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sepsis physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804005/performance-assessment-of-the-saps-ii-and-sofa-scoring-systems-in-hanta-virus-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#1
Zhenjun Yu, Ni Zhou, Ali Li, Jie Chen, Huazhong Chen, Zebao He, Fei Yan, Haihong Zhao, Jiansheng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS), caused by the hantavirus, is a natural infectious disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal damage. China is the most severely endemic area for HFRS in the world. In recent years, critical scoring systems based on quantitative classification have become an important clinical tool for predicting and evaluating the prognosis of critical illness, and provide guidelines for clinical practice. METHODS: The sample comprised 384 patients with HFRS treated in the Taizhou Hospital from January 2006 to February 2017...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802877/declining-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-australia-and-new-zealand-between-2000-and-2015
#2
Avik Majumdar, Michael Bailey, William M Kemp, Rinaldo Bellomo, Stuart K Roberts, David Pilcher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have described the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis receiving intensive care unit (ICU) admission at a population level. We aimed to describe trends in the mortality of such patients in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), and to investigate the relationship with associated organ failures. METHODS: We studied patients admitted to 172 ICUs on a non-elective basis, with and without cirrhosis between January 1(st) 2000 and December 31(st) 2015 as recorded by the ANZ Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796827/impact-of-ghrelin-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-a-long-term-rodent-model-of-critical-illness
#3
Neil E Hill, Kevin G Murphy, Saima Saeed, Rahul Phadke, Darren Chambers, Duncan R Wilson, Stephen J Brett, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795667/-predictive-value-of-sofa-qsofa-score-and-traditional-evaluation-index-on-sepsis-prognosis
#4
Ying Wang, Difen Wang, Jiangquan Fu, Ying Liu
OBJECTIVE: Assess the value of several biomarkers and disease severity scores for the prognostic assessment of sepsis. METHODS: The clinical data of adult patients, who met the diagnostic criteria for Sepsis-3 and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from January 2015 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into survival group and death group. The levels of serum lactate (Lac), lactate clearance rate of 24 hours later (24 h LCR), procalcitonin (PCT), quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score, SOFA score, simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation scoring system II (APACHE II) score were determined, and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were used to analyze the prognostic value of the indicators above...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795666/-value-of-serum-crispld2-levels-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-evaluation-of-sepsis-patients
#5
Lai Wang, Xiufen Yang, Shuli Zhang, Mengsha Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain-containing 2 (CRISPLD2) in diagnosis and prognosis in patients with sepsis. METHODS: Clinical data of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University from December 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the severity of sepsis, the patients were divided into three groups: sepsis patients, severe sepsis patients and septic shock patients, and 100 healthy persons were enrolled as control group...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795663/-evaluation-function-of-intermedin-on-prognosis-of-elderly-patients-with-sepsis
#6
Yi Zhang, Fengxue Zhu, Weihuan Du, Yongmei He, Li Guo, Zhihong Yan, Hong Ji
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predicting value of intermedin (IMD) for the prognosis of elderly sepsis patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Forty-one patients with sepsis, aged ≥65 years, and admitted to geriatrics intensive care unit of Aerospace Center Hospital from April 2015 to December 2016 were enrolled. Thirty healthy patients were studied as control during the same time. The expression of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and IMD were tested within 24 hours during hospitalization, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and prognosis was evaluated...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795662/-evaluation-value-of-the-levels-of-peripheral-blood-cd20-cd24-hi-cd38-hi-regulatory-b-cells-on-the-prognosis-of-elderly-patients-with-sepsis
#7
Chunmei Wang, Lunxian Tang, Huihui Xu, Xiaoming Zhang, Jianwen Bai
OBJECTIVE: To explore the predicting value of peripheral blood CD20(+) CD24(hi) CD38(hi) regulatory B cells (Bregs) on the prognosis of elderly patients with sepsis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Septic patients aged > 65 years old, compliance with diagnostic criteria for Sepsis-3, admitted to emergency and emergency intensive care unit (ICU) of Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University from April 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. Procalcitonin (PCT), C-reaction protein (CRP) and lactate (Lac) were routinely measured...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789934/targeting-calpains-a-novel-immunomodulatory-approach-for-microbial-infections
#8
REVIEW
Vijay Kumar, Ahmad Ali
Calpains are a family of Ca(2+) dependent cytosolic non-lysosomal proteases with well conserved cysteine-rich domains for enzymatic activity. Due to their functional dependency on Ca(2+) concentrations, they are involved in various cellular processes that are regulated by intracellular ca(2+) concentration (i.e. embryo development, cell development and migration, maintenance of cellular architecture and structure etc.). Calpains are widely studied proteases in mammalian (i.e. mouse and human) physiology and pathophysiology due to their ubiquitous presence...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781769/unraveling-neisseria-meningitidis-pathogenesis-from-functional-genomics-to-experimental-models
#9
REVIEW
Marco Soriani
Neisseria meningitidis is a harmless commensal bacterium finely adapted to humans. Unfortunately, under "privileged" conditions, it adopts a "devious" lifestyle leading to uncontrolled behavior characterized by the unleashing of molecular weapons causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute meningitis. Indeed, despite the lack of a classic repertoire of virulence genes in N. meningitidis separating commensal from invasive strains, molecular epidemiology and functional genomics studies suggest that carriage and invasive strains belong to genetically distinct populations characterized by an exclusive pathogenic potential...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763506/the-delta-neutrophil-index-is-a-prognostic-factor-for-postoperative-mortality-in-patients-with-sepsis-caused-by-peritonitis
#10
Jong Wan Kim, Jun Ho Park, Doo Jin Kim, Won Hyuk Choi, Jin Cheol Cheong, Jeong Yeon Kim
INTRODUCTION: The delta neutrophil index (DNI) represents the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes and is a marker of infection and sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of DNI for predicting in-hospital mortality within 30 days after surgery in patients with sepsis caused by peritonitis by means of comparing DNI, white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil percentage, and C-reactive protein (CRP) before and after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of demographic, clinical, and laboratory data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757821/advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-sepsis-hydrogen-sulfide-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-septic-shock-severity
#11
Miha Košir, Matej Podbregar
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a third known gasotransmitter. Most of the time it was knows as a poisonous gas. In last 30 years, we are seeing change in its perception. Scientists have discovered its major role in different organ systems. It is endogenously produced in various tissues and its production is influenced by many factors. In normal, physiological conditions only 20% of H2S is in its free form. The role of H2S is very wide. It acts as a signaling molecule, has influence on vascular tone, inflammatory response, scavenges reactive oxygen species, can be cytoprotective and can even reduce the extent of myocardial ischemia...
May 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753256/a-novel-moonlight-function-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-for-immunomodulation
#12
Toshiaki Nakano, Shigeru Goto, Yuki Takaoka, Hui-Peng Tseng, Takashi Fujimura, Seiji Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Ono, Chao-Long Chen
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an energy metabolism-related enzyme, which generates NADH in glycolysis. Our previous study revealed a novel role of exogenous GAPDH in the amelioration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-related, severe acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Here, we show the effect of extracellular GAPDH on the physiological functions of macrophages, which play an important role in the onset of sepsis and ALI. GAPDH has no effect on cell viability, while it strongly suppressed cell adhesion, spreading, and phagocytic function of LPS-stimulated macrophages...
July 28, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751369/wearable-technology-for-compensatory-reserve-to-sense-hypovolemia
#13
Victor A Convertino, Michael N Sawka
Traditional monitoring technologies fail to provide accurate or early indications of hypovolemia-mediated extremis because physiological systems (as measured by vital signs) effectively compensate until circulatory failure occurs. Hypovolemia is the most life-threatening physiological condition associated with circulatory shock in hemorrhage or sepsis, and it impairs one's ability to sustain physical exertion during heat stress. This review focuses on the physiology underlying the development of a novel non-invasive wearable technology that allows for real-time evaluation of the cardiovascular system's ability to compensate to hypovolemia, or its compensatory reserve, which provides an individualized estimate of impending circulatory collapse...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747734/reducing-animal-use-with-a-biotelemetry-enhanced-murine-model-of-sepsis
#14
Anthony Lewis, Brian Zuckerbraun, John Griepentrog, Xianghong Zhang, Matthew Rosengart
Animal models of sepsis exhibit considerable variability in the temporal development of the physiologic response, which reduces the power of studies, particularly if interventions are tested at arbitrary time points. We developed a biotelemetry-based model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) that standardizes the testing of time-sensitive therapies to specific criteria of physiologic deterioration. In this study we seek to further define the variability in physiologic response to CLP sepsis and conduct a cost analysis detailing the potential for reducing animal usage...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743338/-clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-high-plasma-level-of-procalcitonin-an-analysis-in-188-patients
#15
Chuli Pan, Wei Cui, Feifei Zhou, Junwei Tu, Xiuhui Lin, Libin Li, Gensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with high level of plasma procalcitonin (PCT > 100 μg/L), and to improve the clinician's understanding, diagnosis and treatment of this kind of patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of patients with plasma PCT over 100 μg/L within 48 hours of admission admitted to Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from February 2013 to December 2016 were collected, and the clinical characteristics were analyzed...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738837/assessment-of-cerebral-circulation-in-a-porcine-model-of-intravenously-given-e-coli-induced-fulminant-sepsis
#16
Levente Molnár, Norbert Németh, Mariann Berhés, Endre Hajdú, Lóránd Papp, Ábel Molnár, Judit Szabó, Ádám Deák, Béla Fülesdi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to assess cerebral hemodynamic changes in a porcine model of E.coli induced fulminant sepsis. METHODS: Nineteen healthy female Hungahib pigs, 10-12 weeks old, randomly assigned into two groups: Control (n = 9) or Septic Group (n = 10). In the Sepsis group Escherichia coli culture suspended in physiological saline was intravenously administrated in a continuously increasing manner according to the following protocol: 2 ml of bacterial culture suspended in physiological saline was injected in the first 30 min, then 4 ml of bacterial culture was administered within 30 min, followed by infusion of 32 ml bacterial culture for 2 h...
July 24, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729329/fluids-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock-fissh-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Bram Rochwerg, Tina Millen, Peggy Austin, Michelle Zeller, Frédérick D'Aragon, Roman Jaeschke, Marie-Hélène Masse, Sangeeta Mehta, Francois Lamontagne, Maureen Meade, Gordon Guyatt, Deborah J Cook
INTRODUCTION: Observational evidence suggests physiological benefits and lower mortality with lower chloride solutions; however, 0.9% saline remains the most widely used fluid worldwide. Given uncertainty regarding the association of lower chloride on mortality, it is unlikely that practice will change without direct randomised clinical trial (RCT) evidence. This pilot RCT will investigate the feasibility of a large-scale trial directly comparing low chloride with high chloride fluids in patients with septic shock...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#18
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718340/characterization-of-sepsis-and-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#19
Qing Feng, Yu-Hang Ai, Hua Gong, Long Wu, Mei-Lin Ai, Song-Yun Deng, Li Huang, Qian-Yi Peng, Li-Na Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) are common intensive care unit (ICU) diseases; the morbidity and mortality are high. The present study analyzed the sensitivity of different diagnostic criteria of sepsis 1.0 and 3.0, epidemiological characteristics of sepsis and SAE, and explored its risk factors for death, short-term, and long-term prognosis. METHODS: The retrospective study included patients in ICU from January 2015 to June 2016. After excluding 58 patients, 175 were assigned to either an SAE or a non-SAE group (patients with sepsis but no encephalopathy)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714387/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-a-favorable-marker-in-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Johannes Hertelendy, Georg Reumuth, David Simons, Christian Stoppe, Bong-Sung Kim, Jan-Philipp Stromps, Paul C Fuchs, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua, Gerrit Grieb
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was firstly described in the 1960s as a pleiotropic cytokine affecting a variety of immune cells. Different physiological functions mainly involving inflammatory reactions such as chemokine-like function and regulating systemic stress responses have been reported. In several clinical studies the use of MIF as a biomarker has been investigated promising support for diseases with an inflammatory aspect such as sepsis, systemic infections and autoimmune diseases. This article in detail reviews clinical data and evaluates the function as biomarker focusing on inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
July 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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