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Olde adults

Seo Ah Hong, Karl Peltzer, Kyi Tun Lwin, La Seng Aung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight and overweight or obesity and their socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in a female adult population in Myanmar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a national cross-sectional population-based survey in the 2015-16 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey, 12,160 women aged 18-49 years and not currently pregnant completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was determined using Asian body mass index cut-offs: underweight (BMI<18...
2018: PloS One
Toby Hunt, Marie T Williams, Timothy S Olds, Dorothea Dumuid
Descriptions of time use patterns in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are scarce and the relationship between use-of-time and COPD severity remains unclear. This study aimed to describe a typical day for people with COPD and to explore the differences in time-use patterns across the Body Mass-Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea and Exercise Capacity (BODE) index using compositional analyses. Using a cross-sectional design, 141 adults with clinically stable COPD had their demographics, objective measures of function (pulmonary, exercise capacity and physical activity), and self-reported COPD-related impairment recorded...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marta Lonnie, Emma Hooker, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bernard M Corfe, Mark A Green, Anthony W Watson, Elizabeth A Williams, Emma J Stevenson, Simon Penson, Alexandra M Johnstone
With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Michael B Wayson, Wesley E Bolch
Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10-year-old, and adult...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Maroua Eid, Olivier Fouquet, Cédric Darreau, Marc Pierrot, Achille Kouatchet, Alain Mercat, Christophe Baufreton
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing fasciitis represents a life-threatening infectious condition that causes spreading necrotisis of superficial fascia and subcutaneous cellular tissues. We describe the case of a patient diagnosed with septic and toxic shocks leading to multiple organ failure successfully treated with a combination of extracorporeal life support, continuous renal replacement therapy, and a hemoadsorption device. METHODS: A 41-year-old patient presented with necrotizing fasciitis and multi-organ failure...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Christopher B Forrest, Lisa J Meltzer, Carole L Marcus, Anna de la Motte, Amy Kratchman, Daniel J Buysse, Paul A Pilkonis, Brandon D Becker, Katherine B Bevans
Study Objectives: To develop and evaluate the measurement properties of child-report and parent-proxy versions of the PROMIS ® Pediatric Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks. Methods: A national sample of 1,104 children (8-17 years-old) and 1,477 parents of children 5-17 years-old was recruited from an internet panel to evaluate the psychometric properties of 43 sleep health items. A convenience sample of children and parents recruited from a pediatric sleep clinic was obtained to provide evidence of the measures' validity; polysomnography data were collected from a subgroup of these children...
March 13, 2018: Sleep
Luis R Peraza, Ruth Cromarty, Xenia Kobeleva, Michael J Firbank, Alison Killen, Sara Graziadio, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) require differential management despite presenting with symptomatic overlap. Currently, there is a need of inexpensive DLB biomarkers which can be fulfilled by electroencephalography (EEG). In this regard, an established electrophysiological difference in DLB is a decrease of dominant frequency (DF)-the frequency with the highest signal power between 4 and 15 Hz. Here, we investigated network connectivity in EEG signals acquired from DLB patients, and whether these networks were able to differentiate DLB from healthy controls (HCs) and associated dementias...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Edward W Gregg, Ji Lin, Barbara Bardenheier, Haiying Chen, W Jack Rejeski, Xiaohui Zhuo, Andrea L Hergenroeder, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Anne L Peters, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Edward H Ip, Mark A Espeland
OBJECTIVE: The impact of weight loss intervention on disability-free life expectancy in adults with diabetes is unknown. We examined the impact of a long-term weight loss intervention on years spent with and without physical disability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes age 45-76 years ( n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to a 10-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE). Physical function was assessed annually for 12 years using the SF-36...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
Elise Chua, Valerie Udom, Dean Y Huang
We report the case of a 48-year-old man with a right fusiform internal jugular venous aneurysm, presenting as a unilateral painless neck swelling on coughing or laughing. This is a rare condition, more commonly seen in the paediatric population and can be diagnosed using non-invasive modalities such as Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT. This anomaly is frequently misdiagnosed or overlooked, and our case highlights the importance of considering venous aneurysm as a differential to prevent invasive imaging and inappropriate management...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Sanjay Tewari, George Renney, John Brewin, Kate Gardner, Fenella Kirkham, Baba Inusa, James E Barrett, Stephan Menzel, Swee Lay Thein, Malcolm Ward, David C Rees
Silent cerebral infarction is the commonest neurological abnormality in children with sickle cell anemia, affecting 30-40% 14 year olds. There are no known biomarkers to identify children with silent cerebral infarcts and the pathological basis is also unknown. We used an unbiased proteomic discovery approach to identify plasma proteins differing in concentration between children with and without silent cerebral infarcts. Clinical parameters and plasma samples were analysed from 51 children (mean age 11.8 years, range 6-18) with sickle cell anemia (HbSS)...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Arjun Paudyal, Mark Slevin, Huub Maas, Hans Degens
Denervation leads to significant muscle atrophy, but it is less clear whether 1) loss of capillaries, fibre size and oxidative capacity decline in parallel and 2) the time course of these changes differs between young and old animals. To investigate this, we denervated the left gastrocnemius muscle for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control, in rats that were 5- or 25 months old at the end of the experiment. In the fast part of the gastrocnemius muscle, almost all atrophy had occurred after two weeks (42%) of denervation...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Tyler P Robin, Timothy S Sannes, Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Francoise Mornex, Fred R Hirsch, Chad G Rusthoven, Laurie E Gaspar
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines have recommended prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer with at least a partial response after thoracic chemoradiation. However, the survival advantage has been small and was observed in an era before magnetic resonance imaging and surveillance. Neurotoxicity also remains a concern, especially in older adults. Thus, patients have a complex value-laden decision to make. We sought to better understand the role physicians play in patient decision making and introduce a patient decision aid (PDA) to potentially facilitate these discussions...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Mythily Subramaniam, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Edimansyah Abdin, Wei Yen Lim, Hwee Lin Wee, Siow Ann Chong, Rob Martinus van Dam
BACKGROUND: Measures of mental well-being and positive mental health (PMH) have been largely developed and used in Western populations, however, data on representative Asian communities are lacking. Using data from a population sample, this study sought to establish psychometric properties and norms of the PMH Instrument (PMH-I), a measure of positive mental health developed in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative survey among 1925 adults aged 18-79 years of Chinese, Malay, Indian or other ethnicity...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Alexander R Opotowsky, Jonathan Rhodes, Michael J Landzberg, Ami B Bhatt, Keri M Shafer, Doreen DeFaria Yeh, Scott E Crouter, Ana Ubeda Tikkanen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise capacity and quality of life while reducing mortality in adults with acquired heart disease. Cardiac rehabilitation has not been extensively studied in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial (NCT01822769) of a 12-week clinical CR program compared with standard of care (SOC). Participants were ≥16 years old, had moderate or severe CHD, had O2 saturation ≥92%, and had peak O2 consumption ([Formula: see text]) < 80% predicted...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Claudia Schadow, Hanna Schmidt, Alexander Schorcht, Frank Meyer
MEDICAL HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS:  A 43-year old male patient was admitted because of diffuse abdominal discomfort for two days, which had started in the upper abdomen; medical history, no previous surgical interventions at the abdomen. INVESTIGATIONS:  Gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound revealed only a mild gastritis. Laboratory parameters: showed only a slight leucocytosis (10 610/µL). On the 1st day of the hospital stay, the patient developed a worsening of the abdominal symptoms with distended abdomen, sounding bowel movements and recurrent vomiting, which were interpreted as acute abdomen by the surgeon on call leading to the indication of a surgical intervention...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jinwei Wang, Fang Wang, Rajiv Saran, Zhi He, Ming-Hui Zhao, Yi Li, Luxia Zhang, Jennifer Bragg-Gresham
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for all-cause mortality in the United States, but the evidence from China is limited. We investigate whether prognosis of CKD (mortality) differs between the two countries. In particular, we sought to compare the strength of association between CKD stage and all-cause mortality, by country. METHODS: Mortality-linked data from China National Survey of Chronic Kidney Disease (urban population, n = 25,269) and US NHANES (2005-2010, n = 15,209) for adults >20 years old were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Olivier Beauchet, Cyrille P Launay, Harmehr Sekhon, Jennifer Gautier, Julia Chabot, Elise J Levinoff, Gilles Allali
BACKGROUND: Assessment of changes in higher levels of gait control with aging is important to better understand age-related gait instability, with the perspective to improve the screening of individuals at risk for falls. The comparison between actual Timed Up and Go test (aTUG) and its imagined version (iTUG) is a simple clinical way to assess age-related changes in gait control. The modulations of iTUG performances by body positions and motor imagery (MI) strategies with normal aging have not been evaluated yet...
2018: PloS One
Yong Yang, Brent A Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L Nelson, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVES: Daily transport may impact depression risk among older adults through several pathways including facilitating the ability to meet basic needs, enabling and promoting contact with other people and nature, and promoting physical activity (e.g. through active transportation such as walking or walking to public transit). Both daily transport and depression are influenced by the neighborhood environment. To provide insights into how transport interventions may affect depression in older adults, we developed a pilot agent-based model to explore the contribution of daily transport and neighborhood environment to older adults' depression in urban areas...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
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