; however, studies are only now being conducted to understand the function of the variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#8
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452340/congenital-abnormalities-of-the-male-reproductive-system-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452264/antagonists-to-trpv1-asics-and-p2x-have-a-potential-role-to-prevent-the-triggering-of-regional-bone-metabolic-disorder-and-pain-like-behavior-in-tail-suspended-mice
#10
Megumi Hanaka, Kousuke Iba, Takayuki Dohke, Kumiko Kanaya, Shunichiro Okazaki, Toshihiko Yamashita
Our recent studies demonstrated that regional bone loss in the unloaded hind limbs of tail-suspended mice triggered pain-like behaviors due to the acidic environment in the bone induced by osteoclast activation. The aims of the present study were to examine whether TRPV1, ASIC and P2X (known as nociceptors) are expressed in bone, and whether the antagonists to those receptors affect the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulators, and prevent the triggering of not only pain-like behaviors but also high bone turnover conditions in tail-suspension model mice...
February 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451994/stroop-task-related-brain-activity-in-patients-with-insomnia-changes-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#11
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Nambeom Kim, Soohyun Kim, Juhyun Park, Jae-Won Choi, Seog Ju Kim, Chang-Ki Kang, Yu Jin Lee
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: In the present study, we compared differences in brain activity during the Stroop task between patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID) and good sleepers (GS). Furthermore, we evaluated changes in Stroop task-related brain activity after cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The final analysis included 21 patients with CID and 25 GS. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the color-word Stroop task...
February 16, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451775/fluorescence-imaging-of-huntingtin-mrna-knockdown
#12
Eunseon Oh, Yuhong Liu, Mahesh V Sonar, Diane Merry, Eric Wickstrom
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative genetic disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Expression of the mutant gene results in the production of a neurotoxic polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin (Htt) protein. Clinical trials of knockdown therapy of mutant polyglutamine-encoding HTT mRNA in Huntington's disease (HD) have begun. To measure HTT mRNA knockdown effectiveness in human cells, we utilized a fluorescent hybridization imaging agent specific to the region encompassing the human HTT mRNA initiation codon...
February 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451500/tunable-electronic-electrical-and-optical-properties-of-graphene-oxide-sheets-by-ion-irradiation
#13
G Jayalakshmi, Saravanan Kothalamuthu, B K Panigrahi, Balakrishnan Sundaravel, Mukul Gupta
The tunable electronic, electrical and optical properties of graphene oxide (GO) sheets were investigated using a controlled reduction by 500 keV Ar+-ion irradiation. The carbon to oxygen ratio (C/O) of the GO sheets upon the ion beam reduction has been estimated using resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RRBS) analyses and its effect on the electrical and optical properties of GO sheets has been studied using sheet resistance measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The restoration of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms within the sp3 matrix is found to be increases with increasing the Ar+-ion fluences as evident from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451436/novel-posterior-artificial-atlanto-odontoid-joint-for-atlantoaxial-instability-a-biomechanical-study
#14
Kai Shen, Zhongliang Deng, Junsong Yang, Chao Liu, Ranxi Zhang
OBJECTIVE Atlantoaxial instability is usually corrected by anterior and/or posterior C1-2 fusion. However, fusion can lead to considerable loss of movement at the C1-2 level, which can adversely impact a patient's quality of life. In this study, the authors investigated the stability and function of a novel posterior artificial atlanto-odontoid joint (NPAAJ) by using cadaveric cervical spines. METHODS The Oc-C7 regions from 10 cadaveric spines were used for anteroposterior (AP) translation and range of motion (ROM) tests while intact and after destabilization, NPAAJ implantation, and double-rod fixation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449963/the-nsight1-randomized-controlled-trial-rapid-whole-genome-sequencing-for-accelerated-etiologic-diagnosis-in-critically-ill-infants
#15
Josh E Petrikin, Julie A Cakici, Michelle M Clark, Laurel K Willig, Nathaly M Sweeney, Emily G Farrow, Carol J Saunders, Isabelle Thiffault, Neil A Miller, Lee Zellmer, Suzanne M Herd, Anne M Holmes, Serge Batalov, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Laurie D Smith, David P Dimmock, J Steven Leeder, Stephen F Kingsmore
Genetic disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICU/PICU). While genomic sequencing is useful for genetic disease diagnosis, results are usually reported too late to guide inpatient management. We performed an investigator-initiated, partially blinded, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial to test the hypothesis that rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) increased the proportion of NICU/PICU infants receiving a genetic diagnosis within 28 days...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449954/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-tracer-18-f-fpeb-displays-increased-binding-potential-in-postcentral-gyrus-and-cerebellum-of-male-individuals-with-autism-a-pilot-pet-study
#16
S Hossein Fatemi, Dean F Wong, James R Brašić, Hiroto Kuwabara, Anil Mathur, Timothy D Folsom, Suma Jacob, George M Realmuto, José V Pardo, Susanne Lee
Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is first manifested during early childhood. Postmortem experiments have identified significantly elevated expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: In the current study we employed the mGluR5 tracer [ 18 F]-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]-FPEB) to quantify mGluR5 binding in vivo in adults with autism vs...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449893/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-activation-in-adipose-tissue-induces-metabolic-syndrome-in-individuals-with-familial-partial-lipodystrophy-of-the-dunnigan-type
#17
Maria C Foss-Freitas, Rafael C Ferraz, Luciana Z Monteiro, Patricia M Gomes, Ricardo Iwakura, Luiz Carlos C de Freitas, Milton C Foss
Background: Familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type is one of the most common inherited lipodystrophies variables. These individuals have important metabolic disorders that cause predisposition to various diseases. In this study we aimed to demonstrate the relation between the metabolic abnormalities, inflammatory profile and the expression of genes involved in the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in subjects with FPLD. Methods: We evaluated 14 female FPLD patients and compared with 13 female healthy individuals...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449700/imaging-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteinopathies-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-conditions
#18
REVIEW
Victor L Villemagne, Vincent Doré, Samantha C Burnham, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe
Most neurodegenerative disorders are associated with aggregated protein deposits. In the case of Alzheimer disease (AD), extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles are the two neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Aβ-PET imaging has already been approved for clinical use and is being used in clinical trials of anti-Aβ therapies both for patient recruitment and as an outcome measure. These studies have shown that Aβ accumulation is a protracted process that can extend for more than 2 decades before the onset of clinical AD...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449605/image-transport-through-meter-long-randomly-disordered-silica-air-optical-fiber
#19
Jian Zhao, Jose Enrique Antonio Lopez, Zheyuan Zhu, Donghui Zheng, Shuo Pang, Rodrigo Amezcua Correa, Axel Schülzgen
We present a randomly disordered silica-air optical fiber featuring a 28.5% air filling fraction in the structured region, and low attenuation below 1 dB per meter at visible wavelengths. The quality of images transported through this fiber is shown to be comparable to, or even better than, that of images sent through commercial multicore imaging fiber. We demonstrate robust high-quality optical image transfer through 90 cm-long fibers with disordered silica-air structure, more than an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous disordered fiber imaging distances...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#20
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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