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phase transition

Ali Abroudi, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri
Not many models of mammalian cell cycle system exist due to its complexity. Some models are too complex and hard to understand, while some others are too simple and not comprehensive enough. Moreover, some essential aspects, such as the response of G1-S and G2-M checkpoints to DNA damage as well as the growth factor signalling, have not been investigated from a systems point of view in current mammalian cell cycle models. To address these issues, we bring a holistic perspective to cell cycle by mathematically modelling it as a complex system consisting of important sub-systems that interact with each other...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Maurizio Fanchini, Franco M Impellizzeri, Karin Grävare Silbernagel, Franco Combi, Franco Benazzo, Mario Bizzini
OBJECTIVES: To describe the Return to competition after Achilles Tendon rupture (ATR) in an elite soccer player. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Return to sport (RTS) of a professional soccer player who suffered an ATR during a match. The RTS phase started 15 weeks after surgery and specific on-field activities were gradually introduced. Criteria used to monitor the transition through the different phases were strength and endurance of the calf muscle and ability to sustain specific on-field training loads (TL) monitored with Global Positioning System and heart-rate system...
April 29, 2017: Physical Therapy in Sport
Wei Peng
G-CSF is a growth factor that has known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models. As both antigen-presenting microglia and reactive T cells are key components in the development and progression of EAE, the aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human G-CSF, as administered in microglia-mediated reactive T cell assay in vitro. Our results indicate that G-CSF treatment has no apparent effect for the resting un-activated microglia. G-CSF pre-protection of microglia increased protective cytokine IL-4 production and effectively inhibited the productions of NO and other inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and chemokine MCP-1) after LPS stimulation...
June 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
Soma Banik, Pranab Kumar Das, Azzedine Bendounan, Ivana Vobornik, A Arya, Nathan Beaulieu, Jun Fujii, A Thamizhavel, P U Sastry, A K Sinha, D M Phase, S K Deb
Rashba spin-orbit splitting in the magnetic materials opens up a new perspective in the field of spintronics. Here, we report a giant Rashba spin-orbit splitting on the PrGe [010] surface in the paramagnetic phase with Rashba coefficient α R  = 5 eVÅ. We find that α R can be tuned in this system as a function of temperature at different magnetic phases. Rashba type spin polarized surface states originates due to the strong hybridization between Pr 4f states with the conduction electrons. Significant changes observed in the spin polarized surface states across the magnetic transitions are due to the competition between Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and exchange interaction present in this system...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cheol-Min Yoo, Satoshi Naramoto, J Alan Sparks, Bibi Rafeiza Khan, Jin Nakashima, Hiroo Fukuda, Elison B Blancaflor
AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Sudha Verma, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sujata Kumari, Rani Mansuri, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Vijay Kumar, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: In vector-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, the sand fly midgut is considered to be an important site for vector-parasite interaction. Digestive enzymes including serine peptidases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are secreted in the midgut are one of the obstacles for Leishmania in establishing a successful infection. The presence of some natural inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) has recently been reported in Leishmania. In the present study, we deciphered the role of these ISPs in the survival of Leishmania donovani in the hostile sand fly midgut environment...
June 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Xie Zhang, Tilmann Hickel, Jutta Rogal, Jörg Neugebauer
Employing ab initio calculations we demonstrate that the complex structural modulations experimentally observed in ultrathin Fe films on Cu(001) originate from Fe bulk phases that arise under extreme deformations. Specifically, we show that the structural modulations correspond to the motifs observed when transforming fcc Fe to bcc Fe in the Pitsch orientation relationship [(001)_{fcc}||(11[over ¯]0)_{bcc}]. The observed structural equivalence between surface and unstable bulk structures naturally explains the experimentally reported magnetic and structural transitions when going from low (two to four MLs) to intermediate (four to ten MLs) film coverages...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
V Ros, M Müller
We study the remanent magnetization in antiferromagnetic, many-body localized quantum spin chains, initialized in a fully magnetized state. Its long time limit is an order parameter for the localization transition, which is readily accessible by standard experimental probes in magnets. We analytically calculate its value in the strong-disorder regime exploiting the explicit construction of quasilocal conserved quantities of the localized phase. We discuss analogies in cold atomic systems.
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G Spagnolli, G Semeghini, L Masi, G Ferioli, A Trenkwalder, S Coop, M Landini, L Pezzè, G Modugno, M Inguscio, A Smerzi, M Fattori
We explore the interplay between tunneling and interatomic interactions in the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction. We tune the scattering length of an atomic ^{39}K Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well trap to investigate regimes inaccessible to other superconducting or superfluid systems. In the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, we study the transition from Rabi to plasma oscillations by crossing over from attractive to repulsive interatomic interactions. We observe a critical slowing down in the oscillation frequency by increasing the strength of an attractive interaction up to the point of a quantum phase transition...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
H Alloul, P Wzietek, T Mito, D Pontiroli, M Aramini, M Riccò, J P Itie, E Elkaim
We present a detailed NMR study of the insulator-to-metal transition induced by an applied pressure p in the A15 phase of Cs_{3}C_{60}. We evidence that the insulating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and superconducting (SC) phases coexist only in a narrow p range. At fixed p, in the metallic state above the SC transition T_{c}, the ^{133}Cs and ^{13}C NMR spin-lattice relaxation data are seemingly governed by a pseudogaplike feature. We prove that this feature, also seen in the ^{133}Cs NMR shift data, is rather a signature of the Mott transition which broadens and smears out progressively for increasing (p,T)...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yuhai Zhang, Jun Yin, Manas R Parida, Ghada H Ahmed, Jun Pan, Osman M Bakr, Jean-Luc Bredas, Omar F Mohammed
With record efficiencies achieved in lead halide perovskite-based photovoltaics, urgency has shifted towards finding alternative materials that are stable and less-toxic. Bismuth-based perovskite materials are currently one of the most promising candidates amongst those alternatives. However, the band structures of these materials, including the nature of the bandgaps, remain elusive due to extremely low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and scattering issues in their thin-film or bulk form. Here, we overcome those limitations and reveal the specific nature of the material's electronic transitions by realizing monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) of hexagonal-phase Cs3Bi2X9 perovskites, which afford well-resolved PL features...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Vezio Bianchi, Tian Carey, Leonardo Viti, Lianhe Li, Edmund H Linfield, A Giles Davies, Alessandro Tredicucci, Duhee Yoon, Panagiotis G Karagiannidis, Lucia Lombardi, Flavia Tomarchio, Andrea C Ferrari, Felice Torrisi, Miriam S Vitiello
Saturable absorbers (SA) operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies can open new frontiers in the development of passively mode-locked THz micro-sources. Here we report the fabrication of THz SAs by transfer coating and inkjet printing single and few-layer graphene films prepared by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite. Open-aperture z-scan measurements with a 3.5 THz quantum cascade laser show a transparency modulation ∼80%, almost one order of magnitude larger than that reported to date at THz frequencies...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
James F Scott, Donald M Evans, Ram S Katiyar, Raymond G P McQuaid, J Marty Gregg
Since the 1935 work of Landau-Lifshitz and of Kittel in 1946 all ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and ferroelastic domains have been thought to be straight-sided with domain widths proportional to the square root of the sample thickness. We show in the present work that this is not true. We also discover period doubling domains predicted by Metaxas et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 217208) and modeled by Wang and Zhao (2015 Sci. Rep. 5 8887). We examine non-equilibrium ferroic domain structures in perovskite oxides with respect to folding, wrinkling, and relaxation and suggest that structures are kinetically limited and in the viscous flow regime predicted by Metaxas et al in 2008 but never observed experimentally...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
R Cardias, A Szilva, A Bergman, I Di Marco, M I Katsnelson, A I Lichtenstein, L Nordström, A B Klautau, O Eriksson, Y O Kvashnin
The Bethe-Slater (BS) curve describes the relation between the exchange coupling and interatomic distance. Based on a simple argument of orbital overlaps, it successfully predicts the transition from antiferromagnetism to ferromagnetism, when traversing the 3d series. In a previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 217202 (2016)] we reported that the dominant nearestneighbour (NN) interaction for 3d metals in the bcc structure indeed follows the BS curve, but the trends through the series showed a richer underlying physics than was initially assumed...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pierre Fauché, Christian Gebhardt, Maxim Sukharev, Renaud A L Vallée
Achieving and controlling strong light-matter interactions in many-body systems is of paramount importance both for fundamental understanding and potential applications. In this paper we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically how to manipulate strong coupling between the Bragg-plasmon mode supported by an organo-metallic array and molecular excitons in the form of J-aggregates dispersed on the hybrid structure. We observe experimentally the transition from a conventional strong coupling regime exhibiting the usual upper and lower polaritonic branches to a more complex regime, where a third nondispersive mode is seen, as the concentration of J-aggregates is increased...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laura Cantu', Antonio Raudino, Mario Corti
We describe a new interferometric technique to study gas-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces. Bubbles and drops are subjected to an alternating electric field which excites capillary oscillations at the interface, if charged. Bubble or drop deformation is detected by the change of the internal optical path of a laser beam crossing perpendicular to the oscillation axis. Due to the closed geometry, a discrete spectrum of stationary oscillation frequencies (normal modes) is excited. The interferometric nature of the measurement and the resonant nature of the oscillation modes concur in allowing for high sensitivity, in the sub-nanometric region...
June 15, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Xiaofeng F Duan, Larry W Burggraf
Excited state properties of chain and cyclic oligomers of closo-Si12C12 moieties are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory methods. Ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared photo-absorption properties are described for oligomers that form by linking closo-Si12C12 monomer moieties through Si-Si bonds. Natural transition orbitals for electron and hole states of stationary-state excitons in oligomers were compared to understand how exciton states are influenced by oligomer structure. Depending on the structure, some prominent excited states have large electron-hole charge separation while others do not; some exhibit exciton delocalization while others do not...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yansun Yao, Elissaios Stavrou, Alexander F Goncharov, Arnab Majumdar, Hui Wang, Vitali B Prakapenka, Albert Epshteyn, Andrew P Purdy
A combined theoretical and experimental study of lithium palladium deuteride (Li2PdD2) subjected to pressures up to 50 GPa reveals one structural phase transition near 10 GPa, detected by synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction, and metadynamics simulations. The ambient-pressure tetragonal phase of Li2PdD2 transforms into a monoclinic C2/m phase that is distinct from all known structures of alkali metal-transition metal hydrides/deuterides. The structure of the high-pressure phase was characterized using ab initio computational techniques and from refinement of the powder x-ray diffraction data...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Renjie Chen, Erik Lascaris, Jeremy C Palmer
Recent equation of state calculations [E. Lascaris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 125701 (2016)] for an ionic model of silica suggest that it undergoes a density-driven, liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) similar to the controversial transition hypothesized to exist in deeply supercooled water. Here, we perform extensive free energy calculations to scrutinize the model's low-temperature phase behavior and confirm the existence of a first-order phase transition between two liquids with identical compositions but different densities...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Sanat K Singha, Prasanta K Das, Biswajit Maiti
The effect of contact line pinning on nucleation is reported using continuum thermodynamics. Based on the principle of the free-energy maximization, closed-form expressions in the dimensionless form for the free-energy of the three-phase metastable system and the thermodynamic barrier are formulated with respect to the system geometry and the substrate wettability. The condition of maximality limits the dynamic contact angle within the cluster-phase-phobic regime. The dimensionless nucleation barrier or the potency factor can be divided into two components related to the system geometry and the pinning effect...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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