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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920893/antibody-drug-conjugates-and-other-nanomedicines-the-frontier-of-gynaecological-cancer-treatment
#1
REVIEW
David Howard, Jetzabel Garcia-Parra, Gareth D Healey, Cynthia Amakiri, Lavinia Margarit, Lewis W Francis, Deyarina Gonzalez, R Steven Conlan
Gynaecological cancers: malignancies of the cervix, uterus, ovaries, vagina and vulva, are responsible for over 1.1 million new cancer cases and almost half a million deaths annually. Ovarian cancer in particular is difficult to treat due to often being diagnosed at a late stage, and the incidence of uterine and vulvar malignancies are both on the rise. The field of nanomedicine is beginning to introduce drugs into the clinic for oncological applications exemplified by the liposomal drugs, Doxil and Myocet, the nanoparticle, Abraxane and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), Kadcyla and Adcetris...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914987/tetrabromobisphenol-a-activates-the-hepatic-interferon-pathway-in-rats
#2
J K Dunnick, D L Morgan, S A Elmore, K Gerrish, A Pandiri, T V Ton, K R Shockley, B A Merrick
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used flame retardant in printed circuit boards, paper, and textiles. In a two-year study, TBBPA showed evidence of uterine tumors in female Wistar-Han rats and liver and colon tumors in B6C3F1 mice. In order to gain further insight into early gene and pathway changes leading to cancer, we exposed female Wistar Han rats to TBBPA at 0, 25, 250, or 1000mg/kg (oral gavage in corn oil, 5X/week) for 13 weeks. Because at the end of the TBBPA exposure period, there were no treatment-related effects on body weights, liver or uterus lesions, and liver and uterine organ weights were within 10% of controls, only the high dose animals were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911233/elevated-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-worse-survival-after-resection-in-patients-with-brain-metastasis
#3
Koichi Mitsuya, Yoko Nakasu, Takeshi Kurakane, Nakamasa Hayashi, Hideyuki Harada, Kazuhiko Nozaki
OBJECTIVE The median postoperative survival duration of patients with brain metastases who undergo tumor resection is 12 months. Most of these patients die of systemic metastases or the progression of primary cancer but not brain metastases. The criteria for indicating resection are still controversial. Systemic assessment is restricted, especially in patients who need emergent management for their large-size or life-threatening brain metastases. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is reported to correlate with survival time or progression-free survival in patients with various cancers...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910070/mig-6-mouse-model-of-endometrial-cancer
#4
Tae Hoon Kim, Jung-Yoon Yoo, Jae-Wook Jeong
Endometrial cancer is a frequently occurring gynecological disorder. Estrogen-dependent endometrioid carcinoma is the most common type of gynecological cancer. One of the major pathologic phenomena of endometrial cancer is the loss of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) control over uterine epithelial cell proliferation. P4 antagonizes the growth-promoting properties of E2 in the uterus. P4 prevents the development of endometrial cancer associated with unopposed E2 by blocking E2 actions. Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6, Errfi1, RALT, or gene 33) is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens and common chronic stress stimuli...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910065/pathology-of-endometrial-carcinoma
#5
Sigurd F Lax
On a clinicopathological and molecular level, two distinctive types of endometrial carcinoma, type I and type II, can be distinguished. Endometrioid carcinoma, the typical type I carcinoma, seems to develop through an estrogen-driven "adenoma carcinoma" pathway from atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AEH/EIN). It is associated with elevated serum estrogen and high body mass index and expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors. They are mostly low grade and show a favorable prognosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886135/soy-and-health-update-evaluation-of-the-clinical-and-epidemiologic-literature
#6
REVIEW
Mark Messina
Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones...
November 24, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881134/low-dose-radiation-risks-for-women-surviving-the-a-bombs-in-japan-generalized-additive-model
#7
Greg Dropkin
BACKGROUND: Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. METHODS: GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877077/amelioration-of-estrogen-deficiency-induced-obesity-by-collagen-hydrolysate
#8
Tsay-I Chiang, I-Chang Chang, Hsueh-Hui Lee, Kuang Hui Hsieh, Yung-Wei Chiu, Te-Jen Lai, Jer-Yuh Liu, Li-Sung Hsu, Shao-Hsuan Kao
Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868098/neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-ureter-a-zebra-among-horses
#9
Akshay Sood, Sean R Williamson, David A Leavitt
Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the upper urinary tract are extremely rare. We report a case of de novo small cell carcinoma of the ureter that presented masquerading as a distal ureteral stone. A 55-year-old lady presented to our clinic with 1 month history of right lower back pain and hematuria. Her history was notable for stage 1B mixed clear cell-endometroid cancer of the uterus status post radical abdominal hysterectomy with adjuvant radiotherapy, 7 years before the current episode. The patient had no evidence of recurrence...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867048/feasibiility-and-learning-curve-of-robotic-laparo-endoscopic-single-site-surgery-in-gynecology
#10
Alexandre Buckley de Meritens, Julia Kim, Helen Dinkelspiel, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Thomas Caputo, Kevin Holcomb
Single-site laparoscopy has proven to be a desirable option for patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with some studies indicating improved cosmesis and less perioperative pain compared to standard approaches. This study describes the safety and feasibility of a novel robotic laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) platform as it is incorporated into a surgeon's practice with extensive multiport robotic surgical experience but limited laparo-endoscopic single-site experience. We reviewed 83 women undergoing R-LESS by a single surgeon from September 2013 through August 2015...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863962/understanding-the-impact-of-pelvic-organ-motion-on-dose-delivered-to-target-volumes-during-imrt-for-cervical-cancer
#11
Gemma Eminowicz, Vasilis Rompokos, Christopher Stacey, Lisa Hall, Mary McCormack
BACKGROUND: Advanced radiotherapy techniques reduce normal tissue dose by conforming closely to target volumes. In cervical cancer radiotherapy, organ filling affects clinical target volume (CTV; cervix, uterus) position. This study estimates the dosimetric effect of this primary CTV position variation during chemoradiation. METHODS/MATERIALS: Twice weekly cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of ten patients undergoing cervical chemoradiation were retrospectively analysed...
November 16, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861859/cardiac-glycosides-and-breast-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Reema A Karasneh, Liam J Murray, Chris R Cardwell
Cardiac glycosides are phytoestrogens and have been linked to the risk of estrogen sensitive cancers such as uterus cancer. However, the association between use of cardiac glycosides and risk of breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated the association between cardiac glycosides use and the risk of breast cancer by systematically reviewing the published literature and performing meta-analyses. A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and SCOPUS to identify all relevant articles published up to November 2015...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852037/placental-immune-editing-switch-pies-learning-about-immunomodulatory-pathways-from-a-unique-case-report
#13
Miguel H Bronchud, Francesc Tresserra, Wenjie Xu, Sarah Warren, Maite Cusido, Bernat Zantop, Ana Claudia Zenclussen, Alessandra Cesano
The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural "placental immune-editing switch" mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847869/dysfunctional-mnsod-leads-to-redox-dysregulation-and-activation-of-prosurvival-akt-signaling-in-uterine-leiomyomas
#14
Vania Vidimar, David Gius, Debabrata Chakravarti, Serdar E Bulun, Jian-Jun Wei, J Julie Kim
AKT signaling promotes cell growth and survival and is often dysregulated via multiple mechanisms in different types of cancer, including uterine leiomyomas (ULMs). ULMs are highly prevalent fibrotic tumors that arise from the smooth muscular layer of the uterus, the myometrium (MM). ULMs pose a major public health issue because they can cause severe morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes. ‬We investigate the mechanisms driving ULM growth and survival via aberrant activation of AKT. We demonstrate that an acetylation-mediated impairment of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity is prevalent in ULM cells compared to the normal-matched MM from the same patients...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834005/figo-stage-iiic-endometrial-cancer-identification-among-patients-with-complex-atypical-hyperplasia-grade-1-and-2-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer-laparoscopic-indocyanine-green-sentinel-lymph-node-mapping-versus-frozen-section-of-the-uterus-why-get-around-the
#15
Andrea Papadia, Maria Luisa Gasparri, Franziska Siegenthaler, Sara Imboden, Stefan Mohr, Michael D Mueller
PURPOSE: To compare two surgical strategies used to identify lymph node metastases in patients with preoperative diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), grade 1 and 2 endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS: Data on patients with preoperative diagnosis of CAH, grade 1 and 2 EC undergoing laparoscopic indocyanine green (ICG) sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping followed by frozen section of the uterus were collected. When risk factors were identified at frozen section, patients were subjected to a systematic lymphadenectomy...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822089/danish-gynecological-cancer-database
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Mejer Sørensen, Signe Frahm Bjørn, Kirsten Marie Jochumsen, Pernille Tine Jensen, Ingrid Regitze Thranov, Helle Hare-Bruun, Lene Seibæk, Claus Høgdall
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819855/18f-fdg-imaging-of-chronic-inflammation-associated-with-promontofixation-of-the-uterus
#17
Marie Meyer, Philippe Fernandez, Paolo Zanotti-Fregonara
A high F-FDG uptake was found in a mesh of promontofixation in a 74-year-old woman who underwent a PET/CT scan for initial staging of cervical cancer. The patient underwent a laparoscopic treatment for a prolapsed uterus 7 years before. Promontofixation can be associated with complications due to chronic inflammation. F-FDG-PET may diagnose chronic inflammation of the mesh.
January 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801734/pd-l1-expression-in-carcinosarcomas-of-the-gynecologic-tract-a-potentially-actionable-biomarker
#18
Andre Pinto, Nicholas Mackrides, Mehrdad Nadji
BACKGROUND: Carcinosarcomas of the gynecologic tract, also known as malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, are aggressive neoplasms with a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Despite advances in adjuvant therapies in recent years, the prognosis of these tumors has not improved. In fact, there are currently no consensus guidelines for the treatment of these neoplasms and the search for targetable biomarkers has not been successful so far. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential target for therapeutics in a number of malignant tumors, including melanoma, lung, and colorectal cancer...
October 31, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791010/mutational-landscape-of-uterine-and-ovarian-carcinosarcomas-implicates-histone-genes-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Siming Zhao, Stefania Bellone, Salvatore Lopez, Durga Thakral, Carlton Schwab, Diana P English, Jonathan Black, Emiliano Cocco, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Federica Predolini, Elena Bonazzoli, Mark Bi, Natalia Buza, Pei Hui, Serena Wong, Maysa Abu-Khalaf, Antonella Ravaggi, Eliana Bignotti, Elisabetta Bandiera, Chiara Romani, Paola Todeschini, Renata Tassi, Laura Zanotti, Franco Odicino, Sergio Pecorelli, Carla Donzelli, Laura Ardighieri, Fabio Facchetti, Marcella Falchetti, Dan-Arin Silasi, Elena Ratner, Masoud Azodi, Peter E Schwartz, Shrikant Mane, Roberto Angioli, Corrado Terranova, Charles Matthew Quick, Babak Edraki, Kaya Bilgüvar, Moses Lee, Murim Choi, Amy L Stiegler, Titus J Boggon, Joseph Schlessinger, Richard P Lifton, Alessandro D Santin
Carcinosarcomas (CSs) of the uterus and ovary are highly aggressive neoplasms containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. We analyzed the mutational landscape of 68 uterine and ovarian CSs by whole-exome sequencing. We also performed multiregion whole-exome sequencing comprising two carcinoma and sarcoma samples from six tumors to resolve their evolutionary histories. The results demonstrated that carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements derive from a common precursor having mutations typical of carcinomas...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788953/prospective-validation-of-a-high-dimensional-shape-model-for-organ-motion-in-intact-cervical-cancer
#20
Casey W Williamson, Garrett Green, Sonal S Noticewala, Nan Li, Hanjie Shen, Florin Vaida, Loren K Mell
PURPOSE: Validated models are needed to justify strategies to define planning target volumes (PTVs) for intact cervical cancer used in clinical practice. Our objective was to independently validate a previously published shape model, using data collected prospectively from clinical trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 42 patients with intact cervical cancer treated with daily fractionated pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy in one of 2 prospective clinical trials...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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