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phase transition

Catherine G Anelli, Claudio A Len, Maria T Terreri, Gleice C S Russo, Andreas O Reiff
OBJECTIVE: To translate and validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire in a population of adolescents and young adults with chronic rheumatologic disorders. This questionnaire evaluates the patient's readiness for making the transition from the pediatric health service to adult care. METHODS: The four-phase methodology for the translation and validation of generic questionnaires was followed, including translation, back-translation, pilot testing and clinical validation of the final tool...
February 16, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Trevor A Hamlin, Bas van Beek, Lando P Wolters, F Matthias Bickelhaupt
We have quantum chemically studied the effect of various polar and apolar solvents on the shape of the potential energy surface (PES) of a diverse collection of archetypal nucleophilic substitution reactions at carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and arsenic using density functional theory at OLYP/TZ2P. In the gas phase, all our model SN2 reactions have single-well PESs, except for SN2@C which has a double-well energy profile. The presence of the solvent can have a significant effect on the shape of the PES and thus on the nature of the SN2 process...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
James R Banigan, Maureen Leninger, Ampon Sae Her, Nathaniel J Traaseth
It is known that the lipid composition within a cellular membrane can influence membrane protein structure and function. In this Article, we investigated how structural changes to a membrane protein upon substrate binding can impact the lipid bilayer. To carry out this study, we reconstituted the secondary active drug transporter EmrE into a variety of phospholipid bilayers varying in headgroup and chain length and carried out differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid-state NMR experiments. The DSC results revealed a difference in cooperativity of the lipid phase transition for drug-free EmrE protonated at glutamic acid 14 (i...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Jörg Rösgen, Matthew Auton
Protein phase diagrams have a unique potential to identify the presence of additional thermodynamic states even when non-2-state character is not readily apparent from the experimental observables used to follow protein unfolding transitions. Two-state analysis of the von Willebrand factor A3 domain has previously revealed a discrepancy in the calorimetric enthalpy obtained from thermal unfolding transitions as compared with Gibbs-Helmholtz analysis of free energies obtained from the Linear Extrapolation Method (Tischer and Auton, Prot Sci 2013; 22(9):1147-60)...
February 19, 2018: Biopolymers
Ji-Hae Choi, Seung-Hoon Jhi
Group-VIIB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are known to be stabilized solely in a distorted 1T phase termed as 1T″ phase, which is compared to many stable or metastable phases in other TMDCs. Using first-principles calculations, we study the structural origin of 1T″ phase group-VIIB TMDCs. We find that quasi 1D Peierls-like instability is responsible for the transition to the 1T″ phase ReS2 monolayer from the 1T' phase, another distorted 1T phase. Two half-filled bands in 1T'-ReS2 make sharp peaks in the Lindhard function that prompt the charge density wave (CDW) phase with large band gap opening...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Palani R Jothi, Kunio Yubuta, Boniface P T Fokwa
Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Alae El Haitami, Michel Goldmann, Philippe Fontaine, Marie-Claude Fauré, Sophie Cantin
We studied by means of Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD) coupled with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy the structure of a behenic acid monolayer spread at the surface of Mg2+ /Mn2+ mixed aqueous solutions. For the pure Mg2+ and Mn2+ aqueous solutions, the cations induce at the surface different 2D lattice superstructures of the organic monolayer. These superstructures correspond to an inorganic organized monolayer anchored to the hydrophilic group of the ordered behenic acid monolayer. Among the various diffraction peaks, we focused on those characteristics of the behenic acid oblique cell...
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Haitao Xu, Shulan Huang, Xiaonan Zhu, Wangcheng Zhang, Xiangyang Zhang
Forkhead box K1 (FOXK1) has been identified to have a crucial function in development and oncogenesis. However, its role in glioblastoma has remained largely elusive and was therefore assessed in the present study. In human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissue samples, FOXK1 was determined to be highly expressed compared with adjacent normal tissue samples. In addition, high levels of FOXK1 were detected in the T98G and LN18 GBM cell lines as compare with those in normal human astrocytes. Of note, high expression of FOXK1 was revealed to be associated with metastasis and tumor size...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Fanfan Yi, Yugui Hao, Xiaoyi Chong, Wei Zhong
The aim of the present study was to measure the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-506-3p in the peripheral blood of patients with hypertension and to determine the biological functions and mechanisms of action of miR-506-3p. A total of 61 patients with primary hypertension were included in the present study. Peripheral blood was collected from all patients, as well as 31 healthy subjects who were included in a control group. The expression of miR-506-3p in peripheral blood was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Belén Herce-Sesa, José A López-López, Carlos Moreno
Transition metals Cd, Pd and Ag are toxic even at very low concentration. Cd is considered a priority substance; while, Pd and Ag are emerging pollutants. Membrane technologies have been applied for their extraction; however, they require important amounts of reagents, time and energy. Additionally, effective reagents for metal extraction in saline natural waters are limited. In this case, hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction with a configuration of solvent bar (SBME) using the ionic liquid Cyphos® 101 as extractant is proposed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Frederik Neuhaus, Dennis Mueller, Radu Tanasescu, Sandor Balog, Takashi Ishikawa, Gerald Brezesinski, Andreas Zumbuehl
Nanomedicine suffers from low drug delivery efficiencies. Mechanoresponsive vesicles could provide an alternative way to release active compounds triggered by the basic physics of the human body. 1,3-Diamidophospholipids with C16 tails proved to be an effective building block for mechanoresponsive vesicles, but their low main phase transition temperature prevents an effective application in humans. As the main phase transition temperature of a membrane depends on the fatty acyl chain length we synthesized a C17 homologue of a 1,3-diamidophospholipid: Rad-PC-Rad...
February 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zheng Kuang, Hongkai Ji, Jef D Boeke
Quiescent cells exploit an array of transcription factors to activate stress response machinery and maintain survival under nutrient-limited conditions. Our recent findings reveal that these transcription factors also play an important role in the exit of quiescence and regrowth. By studying Saccharomyces cerevisiae under a continuous, nutrient-limited condition, we found that Msn2 and Msn4 function as master regulators of glycolytic genes in the quiescent-like phase. They control the timing of transition from quiescence to growth by regulating the accumulation rate of acetyl-CoA, a key metabolite that is downstream of glycolysis and drives growth...
February 17, 2018: Current Genetics
Cheng Cui, Pei Hu, Ji Jiang, Fansheng Kong, Hong Luo, Qian Zhao
CT-707, a mutant-selective inhibitor of an important cancer target, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), is designed to be a targeted therapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring ALK active and crizotinib resistant mutations. A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of CT-707 and its two metabolites (M1 and M2) in human plasma. The samples were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated on a BEH C18 column (2...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Markian S Bahniuk, Abdullah K Alshememry, Scott V Elgersma, Larry D Unsworth
BACKGROUND: Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a fascinating biomaterial that has undergone copious development for a variety of therapeutic applications including as a nanoscale drug delivery vehicle. A comprehensive understanding of ELP self-assembly is lacking and this knowledge gap impedes the advancement of ELP-based biomaterials into the clinical realm. The systematic examination of leucine-containing ELPs endeavors to expand existing knowledge about fundamental assembly-disassembly behaviours...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Angela Palmigiano, Francesco Santaniello, Aurora Cerutti, Dmitry Penkov, Divya Purushothaman, Ekta Makhija, Lucilla Luzi, Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Viveswara Shivashankar, Gaetano Ivan Dellino, Francesco Blasi
The synthesis of middle-to-late-replicating DNA can be affected independently of the rest of the genome by down-regulating the tumor suppressor PREP1 (PKNOX1). Indeed, DNA combing shows that PREP1 down-regulation affects DNA replication rate, increases the number of simultaneously firing origins and the asymmetry of DNA replication, leading to DNA damage. Genome-wide analysis of replication timing by Repli-seq shows that, upon PREP1 down-regulation, 25% of the genome is replicated earlier in the S-phase. The targeted DNA sequences correspond to Lamin-Associated Domains (LADs), and include late-replicating (LRRs) and temporal transition regions (TTRs)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingxing Wu, Haibo Xiong, Hongmi Zou, Meng Li, Pan Li, Yu Zhou, Yan Xu, Jia Jian, Fengqiu Liu, Hongyun Zhao, Zhigang Wang, Xiyuan Zhou
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood that urgently needs early detection and effective therapy methods. The use of nanosized gene delivery systems is appealing because of their highly adjustable structure to carry both therapeutic and imaging agents. Herein, we report a folic acid (FA)-modified phase-changeable cationic nanoparticle encapsulating liquid perfluoropentane (PFP) and indocyanine green (ICG) (FA-CN-PFP-ICG, FCNPI) with good plasmid DNA (pDNA) carrying capacity, favorable biocompatibility, excellent photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) contrast, enhanced gene transfection efficiency and therapeutic effect...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Berta Verd, Erik Clark, Karl R Wotton, Hilde Janssens, Eva Jiménez-Guri, Anton Crombach, Johannes Jaeger
Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
A Scrimshire, A Lobera, A M T Bell, A H Jones, I Sterianou, S D Forder, P A Bingham
Lanthanide orthoferrites have wide-ranging industrial uses including solar, catalytic and electronic applications. Here a series of lanthanide orthoferrite perovskites, LnFeO 3 (Ln = La; Nd; Sm; Eu; Gd), prepared through a standard stoichiometric wet ball milling route using oxide precursors, has been studied. Characterisation through x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence confirmed the synthesis of phase-pure or near-pure LnFeO 3 compounds. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed over a temperature range of 10 K-293 K to observe hyperfine structure and to enable calculation of the recoil-free fraction and Debye temperature (θ D ) of each orthoferrite...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jiří Chmela, Jean-Francois Greisch, Michael E Harding, Wim Klopper, Manfred M Kappes, Detlef Schooss
The gas-phase laser-induced photoluminescence of cationic mononuclear gadolinium and lutetium complexes involving two 9-oxo-phenalen-1-one ligands is reported. Performing measurements at a temperature of 83 K enables to resolve vibronic transitions. Via comparison to Franck-Condon computations, the main vibrational contributions to the ligand-centered phosphorescence are determined to involve rocking, wagging, and stretching of the 9-oxophenalen-1-one-lanthanoid coordination in the low energy range, intraligand bending and stretching in the medium to high energy range, rocking of the carbonyl and methine groups, as well as C-H stretching beyond...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Wei Tang, Zhen Yang, Sheng Wang, Zhantong Wang, Jibin Song, Guocan Yu, Wenpei Fan, Yunlu Dai, Jingjing Wang, Lingling Shan, Gang Niu, Quli Fan, Xiaoyuan Chen
Combination of photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging offers high spatial resolution images with deep tissue penetration, which shows great potential in applications in medical imaging. Development of PA/US dual-contrast agents with high contrast and excellent biocompatibility is of great interest. Herein, an organic semiconducting photoacoustic nanodroplet, PS-PDI-PAnD, is developed by stabilizing low-boiling-point perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplet with a photoabsorber and photoacoustic agent of perylene diimide (PDI) molecules and coencapsulating the droplet with photosensitizers of ZnF16 Pc molecules...
February 21, 2018: ACS Nano
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