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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904534/three-dimensional-organoid-system-transplantation-technologies-in-future-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#1
REVIEW
NaiLi Wei, ZiFang Quan, Hailiang Tang, JianHong Zhu
In recent years, scientists have made great achievements in understanding the development of human brain and elucidating critical elements of stepwise spatiotemporal control strategies in neural stem cell specification lineage, which facilitates successful induction of neural organoid in vitro including the cerebral cortex, cerebellar, neural tube, hippocampus cortex, pituitary, and optic cup. Besides, emerging researches on neural organogenesis promote the application of 3D organoid system transplantation in treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886418/chemically-induced-photoreceptor-degeneration-and-protection-in-mouse-ipsc-derived-three-dimensional-retinal-organoids
#2
Shin-Ichiro Ito, Akishi Onishi, Masayo Takahashi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can be differentiated into various tissues and cell types, have been used for clinical research and disease modeling. Self-organizing three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering has been established within the past decade and enables researchers to obtain tissues and cells that almost mimic in vivo development. However, there are no reports of practical experimental procedures that reproduce photoreceptor degeneration. In this study, we induced photoreceptor cell death in mouse iPSC-derived 3D retinal organoids (3D-retinas) by 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), which induces photoreceptor degeneration in mouse retinal explants, and then established a live-cell imaging system to measure degeneration-related properties...
August 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886364/synergistic-engineering-organoids-meet-organs-on-a-chip
#3
Takanori Takebe, Boyang Zhang, Milica Radisic
Organoid technology and organ-on-a-chip engineering have emerged as two distinct approaches for stem cell-derived 3D tissue preparation. Their strategic integration can address each approach's limitations and provide a path toward a superior, synergistic strategy of constructing tissues that will truly deliver on the promise of regenerative and precision medicine.
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886360/putting-two-heads-together-to-build-a-better-brain
#4
John K Mich, Jennie L Close, Boaz P Levi
3D organoids enable in vitro human brain development models, but they have not yet recapitulated some essential features of brain circuit formation. Recently, several studies appearing in Nature, Nature Methods, and Cell Stem Cell generated fused organoid models of inhibitory and excitatory neuron development, which can now achieve functional circuit integration.
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885786/3d-miniaturization-of-human-organs-for-drug-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Joseph Park, Isaac Wetzel, Didier Dréau, Hansang Cho
"Engineered human organs" hold promises for predicting the effectiveness and accuracy of drug responses while reducing cost, time, and failure rates in clinical trials. Multiorgan human models utilize many aspects of currently available technologies including self-organized spherical 3D human organoids, microfabricated 3D human organ chips, and 3D bioprinted human organ constructs to mimic key structural and functional properties of human organs. They enable precise control of multicellular activities, extracellular matrix (ECM) compositions, spatial distributions of cells, architectural organizations of ECM, and environmental cues...
September 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878359/directed-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-fallopian-tube-epithelium
#6
Nur Yucer, Marie Holzapfel, Tilley Jenkins Vogel, Lindsay Lenaeus, Loren Ornelas, Anna Laury, Dhruv Sareen, Robert Barrett, Beth Y Karlan, Clive N Svendsen
The fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) has been recognized as a site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). However, the absence of relevant in vitro human models that can recapitulate tissue-specific architecture has hindered our understanding of FTE transformation and initiation of HGSC. Here, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were used to establish a novel 3-dimensional (3D) human FTE organoid in vitro model containing the relevant cell types of the human fallopian tube as well as a luminal architecture that closely reflects the organization of fallopian tissues in vivo...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870990/enabling-quantitative-screening-in-retinal-organoids-3d-automated-reporter-quantification-technology-3d-arq
#7
M Natalia Vergara, Miguel Flores-Bellver, Silvia Aparicio-Domingo, Minda McNally, Karl J Wahlin, Meera T Saxena, Jeff S Mumm, M Valeria Canto-Soler
The advent of stem cell-derived retinal organoids has brought forth unprecedented opportunities for developmental and physiological studies, while presenting new therapeutic promise for retinal degenerative diseases. From a translational perspective, organoid systems provide exciting new prospects for drug discovery, offering the possibility to perform compound screening in a 3-dimensional (3D) human tissue context that resembles the native histoarchitecture and cellular interactions. However, inherent variability issues and a general lack of robust quantitative technologies for analyzing organoids in large-scale pose severe limitations for their use in translational applications...
September 4, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834615/self-assembled-liver-organoids-recapitulate-hepato-biliary-organogenesis-in-vitro
#8
Dipen Vyas, Pedro M Baptista, Matthew Brovold, Emma Moran, Matthew Brovold, Brandon Gaston, Chris Booth, Michael Samuel, Anthony Atala, Shay Soker
Several 3D cell culture systems are currently available to create liver organoids. In general, these systems display better physiologic and metabolic aspects of intact liver tissue, compared with 2D culture systems. However, none of these reliably mimic human liver development, including parallel formation of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte anatomical structures. Here, we show that human fetal liver progenitor cells self-assemble inside acellular liver extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to form 3D liver organoids that recapitulated several aspects of hepato-biliary organogenesis and resulted in concomitant formation of progressively more differentiated hepatocytes and bile duct structures...
August 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822354/3d-brain-organoids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-promising-experimental-models-for-brain-development-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Chun-Ting Lee, Raphael M Bendriem, Wells W Wu, Rong-Fong Shen
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819250/oblique-scanning-laser-microscopy-for-simultaneously-volumetric-structural-and-molecular-imaging-using-only-one-raster-scan
#10
Lei Zhang, Amalia Capilla, Weiye Song, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Ji Yi
Multi-modal three dimensional (3D) optical imaging combining both structural sensitivity and molecular specificity is highly desirable in biomedical research. In this paper, we present a method termed oblique scanning laser microscopy (OSLM) to combine optical coherence tomography (OCT), for simultaneously volumetric structural and molecular imaging with cellular resolution in all three dimensions. Conventional 3D laser scanning fluorescence microscopy requires repeated optical sectioning to create z-stacks in depth...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817682/experimental-study-of-tuberculosis-from-animal-models-to-complex-cell-systems-and-organoids
#11
REVIEW
Kaori L Fonseca, Pedro N S Rodrigues, I Anna S Olsson, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease to mankind that has killed more people than any other infectious disease. Despite many efforts and successes from the scientific and health communities, the prospect of TB elimination remains distant. On the one hand, sustainable public health programs with affordable and broad implementation of anti-TB measures are needed. On the other hand, achieving TB elimination requires critical advances in three areas: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. It is also well accepted that succeeding in advancing these areas requires a deeper knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during infection, and for that, better experimental models are needed...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815516/gastrointestinal-epithelial-organoid-cultures-from-postsurgical-tissues
#12
Soojung Hahn, Jongman Yoo
An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells...
August 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809098/interfacially-engineered-pyridinium-pseudogemini-surfactants-as-versatile-and-efficient-supramolecular-delivery-systems-for-dna-sirna-and-mrna
#13
Uttam Satyal, Bogdan Draghici, Lisa L Dragic, Qiangnan Zhang, Kyle W Norris, Muniswamy Madesh, Eugen Brailoiu, Marc A Ilies
This article presents the synthesis, self-assembly, and biological activity as transfection agents for pDNA, siRNA, and mRNA of novel pyridinium pseudogemini surfactants, interfacially engineered from the most efficient gemini surfactants and lipids generated in our amphiphile research program. Formulation of novel amphiphiles in water revealed supramolecular properties very similar to those of gemini surfactants, despite their lipidlike charge/mass ratio. This dual character was found also to enhance endosomal escape and significantly increase the transfection efficiency...
August 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798065/self-organization-process-in-newborn-skin-organoid-formation-inspires-strategy-to-restore-hair-regeneration-of-adult-cells
#14
Mingxing Lei, Linus J Schumacher, Yung-Chih Lai, Wen-Tau Juan, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ruth E Baker, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Li Yang, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Organoids made from dissociated progenitor cells undergo tissue-like organization. This in vitro self-organization process is not identical to embryonic organ formation, but it achieves a similar phenotype in vivo. This implies genetic codes do not specify morphology directly; instead, complex tissue architectures may be achieved through several intermediate layers of cross talk between genetic information and biophysical processes. Here we use newborn and adult skin organoids for analyses. Dissociated cells from newborn mouse skin form hair primordia-bearing organoids that grow hairs robustly in vivo after transplantation to nude mice...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795726/a-hollow-fiber-system-for-simple-generation-of-human-brain-organoids
#15
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Fangchao Yin, Yue Yu, Yaqing Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Wang, Ning Sun, Haitao Liu, Jianhua Qin
3D organoids exhibit near-physiological morphogenesis and histology relying on the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), representing a new class of in vitro model for studying developmental biology and diseases. An engineered approach is highly desirable to generate sufficient organoids in a simple and efficient manner. Herein, we present a new strategy for the simple formation of massive human brain organoids from hiPSCs within a hollow fiber reactor system by combining fiber materials with the developmental biology principle...
September 18, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757181/tumor-organoids-as-a-pre-clinical-cancer-model-for-drug-discovery
#16
REVIEW
Fleur Weeber, Salo N Ooft, Krijn K Dijkstra, Emile E Voest
Tumor organoids are 3D cultures of cancer cells that can be derived on an individual patient basis with a high success rate. This creates opportunities to build large biobanks with relevant patient material that can be used to perform drug screens and facilitate drug development. The high take rate will also allow side-by-side comparison to evaluate the translational potential of this model system to the patient. These tumors-in-a-dish can be established for a variety of tumor types including colorectal, pancreas, stomach, prostate, and breast cancers...
July 27, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752164/in-situ-generation-of-human-brain-organoids-on-a-micropillar-array
#17
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Hao Yu, Fangchao Yin, Yaqing Wang, Haitao Liu, Lei Jiang, Jianhua Qin
Brain organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells can recapitulate the early stages of brain development, representing a powerful in vitro system for modeling brain development and diseases. However, the existing methods for brain organoid formation often require time-consuming procedures, including the initial formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from hiPSCs, and subsequent neural induction and differentiation companied by multi-steps of cell transfer and encapsulation in a 3D matrix. Herein, we propose a simple strategy to enable in situ formation of massive brain organoids from hiPSCs on a micropillar array without tedious manual procedures...
July 28, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751424/a-simple-cost-effective-method-for-generating-murine-colonic-3d-enteroids-and-2d-monolayers-for-studies-of-primary-epithelial-cell-function
#18
Elizabeth H Fernando, Michael Dicay, Martin Stahl, Marilyn H Gordon, Andrew Vegso, Cristiane Baggio, Laurie Alston, Fernando Lopes, Kristi Baker, Simon Andrew Hirota, Derek M McKay, Bruce A Vallance, Wallace K MacNaughton
Cancer cell lines have been the mainstay of intestinal epithelial experimentation for decades, due primarily to their immortality and ease of culture. However, because of the inherent biological abnormalities of cancer cell lines, many cellular biologists are currently transitioning away from these models, and toward more representative primary cells. This has been particularly challenging, but recent advances in the generation of intestinal organoids have brought the routine use of primary cells within reach of most epithelial biologists...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750869/probiotic-lactobacillus-acidophilus-bacteria-or-synthetic-tlr2-agonist-boost-the-growth-of-chicken-embryo-intestinal-organoids-in-cultures-comprising-epithelial-cells-and-myofibroblasts
#19
Malgorzata Pierzchalska, Malgorzata Panek, Malgorzata Czyrnek, Anna Gielicz, Barbara Mickowska, Maja Grabacka
The intestinal epithelial cells reside in close proximity to myofibroblasts and microbiota, which are supposed to have an impact on intestinal stem cells fate and to influence processes of tissue maturation and regeneration. Mechanism underlying these phenomena and their diversity among vertebrates can be studied in 3D organoid cultures. We investigated the growth of chicken embryo intestinal epithelial organoids in Matrigel with and without Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation. The organoid cultures contained also some myofibroblasts with potential to promote intestinal stem cell survival...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745637/isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-an-orthotopic-mouse-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Susan Kochall, May-Linn Thepkaysone, Sebastián A García, Alexander M Betzler, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reissfelder, Sebastian Schölch
Despite the advantages of easy applicability and cost-effectiveness, subcutaneous mouse models have severe limitations and do not accurately simulate tumor biology and tumor cell dissemination. Orthotopic mouse models have been introduced to overcome these limitations; however, such models are technically demanding, especially in hollow organs such as the large bowel. In order to produce uniform tumors which reliably grow and metastasize, standardized techniques of tumor cell preparation and injection are critical...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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