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Autism and vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968449/measles-vaccine-in-the-school-settings-a-cross-sectional-study-about-knowledge-personal-beliefs-attitudes-and-practices-of-school-teachers-in-northern-italy
#1
Matteo Riccó, Luigi Vezzosi, Giovanni Gualerzi, Federica Balzarini, Angelo G Mezzoiuso, Anna Odone, Carlo Signorelli
BACKGROUND: School teachers (STs) might have a crucial role in countering students' and parents' hesitancy towards immunization. Such role is associated with STs own knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards vaccines. In this cross-sectional study we assess Measles vaccine KAP in a sample of Italian STs. METHODS: Between 01/2012 and 08/2015, 376 STs from the Lombardy region were enrolled in the study; data were retrieved on socio-demographic characteristics, KAP towards MeV, including immunization status...
July 2, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29966822/knowing-less-but-presuming-more-dunning-kruger-effects-and-the-endorsement-of-anti-vaccine-policy-attitudes
#2
Matthew Motta, Timothy Callaghan, Steven Sylvester
OBJECTIVE: Although the benefits of vaccines are widely recognized by medical experts, public opinion about vaccination policies is mixed. We analyze public opinion about vaccination policies to assess whether Dunning-Kruger effects can help to explain anti-vaccination policy attitudes. RATIONALE: People low in autism awareness - that is, the knowledge of basic facts and dismissal of misinformation about autism - should be the most likely to think that they are better informed than medical experts about the causes of autism (a Dunning-Kruger effect)...
June 25, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949630/choosing-the-perfect-shot-the-loaded-narrative-of-imagery-in-online-news-coverage-of-vaccines
#3
Andrew G Wu, Ashish S Shah, Tara S Haelle, Scott A Lunos, Michael B Pitt
Images in health communication have been shown to affect perspectives and attitudes towards health issues including vaccination. We seek to quantify the frequency of images used in online news coverage of vaccines that may convey varying sentiments about vaccination. To capture a breadth of vaccine-related news coverage, including international sources, we searched the following terms in Google News Archives: "autism and vaccine", "flu and vaccine", and "measles and Disneyland"...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922286/fake-news-or-weak-science-visibility-and-characterization-of-antivaccine-webpages-returned-by-google-in-different-languages-and-countries
#4
Nadia Arif, Majed Al-Jefri, Isabella Harb Bizzi, Gianni Boitano Perano, Michel Goldman, Inam Haq, Kee Leng Chua, Manuela Mengozzi, Marie Neunez, Helen Smith, Pietro Ghezzi
The 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield et al., despite subsequent retraction and evidence indicating no causal link between vaccinations and autism, triggered significant parental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the online information available on this topic. Using localized versions of Google, we searched "autism vaccine" in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Mandarin, and Arabic and analyzed 200 websites for each search engine result page (SERP). A common feature was the newsworthiness of the topic, with news outlets representing 25-50% of the SERP, followed by unaffiliated websites (blogs, social media) that represented 27-41% and included most of the vaccine-negative websites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917057/a-bayesian-space-time-model-for-clustering-areal-units-based-on-their-disease-trends
#5
Gary Napier, Duncan Lee, Chris Robertson, Andrew Lawson
Population-level disease risk across a set of non-overlapping areal units varies in space and time, and a large research literature has developed methodology for identifying clusters of areal units exhibiting elevated risks. However, almost no research has extended the clustering paradigm to identify groups of areal units exhibiting similar temporal disease trends. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical mixture model for achieving this goal, with inference based on a Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo ((MC)$^3$) algorithm...
June 18, 2018: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904533/using-the-tools-of-informal-science-education-to-connect-science-and-the-public
#6
April Killikelly
Traditional modes of communication within the scientific community, including presentation of data at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications, use technical jargon that limits public engagement. While altering word choice is an important method for increasing public engagement, the data itself may not be enough. For example, communicating the lack of evidence that vaccines cause autism did not convince many reluctant parents to vaccinate their kids (Nyhan, Reifler, Richey, Freed, Pediatrics 133:e835-e842, 2014)...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869894/health-information-sources-perceived-vaccination-benefits-and-maintenance-of-childhood-vaccination-schedules
#7
Juwon Hwang, Dhavan V Shah
Parental concerns over the safety or necessity of childhood vaccination have increased over the past decades. At the same time, there has been a proliferation of vaccine-related information available through a range of health information sources. This study investigates the associations between evaluations of health information sources, parental perceptions of childhood vaccination benefits, and the maintenance of vaccination schedules for their children. Specifically, this study aims to (a) incorporate social media into the battery of health information sources and (b) differentiate households with a childhood autism diagnosis and those without, given unsubstantiated but persistent concerns about vaccine safety and autism...
June 5, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#8
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Buonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#9
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728479/vaccinations-and-the-link-to-canine-autism
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721353/immunoexcitotoxicity-as-the-central-mechanism-of-etiopathology-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-possible-role-of-fluoride-and-aluminum
#11
REVIEW
Anna Strunecka, Russell L Blaylock, Jiri Patocka, Otakar Strunecky
Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged period. Neuroscience studies have clearly shown that sequential systemic immune stimulation can activate the brain's immune system, microglia, and astrocytes, and that with initial immune stimulation, there occurs CNS microglial priming...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717799/information-education-and-health-behaviors-evidence-from-the-mmr-vaccine-autism-controversy
#12
Lenisa V Chang
In the wake of strong, although later refuted, claims of a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, I examine whether fewer parents immunized or delayed vaccinations for their children and if there was a differential response by mother's education level. Using various controls and a differencing strategy that compares in MMR take-up with other vaccines, I find that the MMR-autism controversy led to a decline in the immediate years and that there were negative spillovers onto other vaccines...
July 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713443/prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-features-of-autism-a-prospective-population-study
#13
Jean Golding, Dheeraj Rai, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline Taylor
Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668817/adverse-events-of-vaccines-and-the-consequences-of-non-vaccination-a-critical-review
#14
REVIEW
Luana Raposo de Melo Moraes Aps, Marco Aurélio Floriano Piantola, Sara Araujo Pereira, Julia Tavares de Castro, Fernanda Ayane de Oliveira Santos, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risks related to vaccines and the impacts of non-vaccination on the world population. METHODS: This is a narrative review that has considered information present in the bibliographic databases NCBI-PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), between November 2015 and November 2016. For the analysis of outbreaks caused by non-vaccination, we considered the work published between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: We have described the main components of the vaccines offered by the Brazilian public health system and the adverse events associated with these elements...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582071/vaccination-patterns-in-children-after-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-and-in-their-younger-siblings
#15
Ousseny Zerbo, Sharareh Modaressi, Kristin Goddard, Edwin Lewis, Bruce H Fireman, Matthew F Daley, Stephanie A Irving, Lisa A Jackson, James G Donahue, Lei Qian, Darios Getahun, Frank DeStefano, Michael M McNeil, Nicola P Klein
Importance: In recent years, rates of vaccination have been declining. Whether this phenomenon disproportionately affects children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or their younger siblings is unknown. Objectives: To investigate if children after receiving an ASD diagnosis obtain their remaining scheduled vaccines according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and to compare the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children with ASD with the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children without ASD...
May 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573974/the-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-following-thimerosal-containing-hib-vaccine-in-comparison-to-thimerosal-free-hib-vaccine-administered-from-1995-to-1999-in-the-united-states
#16
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
Investigators postulated that early-life exposure to organic mercury (Hg) significantly increases the risk of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System database was utilized to conduct a hypothesis testing case-control study by evaluating 3486 total adverse event reports reported following Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccination. Exposed subjects received a Thimerosal-containing formulation (HIBTITER™, Wyeth-Lederle), while unexposed subjects received a Thimerosal-free formulation (PEDVAXHIB™, Merck)...
May 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554290/intentions-to-use-a-novel-zika-vaccine-the-effects-of-misbeliefs-about-the-mmr-vaccine-and-perceptions-about-zika
#17
Yotam Ophir, Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Background: People's intentions to use vaccines are influenced by their beliefs about both the specific vaccine and the disease it prevents. In the absence of firm beliefs about Zika virus (ZIKV), individuals may base their intentions to vaccinate against it on beliefs about other vaccines, and specifically the misbelief that MMR causes autism. Methods: A survey of 3337 Americans, using a random-digit-dialing sample of landline telephone households and cell-phones...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553872/misinformation-on-vaccination-a-quantitative-analysis-of-youtube-videos
#18
Gabriele Donzelli, Giacomo Palomba, Ileana Federigi, Francesco Aquino, Lorenzo Cioni, Marco Verani, Annalaura Carducci, Pierluigi Lopalco
In Italy, the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy has increased with time and represents a complex problem that requires a continuous monitoring. Misinformation on media and social media seems to be one of the determinants of the vaccine hesitancy since, for instance, 42.8 percent of Italian citizens used the internet to obtain vaccine information in 2016. This article reports a quantitative analysis of 560 YouTube videos related to the link between vaccines and autism or other serious side effects on children...
March 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521536/autism-narratives-in-media-coverage-of-the-mmr-vaccine-autism-controversy-under-a-crip-futurism-framework
#19
Benjamin W Mann
While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516447/an-agenda-for-21st-century-neurodevelopmental-medicine-lessons-from-autism
#20
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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