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Autism and vaccines

Mario Suwalsky, Pablo Zambrano, María José Gallardo, Fernando Villena, Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska, Kazimierz Strzalka
Thimerosal (THI, ethyl-mercury thiosalicylate) is added to vaccines as a preservative; as a consequence, infants may have been exposed to bolus doses of Hg that collectively added up to nominally 200 µg Hg during the first 6 months of life. While several studies report an association between THI-containing vaccines and neurological disorders, other studies do not support the causal relation between THI and autism. With the purpose to understand the molecular mechanisms of the toxic effect of THI it was assayed on human red cells and in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), classes of phospholipids found in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
Johan Christiaan Bester
Importance: Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. Objective: To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Gary Napier, Duncan Lee, Chris Robertson, Andrew Lawson, Kevin G Pollock
An article published in 1998 by Andrew Wakefield in The Lancet (volume 351, pages 637-641) led to concerns surrounding the safety of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, by associating it with an increased risk of autism. The paper was later retracted after multiple epidemiological studies failed to find any association, but a substantial decrease in UK vaccination rates was observed in the years following publication. This paper proposes a novel spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model with accompanying software (the R package CARBayesST) to simultaneously address three key epidemiological questions about vaccination rates: (i) what impact did the controversy have on the overall temporal trend in vaccination rates in Scotland; (ii) did the magnitude of the spatial inequality in measles susceptibility in Scotland increase due to the measles, mumps and rubella vaccination scare; and (iii) are there any covariate effects, such as deprivation, that impacted on measles susceptibility in Scotland...
August 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Efthimios Parasidis
Vaccine-hesitant parents are often portrayed as misinformed dilettantes clinging to unscientific Internet chatter and a debunked study that linked vaccines and autism. While this depiction may be an accurate portrayal of a small (but vocal) subset, scholars have unearthed a more complex picture that casts vaccine hesitancy in the context of broader notions of lack of trust in government and industry. At the same time, commentators have highlighted limitations of the vaccine injury compensation program and US Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg have argued that preemption laws that provide vaccine manufacturers with broad legal immunities create "a regulatory vacuum in which no one ensures that vaccine manufacturers adequately take account of scientific and technological advancements when designing or distributing their products...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Roi Piñeiro Pérez, Diego Hernández Martín, Miguel Ángel Carro Rodríguez, María de la Parte Cancho, Esther Casado Verrier, Sonsoles Galán Arévalo, Iván Carabaño Aguado
INTRODUCTION: There are recommendations for decision-making as regards parents who do not vaccinate their children, but there are few publications analysing this problem. In November 2014, a pioneer medical clinic opened in Spain, for counselling on immunisation practices. The aim of this study is to determine the success of the recommendations of the American and Spanish Paediatrics Associations according to the number of parents who finally accept vaccination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective and single-centre study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2016...
July 16, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Christopher A Bail
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exchanges of emotional language between health advocacy organizations and social media users predict the spread of posts about autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHODS: I created a Facebook application that tracked views of ASD advocacy organizations' posts between July 19, 2011, and December 18, 2012. I evaluated the association between exchanges of emotional language and viral views of posts, controlling for additional characteristics of posts, the organizations that produced them, the social media users who viewed them, and the broader social environment...
July 2016: American Journal of Public Health
A J Liu, Y H Zhang, X J Xu, X L Yang, Z X Yang, Y Wu, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genotype and phenotype of female Dravet syndrome (DS) patients with PCDH19 mutations. METHOD: Clinical data of all DS patients seen at Pediatric Department of Peking University First Hospital from February 2005 to May 2015 were prospectively collected. Genomic DNAs were extracted from the patients and their family members. Female DS patients without SCN1A mutation were enrolled. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify PCDH19 mutations...
May 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Michel R Odent
We hypothesise that neonatal BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) might be used to adapt to a new phase in the history of human births. Among most mammals, the placenta is not effective at transferring antibodies to the fetus: antibodies are transferred immediately after birth via the colostrum. Among humans (and other mammals with hemochorial placentas) the transplacental transfer of antibodies (namely IgG) is effective. In humans, foetal concentrations of IgG sub-classes approximate to maternal concentrations at 38weeks and continue to increase thereafter...
June 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Puja H Nambiar, Alejandro Delgado Daza, Lawrence L Livornese
The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julia Pletz, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Henk A Tennekes
A latency period preceding neurotoxicity is a common characteristic in the dose-response relationship induced by organic mercury. Latency periods have typically been observed with genotoxicants in carcinogenesis, with cancer being manifested a long time after the initiating event. These observations indicate that even a very small dose may cause extensive adverse effects later in life, so the toxicity of the genotoxic compound is dose and time-dependent. In children, methylmercury exposure during pregnancy (in utero) has been associated with delays in reaching developmental milestones (e...
March 10, 2016: Toxicology
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Iliana Christaki, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Koutsaki, Dimitra M Portaliou, Georgia Kostagianni, Paraskevi Panagopoulou, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents...
January 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jill Hutton
In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robin P Goin-Kochel, Sarah S Mire, Allison G Dempsey, Rachel H Fein, Danielle Guffey, Charles G Minard, Rachel M Cunningham, Leila C Sahni, Julie A Boom
A contentious theory espoused by some parents is that regressive-onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is triggered by vaccines. If this were true, then vaccine receipt should be higher in children with regressive-onset ASD compared with other patterns of onset. Parental report of rate of receipt for six vaccines (DPT/DTaP, HepB, Hib, polio, MMR, varicella) was examined in children with ASD (N=2755) who were categorized by pattern of ASD onset (early onset, plateau, delay-plus-regression, regression). All pairwise comparisons were significantly equivalent within a 10% margin for all vaccines except varicella, for which the delay-plus-regression group had lower rates of receipt (81%) than the early-onset (87%) and regression (87%) groups...
March 8, 2016: Vaccine
L A Sealey, B W Hughes, A N Sriskanda, J R Guest, A D Gibson, L Johnson-Williams, D G Pace, O Bagasra
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity...
March 2016: Environment International
William Mandy, Meng-Chuan Lai
BACKGROUND: Although autism spectrum condition (ASC) is strongly genetic in origin, accumulating evidence points to the critical roles of various environmental influences on its emergence and subsequent developmental course. METHODS: A developmental psychopathology framework was used to synthesise literature on environmental factors associated with the onset and course of ASC (based on a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases)...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Sander L van der Linden, Chris E Clarke, Edward W Maibach
BACKGROUND: A substantial minority of American adults continue to hold influential misperceptions about childhood vaccine safety. Growing public concern and refusal to vaccinate poses a serious public health risk. Evaluations of recent pro-vaccine health communication interventions have revealed mixed results (at best). This study investigated whether highlighting consensus among medical scientists about childhood vaccine safety can lower public concern, reduce key misperceptions about the discredited autism-vaccine link and promote overall support for vaccines...
2015: BMC Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lynn Bahta, Asli Ashkir
Over the past 10 years, Minnesota clinicians have noticed increased resistance to MMR vaccination among Somali Minnesotans. Misinformation about a discredited study asserting a link between the MMR vaccine and autism has permeated this community as parents have increasingly become concerned about the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among their children. As a result, MMR vaccination rates among U.S.-born children of Somali descent are declining. This article reports findings from an investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health, which was undertaken to better understand vaccine hesitancy among Somali Minnesotans...
October 2015: Minnesota Medicine
Janet R Cummings, Frances L Lynch, Kristal C Rust, Karen J Coleman, Jeanne M Madden, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Vincent M Yau, Yinge Qian, Kathryn A Pearson, Phillip M Crawford, Maria L Massolo, Virginia P Quinn, Lisa A Croen
Using data from multiple health systems (2009-2010) and the largest sample to date, this study compares health services use among youth with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-including preventive services not previously studied. To examine these differences, we estimated logistic and count data models, controlling for demographic characteristics, comorbid physical health, and mental health conditions. Results indicated that youth with an ASD had greater health care use in many categories, but were less likely to receive important preventive services including flu shots and other vaccinations...
March 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Paul S Carbone, Paul C Young, Gregory J Stoddard, Jacob Wilkes, Leonardo Trasande
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare inpatient health care utilization (total charges and length of stay) for the same conditions in children with and without ASD. METHODS: The 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database was used to examine hospitalizations for ACSC in children within 3 cohorts: those with ASD, those with chronic conditions (CC) without ASD, and those with no CC...
November 2015: Academic Pediatrics
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