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phase transition

Carina Price, Stewart C Morrison, Farina Hashmi, Jill Phethean, Christopher Nester
Recognising structural and functional development of the paediatric foot is fundamental to ensuring a strong theoretical framework for health professionals and scientists. The transition of an infant from sitting to walking takes approximately 9 months and is when the structures and function of the foot must respond to the challenges of bearing load; becoming increasingly more essential for locomotion. Literature pertaining to the phase of development was searched. A narrative approach synthesised the information from papers written in English, with non-symptomatic infant participants up to the development stage of independent walking or two years of age...
September 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
Ni Cheng, Qi Kang, Jianhong Xiao, Na Du, Li Yu
Studies on supramolecular gel aggregates via supramolecular interactions are very fascinating and impressive. The interactions of gelator with solvent and inorganic salt can functionalize, activate, or control the properties of supramolecular gels. A lot of work on this area has been done, but all these contributions are only at an early stage. In this work, we tuned the gel formation conditions and properties by using low-molecular-weight gelator (LMWGs), amide-functionalized imidazolium-based surfactant, viz...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jiezhao Zhou, Meiling Chen, Ying Li, Fanglin Yu, Xiaohui Cheng, Yang Yang, Yan Liu, Xiangyang Xie, Zhiping Li, Hui Zhang, Xingguo Mei
Combination of metolazone (0.5 mg) and valsartan (80 mg) has been verified as a promising therapy treatment for hypertension. In order to facilitate to pharmacokinetic research, it needs a method for the simultaneously determination of metolazone and valsartan in biological samples. However, there are no relative reports so far. In order to facilitate to pharmacokinetic research, an on-line solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of metolazone and valsartan in beagle dog plasma was developed and validated in this study...
October 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Sachi Koitani, Sonja Dieterich, Natalie Preisig, Kenji Aramaki, Cosima Stubenrauch
Does the presence of a gel network influence the properties of a lyotropic liquid crystal? Does the replacement of oil by a lyotropic liquid crystal influence the properties of an organogel? To answer these questions we study gelled lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC). In the present study we show that it is possible to gel the lamellar phase of the binary system water-didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (2C12DAB) with the organogelator 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (12-HOA). We compare various properties of the gelled LLC phases with the "parent systems", i...
October 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Pascal Bertsch, Stéphane Isabettini, Peter Fischer
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a promising material for formation of hydrogels and nematically ordered phases. While salt addition is known to facilitate hydrogel formation, it remains unclear whether this originates from cationic bridging or charge screening effects. Herein, we demonstrate the effect of mono- and divalent salts on NCC gelation and nematic ordering. A strong correlation of NCC suspension zeta-potential and rheological behavior was found. Lower concentrations of divalent cations were needed to decrease NCC zeta-potential and form hydrogels...
October 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Jianke Yang
Paraxial linear propagation of light in an optical waveguide with material gain and loss is governed by a Schrödinger equation with a complex potential. In this Letter, new classes of non-parity-time (PT)-symmetric complex potentials featuring conjugate-pair eigenvalue symmetry are constructed by operator symmetry methods. Due to this eigenvalue symmetry, it is shown that the spectrum of these complex potentials is often all-real. Under parameter tuning in these potentials, a phase transition can also occur, where pairs of complex eigenvalues appear in the spectrum...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Eva-Maria Bertschler, Christian Dietrich, Thomas Leichtweiß, Jürgen Janek, Wolfgang Schnick
β-Li10P4N10 and Li13P4N10X3 with X = Cl, Br were synthesized from mixtures of P3N5, Li3N, LiX, LiPN2 and Li7PN4 at temperatures below 850 °C. β-Li10P4N10 is the low temperature polymorph of α-Li10P4N10 and crystallizes in trigonal space group R3. It is made up of non-condensed [P4N10]10- T2 supertetrahedra, which are arranged in sphalerite analogous packing. Li13P4N10X3 (X = Cl, Br) crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm-3m. Both isomorphic compounds comprise adamantine-type [P4N10]10-, Li+ ions and halides, which are forming an octahedra...
October 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Na Li, Bin Zheng, Hong-Fu Cai, Jing Yang, Xiao-Feng Luo, Li-Zhu Weng, Feng-Mei Zhan, Mao-Bai Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have obvious effects on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but they are expensive in China. Moreover, the overall cost of treatment of CML is high and the medical economic burden of patients with CML on the government is heavy. This study tested the cost effectiveness of imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib as first-line treatment in Chinese patients who were first diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
Qiyun Tang, Paula C Angelomé, Galo J A A Soler-Illia, Marcus Müller
Ordered mesostructured TiO2 thin films are employed in diverse applications ranging from catalysis and sensing, to photovoltaic and lithium-ion batteries. Experimentally these mesostructured thin films are fabricated via a sol-gel process coupled with evaporation-induced self-assembly of a supramolecular template, where the concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water play vital roles. We employ a soft, coarse-grained model of the amphiphilic template Brij58 and spherical particles, representing titanium-oxo clusters, to study the role of HCl and water in the formation of mesostructured TiO2 thin films...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Fuentealba, C Cortes, J Manzur, V Paredes-García, D Venegas-Yazigi, I D A Silva, R C de Santana, C J Magon, E Spodine
In this work the magnetic properties of bimetallic phases M'0.2Mn0.8PS3·0.25H2O (M' = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II)) have been explored and compared with those of the pristine phase MnPS3. Magnetic susceptibility, high field magnetization and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal that the transition temperature between the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic order for the pristine phase is shifted to lower values in the bimetallic phases. From magnetization measurements the critical field of the spin-flop transition is found to be dependent on the nature of the added secondary transition metal ion...
October 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Javier Molina-Infante, Alain M Schoepfer, Alfredo J Lucendo, Evan S Dellon
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging esophageal inflammatory disorder affecting children and young adults. As a relatively new disease, EoE is still burdened by frequent diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in clinical practice. This manuscript posits a number of similarities with Crohn's disease, which may help optimize EoE patient management. Commonalities include epidemiologic trends (Westernized diseases, rising incidence, early-life risk factors), diagnostic considerations (symptoms are poor predictors of disease activity, difficulties in disease activity assessment) and therapeutic issues (similar natural history and therapeutic goals, induction and maintenance phases, combination of drug and endoscopic treatment, potential drug interchangeability, long-term unsolved issues)...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Shai Netser, Shani Haskal, Hen Magalnik, Shlomo Wagner
BACKGROUND: Deciphering the biological mechanisms underlying social behavior in animal models requires standard behavioral paradigms that can be unbiasedly employed in an observer- and laboratory-independent manner. During the past decade, the three-chamber test has become such a standard paradigm used to evaluate social preference (sociability) and social novelty preference in mice. This test suffers from several caveats, including its reliance on spatial navigation skills and negligence of behavioral dynamics...
2017: Molecular Autism
Satohiro Matsumoto, Haruna Kawamura, Takeshi Nishikawa, Noriyoshi Sagihara, Hiroyuki Miyatani, Hirosato Mashima
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: At Saitama Medical Center, for remission induction in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with endoscopic evidence of severe disease, we tend to preferentially use tacrolimus (TAC) over anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents. We conducted this study to evaluate the validity of our therapeutic strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 52 steroid-refractory active UC patients with a Clinical Activity Index (CAI) score of ≥7 who were receiving remission induction therapy with TAC or anti-TNF-α agents...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
A Balcerzak
Two samples of triacylglycerols i.e., olive oil and triolein, and one sample of diacylglycerol were investigated. In the course of compression, the density of the samples was determined by measurements of the change of piston position in a pressure chamber and volume correction due to chamber expansion under pressure. The speed of sound was evaluated from the time of flight of an ultrasonic impulse between emitting and receiving transducers placed in the high pressure chamber. The adiabatic compressibility, the intermolecular free length, the molar volume, the van der Waals' constant b and the surface tension were evaluated from the density, the speed of sound and the average molecular mass...
2017: Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Wendy Béguelin, Martín A Rivas, María T Calvo Fernández, Matt Teater, Alberto Purwada, David Redmond, Hao Shen, Matt F Challman, Olivier Elemento, Ankur Singh, Ari M Melnick
The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is required for B cells to form germinal centers (GC). Here we show that EZH2 mediates GC formation through repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21(Cip1)). Deletion of Cdkn1a rescues the GC reaction in Ezh2 (-/-) mice. Using a 3D B cell follicular organoid system that mimics the GC reaction, we show that depletion of EZH2 suppresses G1 to S phase transition of GC B cells in a Cdkn1a-dependent manner. GC B cells of Cdkn1a (-/-) Ezh2 (-/-) mice have high levels of phospho-Rb, indicating that loss of Cdkn1a enables progression of cell cycle...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Romain Sibille, Elsa Lhotel, Monica Ciomaga Hatnean, Gøran J Nilsen, Georg Ehlers, Antonio Cervellino, Eric Ressouche, Matthias Frontzek, Oksana Zaharko, Vladimir Pomjakushin, Uwe Stuhr, Helen C Walker, Devashibhai T Adroja, Hubertus Luetkens, Chris Baines, Alex Amato, Geetha Balakrishnan, Tom Fennell, Michel Kenzelmann
The charge ordered structure of ions and vacancies characterizing rare-earth pyrochlore oxides serves as a model for the study of geometrically frustrated magnetism. The organization of magnetic ions into networks of corner-sharing tetrahedra gives rise to highly correlated magnetic phases with strong fluctuations, including spin liquids and spin ices. It is an open question how these ground states governed by local rules are affected by disorder. Here we demonstrate in the pyrochlore Tb2Hf2O7, that the vicinity of the disordering transition towards a defective fluorite structure translates into a tunable density of anion Frenkel disorder while cations remain ordered...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Qian Li, Lin Li, Shanhui Fan, Cuixia Dai, Xinyu Chai, Chuanqing Zhou
The human eyes provide a natural window for noninvasive measurement of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) of small arteries. By measuring the retinal PWV, the stiffness of small arteries can be assessed, which may better detect early vascular diseases. Therefore, retinal PWV measurement has attracted increasing attention. In this study, a jump-scanning method was proposed for non-invasive measurement of retinal PWV using spectral-domain OCT. The jump-scanning method uses the phase-resolved Doppler OCT to obtain the pulse shapes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Raymond E Schaak, Xuefei Li
The M1 form of vanadium dioxide, which exhibits a reversible insulator-metal transition above room temperature, has been incorporated into nanoscale heterostructures through solution-phase epitaxial growth on the tips of rutile TiO2 nanorods. Four distinct classes of VO2-TiO2-VO2 nanorod heterostructures are accessible by modulating the growth conditions. Each type of VO2-TiO2-VO2 nanostructure has a different insulator-metal transition temperature that depends on the VO2 domains sizes and the TiO2-VO2 interfacial strain characteristics...
October 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Lingfei Wang, Rokyeon Kim, Yoonkoo Kim, Choong H Kim, Sangwoon Hwang, Myung Rae Cho, Yeong Jae Shin, Saikat Das, Jeong Rae Kim, Sergei V Kalinin, Miyoung Kim, Sang Mo Yang, Tae Won Noh
Quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons across ultrathin insulating oxide barriers has been studied extensively for decades due to its great potential in electronic-device applications. In the few-nanometers-thick epitaxial oxide films, atomic-scale structural imperfections, such as the ubiquitously existed one-unit-cell-high terrace edges, can dramatically affect the tunneling probability and device performance. However, the underlying physics has not been investigated adequately. Here, taking ultrathin BaTiO3 films as a model system, an intrinsic tunneling-conductance enhancement is reported near the terrace edges...
October 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Luis Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Stephanie B Troy, ChunHong Huang, Clea Sarnquist, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Marisa Holubar, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Mauricio Rodríguez-Álvarez, Norma Mongua-Rodriguez, Yvonne Maldonado, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Mexico introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in 2007 but continued to give trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) twice a year during national health weeks (NHW) through 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate individual variables associated with poliovirus (PV) shedding among children with IPV-induced immunity after vaccination with tOPV and their household contacts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 72 children (both genders, ≤30 months, vaccinated with at least two doses of IPV) and 144 household contacts (both genders, 2 per household, children and adults) between 08/2010 and 09/2010 in Orizaba, Veracruz...
2017: PloS One
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