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Vestibular dysfunction, eye movements & posture

Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Richard F Lewis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various levels of vestibular function on balance in two, free-standing rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that postural control strategy depended on the severity of vestibular damage. More specifically, that increased muscle stiffness (via short-latency mechanisms) was adequate to compensate for mild damage, but long-latency mechanisms must be utilized for more severe vestibular damage. One animal was studied for pre-ablated and mild vestibular dysfunction states, while a second animal was studied in a pre-ablated and severe vestibular dysfunction state...
March 2017: Heliyon
Chisato Fujimoto, Teru Kamogashira, Makoto Kinoshita, Naoya Egami, Keiko Sugasawa, Shinichi Demura, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency-domain characteristics of postural instability caused by peripheral vestibular dysfunction by performing a power spectral analysis of the center of pressure (COP) sway during foam posturography. METHODS: Data were obtained from 78 patients and 163 controls. Two-legged stance tasks were performed in 4 conditions: eyes open with and without foam rubber, and eyes closed with and without foam rubber. We estimated the power spectrum of the acceleration signal using the maximum entropy method...
December 2014: Otology & Neurotology
Paul F Smith, Cynthia L Darlington
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in the sense of spatial orientation...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sun K Lee, Su J Kim, Moon S Park, Jae Y Byun
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The clinical features and treatment outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) are known to be different depending on the type of and involved canal. This difference could be due to differences in the functional change of the otolith organ. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were diagnosed to primary BPPV; 18 were categorized as posterior canal canalolithiasis (PC canalolithiasis), and 31 were categorized as horizontal canal (HC) BPPV with canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis (HC canalolithiasis or HC cupulolithiasis)...
April 2014: Laryngoscope
Richard F Lewis, Csilla Haburcakova, Wangsong Gong, Daniel Lee, Daniel Merfeld
Patients with vestibular dysfunction have visual, perceptual, and postural deficits. While there is considerable evidence that a semicircular canal prosthesis that senses angular head velocity and stimulates canal ampullary nerves can improve vision by augmenting the vestibulo-ocular reflex, no information is available regarding the potential utility of a canal prosthesis to improve perceptual deficits. In this study, we investigated the possibility that electrical stimulation of canal afferents could be used to modify percepts of head orientation...
May 29, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chisato Fujimoto, Toshihisa Murofushi, Yasuhiro Chihara, Munetaka Ushio, Mitsuya Suzuki, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
CONCLUSIONS: Foam posturography reveals that idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy (IBV) significantly affects postural stability. Instability was more severe in patients with damage to both of the vestibular nerve systems. Residual function in the spared vestibular nerve system might contribute to postural stability in IBV. OBJECTIVE: Postural stability was assessed using foam posturography in patients with IBV according to whether the inferior, superior or both of the vestibular nerve systems were affected...
May 2013: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Sujeet Kumar Sinha, Animesh Barman, Niraj Kumar Singh, G Rajeshwari, R Sharanya
The vestibulocochlear nerve is a sensory nerve that serves the organs of hearing and equilibrium. Neuropathies of the nerve, particularly auditory neuropathy may be caused by primary demyelination or by axonal diseases. In disorders affecting the cochlear nerve, it is probable that the vestibular nerve is involved as well. There are isolated reports of the involvement of the inferior vestibular nerve (using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials) in individuals with AN. However, there is a dearth of information on the involvement of the superior vestibular nerve and other functions such as optokinetic, saccade and vestibulo-occular reflex...
August 2013: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
S Kammermeier, J F Kleine, T Eggert, S Krafczyk, U Büttner
Cerebellar dysfunction results in ataxia including postural deficits. Evidence from animal experiments suggests convergence of vestibular and neck-position related inputs in cerebellar midline structures. We investigated 20 ambulatory patients with cerebellar disease for disturbed postural control using posturography during static lateral head turns. Binaural bipolar sine-wave galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was used to evoke specific body movements. The Klockgether clinical score was used to assess the severity of cerebellar dysfunction (4-17 of maximal 35 points)...
March 2013: Journal of Neurology
Alexandra De Kegel, Leen Maes, Tina Baetens, Ingeborg Dhooge, Hilde Van Waelvelde
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To identify the predictive ability of vestibular function test results on motor performance among hearing-impaired children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Fifty-one typically developing children and 48 children with a unilateral (n = 9) or bilateral hearing impairment (n = 39) of more than 40 dB HL between 3 and 12 years were tested by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (M ABC-2), clinical balance tests, posturography, rotatory chair testing, and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP)...
December 2012: Laryngoscope
José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas G Urosevich, Leonard A Temme, Aaron K Tarbett, Navjit K Sanghera
The purpose of the present study was to assess the occurrence of visual dysfunctions and associated symptoms in active duty warfighters during the subacute stage of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). A comprehensive visual and oculomotor function evaluation was performed on 40 U.S. military personnel, 20 with blast-induced mTBI and 20 without. In addition, a comprehensive symptom questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of visual, vestibular, and neuropsychiatric-associated symptoms. The most common mTBI-induced visual dysfunctions were associated with near oculomotor deficits, particularly large exophoria, decreased fusion ranges, receded near point of convergence, defective pursuit and saccadic eye movements, decreased amplitude of accommodation, and monocular accommodative facility...
July 2012: Military Medicine
Robyn Laube, Sendhil Govender, James G Colebatch
An impulsive acceleration stimulus, previously shown to activate vestibular afferents, was applied to the mastoid. Evoked EMG responses from the soleus muscles in healthy subjects (n = 10) and patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction (n = 3) were recorded and compared with the effects of galvanic stimulation (GVS). Subjects were stimulated while having their eyes closed, head rotated, and while tonically activating their soleus muscles. Rectified EMG responses were recorded from the leg contralateral to the direction of head rotation...
June 2012: Journal of Applied Physiology
Chisato Fujimoto, Toshihisa Murofushi, Keiko Sugasawa, Yasuhiro Chihara, Muentaka Ushio, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the utility of foam posturography for assessing equilibrium at the chronic stage after acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive patients (16 patients at the chronic stage) with acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy and absent caloric responses unilaterally were recruited, along with 66 healthy control subjects. Two-legged stance tasks were performed in 4 conditions: with eyes open or closed, with or without using foam rubber...
April 2012: Otology & Neurotology
Klaus Jahn
Common causes of vertigo and dizziness in childhood are vestibular migraine and associated syndromes (benign paroxysmal vertigo), unilateral vestibular failure due to labyrinthitis, positioning vertigo, and somatoform syndromes. Although the same spectrum of diseases as in adults can be found, the frequency differs widely. Further, balance disorders not related to vestibular function, like cerebral palsy, can present with dizziness. Vestibular function can reliably be addressed at the bedside by head impulses to test vestibulo-ocular reflex function, ocular motor testing of the central vestibular system, and balance tests for vestibulo-spinal function...
July 2011: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Sherri M Jones, Timothy A Jones, Kristal N Mills, G Christopher Gaines
Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have been well studied...
2009: Seminars in Hearing
Sally M Rosengren, James G Colebatch
Vestibular dysfunction has been reported in patients with cervical dystonia (CD), but it is still unclear whether the abnormalities occur as part of the CD syndrome or whether they arise from the abnormal posture and movement of the head. We compared vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) recorded from the affected neck muscles (i.e., cervical VEMPs) with those recorded from muscles unaffected by the dystonia, the extraocular muscles (i.e., ocular VEMPs). We compared 21 patients and age-matched normal controls to investigate whether these short-latency reflexes are altered in CD...
December 15, 2010: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Chisato Fujimoto, Toshihisa Murofushi, Yasuhiro Chihara, Munetaka Ushio, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shinichi Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether disorders of the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN) system affect postural stability. METHOD: Two-legged stance tasks were performed by patients with unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy (n=108) in four conditions: eyes open or eyes closed, with or without foam rubber. We examined six parameters: the velocity of movement of the center of pressure and the envelopment area determined by tracing the movement in the eyes closed/foam rubber condition, Romberg's ratio of velocity and area with foam rubber, and the foam ratios (ratios of a measured parameter with to without the foam rubber) of velocity and area with eyes closed...
August 2010: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Patricia A Winkler, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of individuals with vestibular dysfunction and visual motion hypersensitivity (VMH) become dizzy and imbalanced in response to movement of the visual environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate ocular fixational stability during gaze on a target, with and without visual background movement. Binocular vision functions were also examined as possible contributory factors to the dizziness and imbalance. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with VMH, 20 with vestibular disorders without VMH and 20 healthy subjects were tested...
September 2009: Optometry: Journal of the American Optometric Association
S A Likhachev, I V Pleshko
This vestibulometric (sinusoidal rotation) study included patients with posterior cervical sympathetic syndrome (n=40) and with vestibular neuronitis (n=20) as well as 20 healthy subjects of the control group. Vestibular dysfunction was induced by the method proposed by de Klein. The patients with posterior cervical sympathetic syndrome in the decompensation phase displayed abnormal gaze-evoked suppression of the vestibular-ocular reflex when their head movements lined up with sinusoidal rotation. This symptom is considered to be of primary value for the diagnosis of vestibular dysfunction in these patients...
2009: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
C Tilikete, A Vighetto
The vestibular system detects head movements such as angular rotation, translation, and head position relative to gravity. It acts to stabilize the eyes and posture through subcortical reflexes. Its signals are also integrated at the cortical level to participate in the elaboration of a body scheme, used for different functions such as spatial orientation and motor control. The vestibular nerve shows a resting discharge rate that is modulated up or down according to head motion or position. Central functioning depends on the detection of an asymmetry between signals coming from a pair of peripheral sensors, one on either side...
April 2009: Neuro-Chirurgie
Roberto Teggi, Bruno Colombo, Luca Bernasconi, Chiara Bellini, Giancarlo Comi, Mario Bussi
BACKGROUND: Association between migraine and vertigo has been widely studied during the last years. A central or peripheral vestibular damage may occur in patients with migrainous vertigo. Despite much evidence, at present the International Headache Society classification does not include a specific category for migrainous vertigo. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of central and peripheral vestibular disorders and postural abnormalities in patients diagnosed as affected by definite migrainous vertigo according to Neuhauser...
March 2009: Headache
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