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Autism and vaccines

Yotam Ophir, Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Background: People's intentions to use vaccines are influenced by their beliefs about both the specific vaccine and the disease it prevents. In the absence of firm beliefs about Zika virus (ZIKV), individuals may base their intentions to vaccinate against it on beliefs about other vaccines, and specifically the misbelief that MMR causes autism. Methods: A survey of 3337 Americans, using a random-digit-dialing sample of landline telephone households and cell-phones...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Gabriele Donzelli, Giacomo Palomba, Ileana Federigi, Francesco Aquino, Lorenzo Cioni, Marco Verani, Annalaura Carducci, Pierluigi Lopalco
In Italy, the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy has increased with time and represents a complex problem that requires a continuous monitoring. Misinformation on media and social media seems to be one of the determinants of the vaccine hesitancy since, for instance, 42.8 percent of Italian citizens used the internet to obtain vaccine information in 2016. This article reports a quantitative analysis of 560 YouTube videos related to the link between vaccines and autism or other serious side effects on children...
March 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Benjamin W Mann
While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U...
March 9, 2018: Health Communication
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Emmanuel D Jadhav, Danielle L Winkler, Billie S Anderson
Introduction: The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Methods: Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad Nasehi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 μg Hg/kg) in four i...
February 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jillian H Filliter, Linda Dodds, Noni MacDonald, Sarah Shea, Eve Dubé, Isabel M Smith, Leslie Anne Campbell
Over the past two decades, the words 'autism' and 'vaccination' have often been linked and mired in controversy. In this commentary, we raise a different question about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and vaccines: Are school-aged youth with ASD undervaccinated and, if so, why? There are several reasons why youth with ASD might be undervaccinated, including: belief in a vaccine-ASD link, challenges faced by youth with ASD when seeking health care and vaccine hesitancy factors that affect the general population...
August 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
February 15, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Michael Davidson
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians...
December 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Mersine A Bryan, Hailey Gunningham, Megan A Moreno
BACKGROUND: Parents often use social media such as blogs to inform decisions about vaccinations, however little is known about pediatrician blogs addressing vaccines. The objective of this study was to assess content, citations, audience engagement and accuracy of vaccine information on pediatrician blogs. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a content analysis of vaccine information on pediatrician blogs. A national sample of pediatrician blogs was identified using a search rubric of terms applied to multiple search engines...
January 2, 2018: Vaccine
Sneha K S Sheth, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
BACKGROUND: Our group has shown that significant correlations exist between rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and total aluminum adjuvants given to children through vaccines in several Western countries. These correlations satisfied eight out of nine Hill criteria for causality. Experimental studies have demonstrated a range of behavioural abnormalities in young mice after postnatal exposure to aluminium. To build on our previous work, the current study will investigate the effect of aluminium adjuvants on social behaviour in mice...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Keith Schofield
Many published studies have illustrated that several of the present day neurological epidemics (autism, attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer's) cannot be correlated to any single neurotoxicant. However, the present scientific examination of the numerous global blood monitoring databases for adults that include the concentrations of the neurotoxic elements, aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) clearly indicate that, when considered in combination, for some, the human body may become easily over-burdened...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jessica C Costa-Pinto, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask, Monsurul Hoq, Tibor Schuster, Alice Ghazarian, Jacinta O'Keefe, Margie H Danchin
AIM: Despite Australia's high vaccination rates, an estimated 3.3% of children are under-vaccinated due to vaccine refusal and the proportion of parents with concerns is unclear. Amongst Australian parents, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vaccine concerns, resources and health-care providers (HCPs) accessed and satisfaction with these resources in two different settings. We also aimed to identify relationships between the level of vaccine concern, socio-economic status and vaccine uptake...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Valentina Chiesa, Anna Odone, Carlo Signorelli
Forensic epidemiology (FE) implies the use of epidemiological data in the processes and the involvement of epidemiologists in judicial proceedings. FE is essential for the assessment of causal association between the exposure to specific agents and the occurrence of diseases. In this paper we describe FE principles and applications in the Italian context as in recent years FE emerged increasingly as well as the need of experienced and trained epidemiological experts able to navigate legal proceedings. In the literature, the principles of FE have been widely described by different authors, among them: Kennet Rothman who introduced the definition of cause, Sir Austin Bradford Hill who proposed an analytic framework to assess the causal association, and recently by Sana Loue who described the actual legislation and application of FE in the United States...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Jason L Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
S Mo Jang, Brooke W Mckeever, Robert Mckeever, Joon Kyoung Kim
Despite increasing warnings about inaccurate information online, little is known about how social media contribute to the widespread diffusion of unverified health information. This study addresses this issue by examining the vaccine-autism controversy. By looking into a large dataset of Twitter, Reddit posts, and online news over 20 months in the US, Canada, and the UK, our time-series analysis shows that Twitter drives news agendas, and Reddit follows news agendas regarding the vaccine-autism debate. Additionally, the results show that both Twitter and Reddit are more likely to discuss the vaccine-autism link compared to online news content...
October 13, 2017: Health Communication
Theodore S Tomeny, Christopher J Vargo, Sherine El-Toukhy
This study examines temporal trends, geographic distribution, and demographic correlates of anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-2015. A total of 549,972 tweets were downloaded and coded for the presence of anti-vaccine beliefs through a machine learning algorithm. Tweets with self-disclosed geographic information were resolved and United States Census data were collected for corresponding areas at the micropolitan/metropolitan level. Trends in number of anti-vaccine tweets were examined at the national and state levels over time...
October 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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