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Lynn W Bush, Louis E Bartoshesky, Karen L David, Benjamin Wilfond, Janet L Williams, Ingrid A Holm
Disclaimer: This article is designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other health care providers to help them provide quality patient care. Adherence to the information contained in this article does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This information and any associated recommendations should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, each provider should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Godela M Brosnahan, Kaleab Z Abebe, Charity G Moore, Kyongtae T Bae, William E Braun, Arlene B Chapman, Michael F Flessner, Peter C Harris, Marie C Hogan, Ronald D Perrone, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Theodore I Steinman, Vicente E Torres, The Halt Pkd Investigators
BACKGROUND: The HALT PKD trial in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure to 95-110 mmHg was associated with a 14% slower rate of kidney volume growth compared to standard control. It is unclear whether this result was due to greater blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by allowing the use of higher drug doses in the low blood pressure arm, or due to the lower blood pressure per se. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of HALT PKD Study A, we categorized participants into high and low dose groups based on the median daily equivalent dose of RAAS blocking drugs used after the initial dose titration period...
March 21, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Roni A Hazim, David S Williams
The phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for retinal homeostasis. Defects in this process can be caused by mutations in the photoreceptor cells, the RPE cells, or both cell types. This function can be experimentally investigated by performing an in vitro phagocytosis assay, in which cultured RPE cells are challenged with isolated POSs, and subsequently tested for their ability to degrade the POSs. A significant advantage of this approach is that mutant phenotypes can be attributed either to the photoreceptor or the RPE cells, by experimenting with different permutations of mutant and control photoreceptor and RPE cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Multi-voxel pattern analysis often necessitates feature selection due to the high dimensional nature of neuroimaging data. In this context, feature selection techniques serve the dual purpose of potentially increasing classification accuracy and revealing sets of features that best discriminate between classes. However, feature selection techniques in current, widespread use in the literature suffer from a number of deficits, including the need for extended computational time, lack of consistency in selecting features relevant to classification, and only marginal increases in classifier accuracy...
March 21, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Beverley Kok, Erica L W Lester, William M Lee, A James Hanje, R Todd Stravitz, Safwat Girgis, Vaishali Patel, Joshua R Peck, Christopher Esber, Constantine J Karvellas
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF-α) have been associated with drug-induced liver injury. However, cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure have only been rarely reported. AIMS: To identify cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure and evaluate patterns of liver injury and common characteristics to the cases. METHODS: The United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group database was searched from 1998 to 2014...
March 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Alanna Van Hooser, Todd R Williams, Daniel T Myers
Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon, but important to recognize with imaging due to malignant potential. Peritoneal seeding and pseudomyxoma peritonei can occur with both frankly malignant as well as low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. Prospective imaging identification of potential appendiceal neoplasm is paramount to clinical/surgical management. When a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm is suspected, a right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection is the preferred surgical management. Unfortunately, accurate preoperative diagnosis can be challenging due to a wide range of clinical presentations and overlapping imaging appearances of appendiceal neoplasms with benign entities...
March 21, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Mitul A Mehta, Anne Schmechtig, Vasileia Kotoula, Juliet McColm, Kimberley Jackson, Claire Brittain, Sitra Tauscher-Wisniewski, Bruce J Kinon, Paul D Morrison, Thomas Pollak, Timothy Mant, Steven C R Williams, Adam J Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Aberrant glutamate neurotransmission, and in particular dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and represents a novel therapeutic target. Low-dose administration of the NMDA antagonist ketamine in healthy volunteers elicits a strong blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signal that can be attenuated by pretreatment with single, therapeutically effective doses of marketed medicines interacting with the glutamate system...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Edward J Nevins, Parisa L Moori, Jonathan Smith-Williams, Nicholas T E Bird, John V Taylor, Nikhil Misra
PURPOSE: The indications for pre-hospital resuscitative thoracotomy (PHRT) remain undefined. The aim of this paper is to explore the variation in practice for PHRT in the UK, and review the published literature. METHODS: MEDLINE and PUBMED search engines were used to identify all relevant articles and 22 UK Air Ambulance Services were sent an electronic questionnaire to assess their PHRT practice. RESULTS: Four European publications report PHRT survival rates of 9...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Rafal Tokarz, Stephen Sameroff, Teresa Tagliafierro, Komal Jain, Simon H Williams, D Moses Cucura, Ilia Rochlin, Javier Monzon, Giovanna Carpi, Danielle Tufts, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Jory Brinkerhoff, W Ian Lipkin
Ticks carry a wide range of known human and animal pathogens and are postulated to carry others with the potential to cause disease. Here we report a discovery effort wherein unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 2,021 ticks, including Ixodes scapularis ( n = 1,138), Amblyomma americanum ( n = 720), and Dermacentor variabilis ( n = 163), collected in New York, Connecticut, and Virginia in 2015 and 2016. We identified 33 viruses, including 24 putative novel viral species...
March 2018: MSphere
Lorrayne Serra, Dennis Z Chang, Marissa Macchietto, Katherine Williams, Rabi Murad, Dihong Lu, Adler R Dillman, Ali Mortazavi
Most nematodes are small worms that lack enough RNA for regular RNA-seq protocols without pooling hundred to thousand of individuals. We have adapted the Smart-seq2 protocol in order to sequence the transcriptome of an individual worm. While developed for individual Steinernema carpocapsae and Caenorhabditis elegans larvae as well as embryos , the protocol should be adaptable for other nematode species and small invertebrates. In addition, we describe how to analyze the RNA-seq results using the Galaxy online environment...
February 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
William F Auffermann, Elizabeth A Krupinski, Srini Tridandapani
The goal of this research was to examine whether search pattern training for central line positioning on chest radiographs (CXRs) improves the ability of healthcare trainees and practitioners to identify malpositioned central venous catheters. Two sets of CXRs with central catheters were shown; half of the images contained catheters that were appropriately positioned, half that were malpositioned. Subjects were asked to: mark the tip of the catheter using the simulated radiology workstations, indicate their confidence in tip localization, and state whether the catheter was appropriately positioned or malpositioned...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Hesham El-Askary, Nick LaHaye, Erik Linstead, William A Sprigg, Magdi Yacoub
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a rare vascular disease that, if left untreated, can result in irreparable cardiac damage in children. While the symptoms of KD are well-known, as are best practices for treatment, the etiology of the disease and the factors contributing to KD outbreaks remain puzzling to both medical practitioners and scientists alike. Recently, a fungus known as Candida, originating in the farmlands of China, has been blamed for outbreaks in China and Japan, with the hypothesis that it can be transported over long ranges via different wind mechanisms...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Nestor O Neto, George C Fonseca, Gustavo G Torres, Luciano P Pinto, Fabio Mastrocola, William Santos R De Oliveira, Maria das Neves Barros
The left bundle-branch block (LBBB) is related to worsening cardiac performance. We describe a case of a patient with an intermittent left bundle-branch block who underwent biventricular pacemaker implantation. We noted a detrimental effect on the performance of her left ventricle with the presence of the LBBB as compared to the performance after she underwent biventricular pacing or after reversal of LBBB (i.e., native rhythm with narrow QRS). Her LBBB was accompanied by increased isovolumetric contraction time, longer pre-ejection period, and increased myocardial performance index (i...
January 20, 2018: Curēus
Smit Singla, Emmanuel Gabriel, Raed Alnaji, William Du, Kristopher Attwood, Hector Nava, Steven N Hochwald, Moshim Kukar
Background: The relationship of complete pathologic response (cPR) with the timing of esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) is not well defined. We sought to determine if a delay in esophagectomy after nCRT would result in increased likelihood of cPR and improved survival. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all patients treated with nCRT and esophagectomy between 2004 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups based on timing of esophagectomy (≤50 vs ...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
William H Jin, Eric A Mellon, Jessica M Frakes, Gilbert Z Murimwa, Pamela J Hodul, Jose M Pimiento, Mokenge P Malafa, Sarah E Hoffe
Background: Total psoas area (TPA), a marker of sarcopenia, has been used as an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers as a proxy for frailty and nutritional status. Our study aimed to evaluate whether TPA, in contrast to traditional measurements of nutrition like body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA), was predictive of outcomes in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Raúl O Saucedo-Alderete, Joseph D Eifert, Renee R Boyer, Robert C Williams, Gregory E Welbaum
Since the surfaces of cantaloupes are highly rough or irregular, bacteria can easily attach and become difficult to remove. Appropriate postharvest washing and sanitizing procedures can help control Salmonella and other pathogens on cantaloupe or other melons during postharvest operations. Delmopinol hydrochloride (delmopinol) is a cationic surfactant that is effective for treating and preventing gingivitis and periodontitis. The application of delmopinol to two cantaloupe cultivars was evaluated for reducing the level of inoculated Salmonella ...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Murad Megjhani, Kalijah Terilli, Hans-Peter Frey, Angela G Velazquez, Kevin William Doyle, Edward Sander Connolly, David Jinou Roh, Sachin Agarwal, Jan Claassen, Noemie Elhadad, Soojin Park
Purpose: Accurate prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can be critical for planning interventions to prevent poor neurological outcome. This paper presents a model using convolution dictionary learning to extract features from physiological data available from bedside monitors. We develop and validate a prediction model for DCI after SAH, demonstrating improved precision over standard methods alone. Methods: 488 consecutive SAH admissions from 2006 to 2014 to a tertiary care hospital were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yu-Tung Chang, Kuang-Chau Tsai, Brett Williams
Objectives: Core competencies are considered the foundation for establishing Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and paramedic curricula, and for ensuring performance standards in the delivery of prehospital care. This study surveyed EMT instructors and medical directors to identify the most desirable core competencies for all levels of EMTs in Taiwan. Methods: A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. An online questionnaire was distributed to obtain perspectives of EMT instructors and medical directors on the most desirable core competencies for EMTs...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
William S Cole, Alexander S James, Christopher Irwin Smith
Yucca moths ( Tegeticula spp.) are the exclusive pollinators of Joshua trees ( Yucca brevifolia s. l.). The moths actively pollinate the Joshua tree flowers and lay their eggs in the style. Recent studies have revealed that the plants commonly known as Joshua trees include two distinct, sister-species of plant: Yucca brevifolia Engelm. and Yucca jaegeriana McKelvey, each pollinated by two sister-species of yucca moth Tegeticula synthetica Riley and Tegeticula antithetica Pellmyr, respectively. A number of studies have argued that the moths have coevolved with their hosts, producing a pattern of phenotype matching between moth ovipositor length and floral style length...
July 2017: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Isabel Frost, William P J Smith, Sara Mitri, Alvaro San Millan, Yohan Davit, James M Osborne, Joe M Pitt-Francis, R Craig MacLean, Kevin R Foster
Bacteria commonly live in dense and genetically diverse communities associated with surfaces. In these communities, competition for resources and space is intense, and yet we understand little of how this affects the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here, we study interactions between antibiotic-resistant and susceptible strains using in vitro competition experiments in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in silico simulations. Selection for intracellular resistance to streptomycin is very strong in colonies, such that resistance is favoured at very low antibiotic doses...
March 21, 2018: ISME Journal
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